Saylor.org's Ancient Civilizations of the World/Early Development in the Andes

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to: navigation, search

Andean civilizations[edit]

The Andean civilizations made up a loose patchwork of different cultures that developed from the highlands of Colombia to the Atacama Desert. The Andean civilizations are mainly based on the cultures of Ancient Peru and some others such as Tiahuanaco.

The Inca Empire was the last sovereign political entity that emerged from the Andean civilizations before conquest by Spaniards. The Inca Empire was a patchwork of languages, cultures and peoples. The components of the empire were not all uniformly loyal, nor were the local cultures all fully integrated. For example, the Chimú used money in their commerce, while the Inca empire as a whole had an economy based on exchange and taxation of luxury goods and labor. (It is said that Inca tax collectors would take the head lice of the lame and old as a symbolic tribute.) The portions of the Chachapoya that had been conquered were almost openly hostile to the Inca, and the Inca nobles rejected an offer of refuge in their kingdom after their troubles with the Spanish. Spanish rule did bring Hispanic influences to the Andean region albeit a social, ethnic and cultural segregation occurred in varying degrees. Spanish rule ended or transformed many elements of the Andean civilizations influencing notably religion and architecture.

Cultures[edit]

Norte Chico or Caral civilization[edit]

The Caral pyramids in the arid Supe Valley, some 20 km from the Pacific coast.

The Norte Chico or Caral civilization was a complex pre-Columbian society that included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. It is the oldest known civilization in the Americas and one of the six sites where civilization separately originated in the ancient world. It flourished between the 30th century BCE and the 18th century BCE. The alternative name, Caral-Supe, is derived from the Sacred City of Caral in the Supe Valley, a large and well-studied Norte Chico site. Complex society in Norte Chico arose a millennium after Sumer in Mesopotamia, was contemporaneous with the Egyptian pyramids, and predated the Mesoamerican Olmec by nearly two millennia.

Chavín culture[edit]

The Chavín culture in Peru is thought to have been primarily a religious cult. The culture apparently began in the Andes highlands and then spread outward throughout the country. The Chavín culture has very distinctive art styles, particularly in effigy pots, a number of which were in feline shapes. Chavin de Huantar was an important ritual centre for Chavin Culture, dating to around 1,500 BCE.

Valdivia culture[edit]

The Valdivia Culture is one of the oldest settled cultures recorded in the Americas. It emerged from the earlier Las Vegas culture and thrived on the Santa Elena peninsula near the modern-day town of Valdivia, Ecuador between 3500 BCE and 1800 BCE.

Nazca culture[edit]

The Nazca culture (also Nasca) was the archaeological culture that flourished from 100 to 800 CE beside the dry southern coast of Peru in the river valleys of the Rio Grande de Nazca drainage and the Ica Valley (Silverman and Proulx, 2002). Having been heavily influenced by the preceding Paracas culture, which was known for extremely complex textiles, the Nazca produced an array of beautiful crafts and technologies such as ceramics, textiles, and geoglyphs (most commonly known as the Nazca lines). They also built an impressive system of underground aqueducts, known as puquios, that still function today. The Nazca Province in the Ica Region was named for this people.

Moche culture[edit]

The Moche culture is world-renowned for its pottery, in picture a Condor from about 300 CE.

The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc.) flourished in northern Peru from about 100 CE to 800 CE, during the Regional Development Epoch. While this issue is the subject of some debate, many scholars contend that the Moche were not politically organized as a monolithic empire or state. Rather, they were likely a group of autonomous polities that shared a common elite culture, as seen in the rich iconography and monumental architecture that survive today. They are particularly noted for their elaborately painted ceramics, gold work, monumental constructions (huacas) and irrigation systems. Moche history may be broadly divided into three periods – the emergence of the Moche culture in Early Moche (100–300 CE), its expansion and florescence during Middle Moche (300–600 CE), and the urban nucleation and subsequent collapse in Late Moche (500–750 CE).

Tiwanaku[edit]

Tiwanaku (Spanish: Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia, South America. Tiwanaku is recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important precursors to the Inca Empire, flourishing as the ritual and administrative capital of a major state power for approximately five hundred years. The ruins of the ancient city state are near the south-eastern shore of Lake Titicaca in the La Paz Department, Ingavi Province, Tiwanaku Municipality, about 72 km (45 mi) west of La Paz. The site was first recorded in written history by Spanish conquistador and self-acclaimed "first chronicler of the Indies" Pedro Cieza de León. Leon stumbled upon the remains of Tiwanaku in 1549 while searching for the Inca capital Qullasuyu. Some have hypothesized that Tiwanaku's modern name is related to the Aymara term taypiqala, meaning "stone in the center", alluding to the belief that it lay at the center of the world. However, the name by which Tiwanaku was known to its inhabitants may have been lost, as the people of Tiwanaku had no written language.

Chachapoyas culture[edit]

The Chachapoyas, or the 'Cloud people', were an Andean civilization living in the cloud forests of the Amazonas region of present-day northern Peru. The Incas conquered the Chachapoyas shortly before the arrival of the Spanish in Peru. The first firm evidence of the existence of their existence dates back to around 600 CE, although it is possible that they built a settlement called Gran Pajáten where some ceramics have been dated to 200 BCE. The largest Chacapoyan site discovered so far is Kuelap. A number of mummified burial sites have also been discovered.[11] [edit]Wari Main article: Wari culture The Wari (Spanish: Huari) were a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the south-central Andes and coastal area of modern-day Peru, from about CE 500 to 1000. (The Wari culture is not to be confused with the modern ethnic group and language known as Wari', with which it has no known link.) Wari, as the former capital city was called, is located 11 km (6.8 mi) north-east of the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru. This city was the center of a civilization that covered much of the highlands and coast of modern Peru. The best-preserved remnants, beside the Wari Ruins, are the recently discovered Northern Wari ruins near the city of Chiclayo, and Cerro Baul in Moquegua. Also well-known are the Wari ruins of Pikillaqta ("Flea Town"), a short distance south-east of Cuzco en route to Lake Titicaca.

Chimú culture[edit]

Chimú gold adornments. 1300 CE Larco Museum, Lima-Perú.

The Chimú were the residents of Chimor, with its capital at the city of Chan Chan, a large adobe city in the Moche Valley of present-day Trujillo, Peru. The culture arose about 900 CE. The Inca ruler Tupac Inca Yupanqui led a campaign which conquered the Chimú around 1470 CE.

This was just fifty years before the arrival of the Spanish in the region. Consequently, Spanish chroniclers were able to record accounts of Chimú culture from individuals who had lived before the Inca conquest. Similarly, Archaeological evidence suggest Chimor grew out of the remnants of Moche culture; early Chimú pottery had some resemblance to that of the Moche. Their ceramics are all black, and their work in precious metals is very detailed and intricate.

Inca Empire[edit]

The Inca Empire, established by the Quechua-speakers, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco in modern-day Peru. The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, including large parts of modern Ecuador, Peru, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, north and north-central Chile, and southern Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of the Old World.

The Inca empire was highly bureaucratic. The emperor, believed to be a descendent of the God Viracocha, creator of the world in Inca religious tradition, headed the bureaucracy. The state controlled land distribution, relocated conquered peoples, and kept careful population data by recording births, marriages, and deaths. The emperor grouped all his subjects into administrative units overseen by a governor. Conquered peoples owed the state periodic labor, known as mita. Some met this requirement by working on large state farms. Others met it through military service, work on state construction projects, or toiling in state mines. The state also maintained centers for cloth-making, which were populated by young girls selected by the state and given instruction in Inca ideology. These girls would later become the wives of men chosen by the state or sent to serve as priestesses in temples. The practice of instructing particular children in Inca ideology applied to boys, too. The state ordered the sons of conquered leaders to the Inca capital of Cuzco to learn the Quechua language and study Inca culture.

Muisca people[edit]

La balsa Muisca (The Muisca raft), a pre-Columbian gold sculpture representing the Muisca´s offerings of gold.

Muisca was the Chibcha-speaking people that formed the Muisca Confederation of the central highlands of present-day Colombia. They were encountered by the Spanish Empire in 1537, at the time of the conquest. The Muisca comprised two confederations: the Hunza (Tunja) of the northern area, whose sovereign was the Zaque; and the Bacatá of the southern area, whose sovereign was the Zipa. Both confederations were located in the highlands of modern-day Cundinamarca and Boyacá (Altiplano Cundiboyacense) in the central area of Colombia's Eastern Range.

Attribution[edit]

"Andean Civilizations" (Wikipedia) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andean_civilizations