Ruby Programming/Reference/Built-In Functions

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By default many methods are available. You can see the available ones by running methods in an irb session, ex:

>> class A; end
>> A.singleton_methods

[:nil?, :===, :=~, :!~, :eql?, :class, :clone, :dup, :taint, :tainted?, :untaint, :untrust, :untrusted?, :trust, :freeze, :frozen?, :to_s, :inspect, :methods, :singleton_methods, :protected_methods, :private_methods, :public_methods, :instance_variables, :instance_variable_get, :instance_variable_set, :instance_variable_defined?, :instance_of?, :kind_of?, :is_a?, :tap, :send, :public_send, :respond_to?, :extend, :display, :method, :public_method, :define_singleton_method, :hash, :__id__, :object_id, :to_enum, :enum_for, :gem, :==, :equal?, :!, :!=, :instance_eval, :instance_exec, :__send__]

You can see where most of those methods are defined by inspecting the object hierarchy:

>> A.ancestors
=> [A, Object, Kernel, BasicObject]

1.9 introduced a few more has __method__ (the current method name), as well as require_relative, which requires a file relative to the dir of the current file.

To see where each methods was defined, you can run something like:

>>{|m| [m,  A.instance_method(m).owner] }
=> [[:nil?, Kernel], ...