Punjabi/Shahmukhi/Lesson 2

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Lesson 1Lesson 2Lesson 3Lesson 4Lesson 5Lesson 6Lesson 7Lesson 8Lesson 9Lesson 10Lesson 11

Lesson 2[edit]

Welcome to Lesson 2. In this lesson, you will be taught the next row:

ج چ ح خ د ڈ ذ


Jīm, chē, baṛī hē, and xē all change form in the same way, only differing with dot diacritics.

Likewise, dāl, ḍāl, and zāl all also change form in the same way with differing diacritics.

A Note on Non-Connectors[edit]

Dāl, ḍāl, and zāl are also what are called non-connectors. This means that when one of these letters occur in the beginning or the middle a word, the letter coming after the non-connector will be in its initial form. If the non-connector is the second last letter in the word, the letter coming after it will be in its independent form.


An example of the first instance:

ریڈیٔو - rēḍīō - radio

Here, rē and ḍāl are the non-connectors.


An example of the second instance:

رباج - rabāj - fashion

Here, alef is the non-connector.


If a non-connector comes after another non-connector, it simply takes its independent form:

درد - dard - pain

Here, dāl and rē are the non-connectors.


Now on to the lesson:

jīm - ج[edit]

Jīm is pronounced like the English "j". It will be represented by "j" in romanization.

Initial[edit]

جوکر - jōkar - joker

جیل - jēl - jail

Medial[edit]

پجاما - pajāmā - pajama

پنجاب - panjāb - Punjab

Final[edit]

سج - saj - decoration (Urdu)

ججّ - jajj - judge

chē - چ[edit]

Chē is pronounced like the English "ch". It will be represented by "ch" in romanization.

Initial[edit]

چین - chīn - China

چیٹا - chīṭā - cheetah

Medial[edit]

سچل - sachal - Sachal (a name)

چیچہ وطنی - chīchahwatnī - Chichawatni (a town in Punjab, Pakistan)

Final[edit]

نیمچ - nīmach - Nimach (a town in Madhya Pradesh, India)

پانچ - pānch - 5 (Urdu)

baṛī hē - ح[edit]

Baṛī hē is pronounced like the English "h". It will be represented by "h" in romanization.

Initial[edit]

حیدرآباد - haidarābād - Hyderabad (a city in Sindh, Pakistan)

حلايب - halāīb - Hala'ib (a town in Egypt)

Medial/Final[edit]

By looking at jīm and chē, it shouldn't be difficult to determine the medial and final forms of baṛī hē.

xē - خ[edit]

Xē is pronounced a little like the Scottish "ch" or the Russian "x". It will be represented by "x" in romanization.

Initial[edit]

خضدار - xuzdār - Khuzdar (a town in Balochistan, Pakistan)

خرگوش - xargōsh - rabbit

Medial[edit]

سخت - saxat - strict

مخّں - maxxaṇ - butter

Final[edit]

رخ - raxx - keep

کخّ - kaxx - straw

dāl - د[edit]

Dāl is pronounced a little like the English "d" however, just like the dental t, this is a dental d. Therefore, you need to place the tip of your tongue behind your upper teeth instead of on the roof of your mouth to produce this sound. It will be represented by "d" in romanization.

Initial[edit]

دوات - davāt - ink pot

دادا - dādā - grandfather

Medial[edit]

سدا - sadā - always

ندان - nadān - innocent

Final[edit]

لدّ - ladd - load

سدّ - sadd - call

ḍāl - ڈ[edit]

Ḍāl is pronounced like the English "d". It will be represented by "ḍ" in romanization.

Initial[edit]

ڈیسک - ḍaisk - desk

ڈالر - ḍālar - dollar

Medial[edit]

اکیڈمی - akaiḍamī - academy

ریڈیٔو - rēḍīō - radio

Final[edit]

پونڈ - paunḍ - pound

چیڈ - chaiḍ - Chad (an African country)

zāl - ذ[edit]

Zāl is pronounced like the English "z". It will be represented by "z" in romanization.

Initial/Medial/Final[edit]

By looking at dāl, it shouldn't be difficult to determine zāl's forms. Just add a dot on top of the letter.

Summary[edit]

You have now completed Lesson 2. You have now learned jīm, chē, baṛī hē, xē, dāl, ḍāl, and zāl. That's 7 letters, but only 2 positional methods.

Thus far you have been taught the following:

ب پ ت ٹ ث

ج چ ح خ د ڈ ذ

Remember these well, and feel free to go through Lesson 1 or 2 again if you feel you need to do so to help you remember the letters.

When you are ready, proceed to Lesson 3.