Prolog's default search algorithm is depth-first search (DFS), which is sometimes not convenient: DFS doesn't always find the solution for all problems, and when it does, it might not find the optimal solution.
Let's say we want to find the shortest path through a directed graph with nodes represented by symbols and arc by the predicate
arc/2. Then we can easily implement iterative deepening search to find the shortest path:
path(X, Z, Path) :- length(Path, _), path_r(X, Z, Path). path_r(Z, Z, ). path_r(X, Z, [X|Path]) :- arc(X, Y), path(Y, Z, Path).
path/3 backtracks over paths, ordered by length, if at least one path exists. Let's try it out:
?- path(a, g, P). P = [a] ; P = [a, b, f] ; P = [a, c, d, f] ; P = [a, b, c, d, f]
How this works: when
length/2 is called with a variable first argument, it generates a list of the desired length containing fresh variables. When, in addition, the second argument is a variable, it backtracks over all possible lengths starting at zero and stepping by one. The helper predicate
path_r is called each time with a fixed path length.