Polish/Comparative and Superlative

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
< Polish(Redirected from Polish:Comparative and Superlative cases)
Jump to: navigation, search

In grammar the comparative and superlative of an adjective or adverb is a form of adjective or adverb which indicates that something has some feature to a greater degree than anything it is being compared to in a given context. For example, if Adam is 45, Bess is 35, and Chris is 25, Bess is older than Chris but Adam is the oldest of the three, because his age transcends those of Bess and Chris in one direction, while Chris is the youngest, because his age transcends those of Adam and Bess in the other direction. If Dan, who is 50, and Edna, who is 20, join the group, Dan now becomes the oldest and Edna the youngest.


Rules[edit]

In Polish the construction of the comparative and superlative depends on the form of the word.

  1. For words ending on k, e.g. szeroki, wysoki or szybki, the comparative is constructed by removing the ending of the word and adding szy, e.g. szerszy, wyższy and szybszy. The superlative is constructed by adding naj in front of the comparative, e.g. najszerszy, najwyższy, najszybszy.
  2. For words not ending on k, e.g. stary, nowy and tani the comparative case is constructed by adding the szy directly on the end of the word, e.g. starszy, nowszy, tańszy. The superlative is constructed in the same way as above, by adding a naj in front, e.g. najstarszy, najnowszy, najtańszy.
  3. Words ending n or construct the comparative and superlative the same way as above, except they need a niej between the ending of the word and the szy. So they become ładniejszy, wygodniejszy, cieplejszy in the comparative case and najładniejszy, najwygodniejszy, najcieplejszy in the superlative case. Note that the ł changes to l in "ciepły".
  4. There are some irregular cases, see the examples below
  5. Finally, there are the adjectives which doesn't have comparative and superlative. An example in English is awful, which becomes more awful and most awful. In Polish the words bardziej and najbardziej are used for more/most and mniej/najmniej are used for less/least.

Examples[edit]

Rule English Polish Comparative Superlative
1 tall

fast

far away

wysoki, -a, -e

szybki, -a, -e

daleki, -a, -e

wyższy, -a, -e

szybszy, -a, -e

dalszy, -a, -e

najwyższy, -a, -e

najszybszy, -a, -e

najdalszy, -a, -e

2 cheap

expensive

friendly

tani, -a, -e

drogi, -a, -e

miły, -a, -e

tańszy, -a, -e

droższy, -a, -e

milszy, -a, -e

najtańszy, -a, -e

najdroższy, -a, -e

najmilszy, -a, -e

3 warm

comfortable

beautiful

ciepły, -a, -e

wygodny, -a, -e

ładny, -a, -e

cieplejszy, -a, -e

wygodniejszy, -a, -e

ładniejszy, -a, -e

najcieplejszy, -a, -e

najwygodniejszy, -a, -e

najładniejszy, -a, -e

4 (irregular compare) good

bad

big

small

dobry, -a, -e

zły, -a, -e

duży, -a, -e

mały, -a, -e

lepszy, -a, -e

gorszy, -a, -e

większy, -a, -e

mniejszy, -a, -e

najlepszy, -a, -e

najgorszy, -a, -e

największy, -a, -e

najmniejszy, -a, -e

5 elegant

modern

elegancki, -a, -e

nowoczesny, -a, -e

bardziej elegancki, -a, -e

bardziej nowoczesny, -a, -e

najbardziej elegancki, -a, -e

najbardziej nowoczesny, -a, -e