Pinyin/Problems of Hanzi Application in IT

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Note:
Pinyin tone marking

Preface[edit]

前 言

qiarnyarn

qiarnyarn
foreword

The written languages used in China include Hanzi and those of the minorities such as Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur and Zhuang; among which the most commonly used is Hanzi. Hanzi has evolved over millennia and significantly contributed to China's cultural and technological development in its history. On the other hand, due to Hanzi's structural faults, it has also provided many challenges to China's development.

中 国 使 用 的 文 字 有 汉 字 还 有 少 数 民 族 文 字 , 譬 如 蒙 古 文 、 西 藏 文 、 维 吾 尔 文 和 壮 文 ; 其 中 最 通 用 的 是 汉 字 。 汉 字 有 几 千 年 的 历 史 , 对 中 国 文 化 科 技 的 发 展 有 很 大 的 贡 献 。 但 是 由 于 汉 字 结 构 的 缺 点 , 对 中 国 的 发 展 也 带 来 不 少 障 碍 。

Zhongguor shiiyohng'd wernzih yoou Hahnzih hairyoou shaaoshuh-mirnzur wernzih, pihrur Mongol-wern, Xizahngwern, Uyghur-wern her Zhuahngwern; qirzhong zuih tongxirng'd shih Hahnzih. Hahnzih yoou jiiqian niarn'd lihshii, duih Zhongguor wernhuah kejih'd fazhaan yoou heen dah'd gohngxiahn. dahnshih youryur Hahnzih jiergouh'd quediaan, duih Zhongguor'd fazhaan yee daihlair bushaao zhahng`aih.

Zhongguor shiiyohng'd wernzih           yoou Hahnzih hairyoou    shaaoshuh-mirnzur     wernzih,           pihrur  Mongol-wern, Xizahngwern, Uyghur-wern her Zhuahngwern; qirzhong    zuih tongxirng'd   shih Hahnzih.
China     used        written languages have Hanzi   furthermore minority  nationality written languages, such as Mongolian,   Tibentan,    Uyghur,     and Zhuang;      among which most commonly used is   Hanzi.
Hahnzih yoou jiiqian           niarn'd lihshii, duih Zhongguor wernhuah kejih'd      fazhaan     yoou heen dah'd gohngxiahn.
Hanzi   has  several thousands year's  history, on   China     culture  technology's development has  very big   contribution.
dahnshih youryur    Hahnzih jiergouh'd  quediaan,     duih Zhongguor'd fazhaan     yee  daihlair bushaao zhahng`aih.
but      because of Hanzi   structure's shortcomings, on   China's     development also brings   not few obstacle.

Hanzi is difficult to learn and use, there are many characters and the structure is complicated. Whether it is in learning, writing, pronunciation and application, Hanzi is inconvenient. This is specially true in ICT. This plus the split in Chinese politics makes the applications of Chinese in ICT a great problem. The problems that are prominent are as follow:

汉 字 难 学 难 用 , 字 数 繁 多 、 结 构 复 杂 , 在 学 习 、 书 写 、 读 音 和 应 用 都 不 方 便 。 特 别 是 在 资 讯 科 技 的 应 用 非 常 不 方 便 。 加 上 中 国 政 治 的 分 裂 , 造 成 中 文 在 资 讯 科 技 的 应 用 问 题 更 大 。 比 较 突 出 的 问 题 如 下 :

Hahzih narnxuer-narnyohng, zihshuh farnduo, jiergouh fuhzar, zaih xuerxir, shuxiee, duryin her yihngyohng dou bu fangbiahn. tehbier shih zaih zixuhn-kejih'd yihngyohng feicharng bu fangbiahn. jiashahng Zhongguor zhehngzhih'd fenlieh, zaohcherng Zhongwern zaih zixuhn-keji'd yihngyohng wehntir gehng dah. biijiaoh tuchu'd wehntir rurxiah:

Hahzih narnxuer-narnyohng,            zihshuh             farnduo, jiergouh  fuhzar,      zaih xuerxir,  shuxiee, duryin        her yihngyohng  dou bu  fangbiahn. 
Hanzi  hard to learn and hard to use, number of character many,    structure complicated, in   learning, writing, pronunciation and application all not convenient.
tehbier   shih zaih zixuhn-kejih'd           yihngyohng  feicharng bu  fangbiahn.
specially is   in   information technology's application very      not convenient.
jiashahng Zhongguor zhehngzhih'd fenlieh, zaohcherng Zhongwern zaih zixuhn-keji'd            yihngyohng  wehntir gehng dah.
plus      China     politics'    split,   makes      Chinese   in   information technology's application problem more  big.
biijiaoh   tuchu'd   wehntir  rurxiah:
relatively prominent problems as follow:

Input problems[edit]

输 入 问 题

shuruh wehntir

shuruh wehntir
input  problems

Because there are many characters in Hanzi, it is inconvenient to type. So when Westerners invented the typing machine, Chinese are still remain in the process of hand writing and cannot type. Chinese still give self solace in saying that it is calligraphy. And because of this Chinese had lost an era of typing. When Westerners continue to improve and invent typing machine, word processor and computer, Chinese are just continue to study the problems of typing Hanzi, studying how to type Hanzi into computer.

由 于 汉 字 字 数 繁 多 , 不 便 于 打 字 。 因 此 当 西 方 人 发 明 打 字 机 的 时 候 , 中 国 人 还 停 留 在 手 写 的 阶 段 , 不 能 打 字 。 还 自 我 安 慰 说 自 己 在 搞 书 法 艺 术 。 中 国 就 这 样 丧 失 了 一 个 打 字 的 年 代 。 当 西 方 人 在 不 断 进 步 , 继 续 发 明 电 子 打 字 机 、 文 字 处 理 机 、 电 脑 的 时 候 , 中 国 人 才 开 始 研 究 汉 字 的 打 字 问 题 , 研 究 怎 样 把 汉 字 输 入 电 脑 。

youryur Hahnzih zihshuh farnduo, bu biahnyur daazih. yincii dang Xifangrern famirng daazihji'd shirhouh, Zhongguorrern hair tirngliur zaih shoouxiee'd jieduahn, bunerng daazih. hair zihwoo anweih shuo zihjii zaih gaao shufaa yihshuh. Zhongguor jiuh zhehyahng sahngshi'le yi'ge daazih'd niarndaih. dang Xifangrern zaih buduahn jihnbuh, jihxuh famirng diahnzii daazihji, wernzih chuuliiji, diahnnaao'd shirhouh, Zhongguorrern cair kaishii yarnjiu Hahnzih'd daazih wehntir, yarnjiu zeenyahng baa Hahnzih shuruh diahnnaao.

youryur    Hahnzih zihshuh             farnduo, bu  biahnyur       daazih.
because of Hanzi   number of character many,    not convenient for typing.
yincii    dang Xifangrern famirng daazihji'd       shirhouh, Zhongguorrern hair tirngliur zaih shoouxiee'd    jieduahn, bunerng daazih.
therefore when Westerners invent  typing machine's time,     Chinese       still stay     in   hand writing's stage,    cannot  to type.
hair  zihwoo anweih shuo   zihjii  zaih gaao shufaa      yihshuh.
still self   solace saying oneself in   make calligraphy art.
Zhongguor jiuh zhehyahng sahngshi'le yi'ge daazih'd niarndaih.
China     then so        lost        a     typing's era.
dang Xifangrern zaih buduahn      jihnbuh, jihxuh   famirng   diahnzii   daazihji,       wernzih chuuliiji, diahnnaao'd shirhouh, Zhongguorrern cair kaishii yarnjiu  Hahnzih'd daazih wehntir,  yarnjiu  zeenyahng baa       Hahnzih shuruh   diahnnaao.
when Westerners in   continuously advance, continue to invent electronic typing machine, word processor,    computer's  time,     Chinese       just start   to study Hanzi's   typing problems, to study how       to handle Hanzi   input to computer.

The problems of Hanzi input besides structural reason, is also political in cause. China is currently in a state of split, Chinese character is also in a state of split and the input of Hanzi is in a divisive situation. The current popular Chinese input methods are as follow:

汉 字 的 输 入 问 题 除 了 汉 字 的 结 构 问 题 之 外 , 还 有 政 治 的 因 素 造 成 。 中 国 现 在 处 于 分 裂 的 状 态 , 文 字 也 处 于 分 裂 的 状 态 , 汉 字 输 入 法 也 处 于 分 裂 的 局 面 。 现 在 普 遍 应 用 的 输 入 法 如 下 :

Hahzih'd shuruh wehntir chur'le Hahnzih'd jiergouh wehntir zhiwaih, hairyoou zhehngzhih'd yinsuh zaohcherng. Zhongguor xiahnzaih chuuyur fenlieh'd zhuahngtaih, wernzih yee chuuyur fenlieh'd zhuahngtaih, Hahnzih shuruhfaa yee chuuyur fenlieh'd jurmiahn. xiahnzaih puubiahn yihngyohng'd shuruhfaa rurxiah:

Hahzih'd shuruh wehntir  chur'le Hahnzih'd jiergouh  wehntir zhiwaih,  hairyoou    zhehngzhih'd yinsuh zaohcherng.
Hanzi's  input  problems except  Hanzi's   structure problem -besides, furthermore political    factor to cause.
Zhongguor xiahnzaih chuuyur fenlieh'd zhuahngtaih, wernzih          yee  chuuyur fenlieh'd zhuahngtaih, Hahnzih shuruhfaa     yee  chuuyur fenlieh'd jurmiahn.
China     now       is at   splitting state,       written language also is at   splitting state,       Hanzi   input methods also is at   splitting situation.
xiahnzaih puubiahn yihngyohng'd shuruhfaa     rurxiah:
current   popular  used         input methods as follow:

Chinese input methods[edit]

中 文 输 入 法

Zhongwern shuruhfaa

Zhongwern shuruhfaa
Chinese   input methods

Popular input methods in Taiwan include "Zhuyin" and "Cangjie", popular input methods in Chinese Mainland include "Hanyu Pinyin" and "Wubi".

台 湾 流 行 的 输 入 法 有 “注 音” 和 “仓 颉” , 中 国 大 陆 流 行 的 输 入 法 有 “汉 语 拼 音” 和 “五 笔” 。

Tairwan liurxirng'd shuruhfaa yoou "Zhuhyin" her "Cangjier", Zhongguor Dahluh liurxirng'd shuruhfaa yoou "Hahnyuu Pinyin" her "Wurbii".

Tairwan liurxirng'd shuruhfaa     yoou "Zhuhyin" her "Cangjier", Zhongguor Dahluh liurxirng'd shuruhfaa     yoou "Hahnyuu Pinyin" her "Wurbii".
Taiwan  popular     input methods have "Zhuyin"  and "Cangjie",  Chinese Mainland popular     input methods have "Hanyu Pinyin"   and "Wubi".

Zhuyin input method[edit]

注 音 输 入 法

Zhuhyin shuruhfaa

Zhuhyin shuruhfaa
Zhuyin  input method

Zhuyin input method is a popularly used phonetic input method in Taiwan. To key in Guoyu's zhuyin which will automatically convert to Hanzi. For example: "ㄅㄚㄅㄚ" is for inputting "爸爸".

注 音 输 入 法 是 台 湾 普 遍 采 用 的 字 音 输 入 法 。 键 入 国 语 的 注 音 就 会 自 动 转 换 为 汉 字 。 比 如 “爸 爸” 的 输 入 是 “ㄅㄚㄅㄚ” 。

Zhuhyin shuruhfaa shih Tairwan puubiahn caaiyohng'd zihyin shuruhfaa. jiahnruh Guoryuu'd zhuhyin jiuhhuih zihdohng zhuaanhuahn weir Hahnzih. biirur "爸爸" 'd shuruh shih "ㄅㄚㄅㄚ".

Zhuhyin shuruhfaa    shih Tairwan puubiahn  caaiyohng'd zihyin   shuruhfaa.
Zhuyin  input method is   Taiwan  popularly used        phonetic input method.
jiahnruh Guoryuu'd zhuhyin jiuhhuih   zihdohng      zhuaanhuahn weir Hahnzih.
key in   Guoyu's   zhuyin, which will automatically convert     to   Hanzi.
biirur      "爸爸" 'd shuruh shih "ㄅㄚㄅㄚ".
for example "爸爸" 's input  is   "ㄅㄚㄅㄚ".

Cangjie input method[edit]

仓 颉 输 入 法

Cangjier shuruhfaa

Cangjier shuruhfaa
Cangjie  input method

Cangjie input method is a popular character shape input method in Taiwan. To key in Hanzi's encoding which will automatically convert into Hanzi. For example: "CKAU CKAU" is for inputting "爸爸".

仓 颉 输 入 法 是 台 湾 流 行 的 字 形 输 入 法 。 键 入 汉 字 的 编 码 就 会 自 动 转 换 为 汉 字 。 比 如 “爸 爸” 的 输 入 是 “CKAU CKAU” 。

Cangjier shuruhfaa shih Tairwan liurxirng'd zihxirng shuruhfaa. jiahnruh Hahnzih'd bianmaa jiuhhuih zihdohng zhuaanhuahn weir Hahnzih. biirur "爸爸" 'd shuruh shih "CKAU CKAU".

Cangjier shuruhfaa    shih Tairwan liurxirng'd zihxirng        shuruhfaa.
Cangjie  input method is   Taiwan  popular     character shape input method.
jiahnruh Hahnzih'd bianmaa  jiuhhuih   zihdohng      zhuaanhuahn weir Hahnzih.
key in   Hanzi's   encoding which will automatically convert     to   Hanzi.
biirur      "爸爸" 'd shuruh shih "CKAU CKAU".
for example "爸爸" 's input  is   "CKAU CKAU".

Hanyu Pinyin input method[edit]

汉 语 拼 音 输 入 法

Hahnyuu Pinyin shuruhfaa

Hahnyuu Pinyin shuruhfaa
Hanyu   Pinyin input method

Hanyu Pinyin input method is a popularly used phonetic input method in Chinese Mainland. To key in Putonghua's pinyin which will automatically convert into Hanzi. For example: "BABA" is for inputting "爸爸".

汉 语 拼 音 输 入 法 是 中 国 大 陆 普 遍 应 用 的 字 音 输 入 法 。 键 入 普 通 话 的 拼 音 就 会 自 动 转 换 为 汉 字 。 比 如 “爸 爸” 的 输 入 是 “BABA” 。

Hahnyuu Pinyin shuruhfaa shih Zhongguor Dahluh puubiahn yihngyohng'd zihyin shurufaa. jiahnruh Puutonghua'd pinyin jiuhhuih zihdohng zhuaanhuahn weir Hahnzih. biirur "爸爸" 'd shuruh shih "BABA".

Hahnyuu Pinyin shuruhfaa    shih Zhongguor Dahluh   puubiahn  yihngyohng'd zihyin   shurufaa.
Hanyu   Pinyin input method is   Chinese   Mainland popularly used         phonetic input method.
jiahnruh Puutonghua'd pinyin jiuhhuih   zihdohng      zhuaanhuahn weir Hahnzih.  
key in   Putonghua's  pinyin which will automatically convert     to   Hanzi.   
biirur      "爸爸" 'd shuruh shih "BABA".
for example "爸爸" 's input  is   "BABA".

Wubi input method[edit]

五 笔 输 入 法

Wuubii shuruhfaa

Wuubii shuruhfaa
Wubi   input method

Wubi input method is a popular character shape input method in Chinese Mainland. To key in Hanzi's encoding which will automatically convert into Hanzi. For example: "WQC WQC" is for inputting "爸爸".

五 笔 输 入 法 是 中 国 大 陆 流 行 的 字 形 输 入 法 。 键 入 汉 字 的 编 码 就 会 自 动 转 换 为 汉 字 。 比 如 “爸 爸” 的 输 入 是 “WQC WQC” 。

Wuubii shuruhfaa shih Zhongguor Dahluh liurxirng'd zihxirng shuruhfaa. jiahnruh Hahnzih'd bianmaa jiuhhuih zihdohng zhuaanhuahn weir Hahnzih. biirur "爸爸" 'd shuruh shih "WQC WQC".

Wuubii shuruhfaa    shih Zhongguor Dahluh liurxirng'd zihxirng        shuruhfaa.
Wubi   input method is   Chinese Mainland popular     character shape input method.
jiahnruh Hahnzih'd bianmaa  jiuhhuih   zihdohng      zhuaanhuahn weir Hahnzih.
key in   Hanzi's   encoding which will automatically convert     to   Hanzi.
biirur      "爸爸" 'd shuruh shih "WQC WQC".
for example "爸爸" 's input  is   "WQC WQC".

Ways of dealing with input problems[edit]

输 入 问 题 的 解 决 方 法

shuruh wehntir'd jieejuer fangfaa

shuruh wehntir'd jieejuer fangfaa
input  problems' solving  methods

Technical ways to solve problems[edit]

技 术 上 的 解 决 方 法

jihshuh'shang'd jieejuer fangfaa

jihshuh'shang'd jieejuer fangfaa
technical       solving  methods

Every software should has China-Hongkong-Taiwan popular input methods built-in, for example: Chinese Mainland's Hanyu Pinyin and Wubi input methods, and Taiwan's Zhuyin and Cangjie input methods. Current popular softwares of China-Hongkong-Taiwan input methods include: Microsoft, Google, and Sogou etc.

各 种 软 件 都 内 置 中 港 台 流 行 的 输 入 法 , 比 如 中 国 大 陆 的 “汉 语 拼 音” 和 “五 笔” 输 入 法 , 台 湾 的 “注 音” 和 “仓 颉” 输 入 法 。 目 前 流 行 的 中 港 台 输 入 法 软 件 有 Microsoft、 Google 和 Sogou 等 。

gehzhoong ruaanjiahn dou neihzhih Zhong-Gaang-Tair liurxirng'd shuruhfaa, biirur Zhongguor Dahluh'd Hahnyuu Pinyin her Wurbii shuruhfaa, Tairwan'd Zhuhyin her Cangjier shuruhfaa. muhqiarn liurxirng'd Zhong-Gaang-Tair shuruhfaa ruaanjiahn you Microsoft, Google her Sogou deeng.

gehzhoong        ruaanjiahn dou neihzhih Zhong-Gaang-Tair      liurxirng'd shuruhfaa,     biirur       Zhongguor Dahluh'd Hahnyuu Pinyin her Wurbii shuruhfaa,     Tairwan'd Zhuhyin her Cangjier shuruhfaa.
various kinds of software   all build in China-Hongkong-Taiwan popular     input methods, for example: Chinese Mainland's Hanyu Pinyin   and Wubi   input methods, Taiwan's  Zhuyin  and Cangjier input methods.
muhqiarn   liurxirng'd Zhong-Gaang-Tair      shuruhfaa     ruaanjiahn you     Microsoft, Google her Sogou deeng.
at present popular     China-Hongkong-Taiwan input methods software   include Microsoft, Google and Sogou etc.

Political ways of dealing with problems[edit]

政 治 上 的 解 决 方 法

zhehngzhih'shang'd jieejuer fangfaa

zhehngzhih'shang'd jieejuer fangfaa
political          solving  method

Professionals in China-Hongkong-Macau-Taiwan and Overseas Chinese communities stipulate the standard for several popular input methods, gathering the wisdoms of individuals, researching into more advanced input methods.

中 港 澳 台 和 华 人 地 区 的 专 家 订 出 几 种 主 流 输 入 法 的 标 准 , 集 合 大 家 的 智 慧 , 研 制 出 更 先 进 的 输 入 法 。

Zhong-Gaang-Aoh-Tair her Huarrern dihqu'd zhuanjia dihngchu jii-zhoong zhuuliur shuruhfaa'd biaozhuun, jirher dahjia'd zhihhuih, yanjiu-chu gehng xianjihn'd shuruhfaa.

Zhong-Gaang-Aoh-Tair        her Huarrern         dihqu'd zhuanjia dihngchu  jii-zhoong   zhuuliur shuruhfaa'd    biaozhuun, jirher    dahjia'd    zhihhuih, yanjiu-chu       gehng xianjihn'd shuruhfaa.
China-Hongkong-Macau-Taiwan and Overseas Chinese area's  experts  stipulate several kind popular  input method's standard,  gathering individuals' wisdoms, researching into more  advanced   input methods.

All related governments together stipulate the standard of the number, shape and pronunciation and etc of Hanzi. Currently Chinese Mainland and Singapore already have a set of mutual character shape and pronunciation standard. However, the traditional Chinese character used by Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau is comparatively complicated, character shape is disunited. Pronunciation has discrepancy, Chinese Mainland's Putonghua and Taiwan's Guoyu have different pronunciations. To suggest related governments to negotiate a way of solving problems.

各 有 关 政 府 共 同 订 出 汉 字 的 字 数 、 字 形 和 读 音 等 标 准 。 目 前 中 国 大 陆 和 新 加 坡 已 经 有 一 套 共 同 的 字 形 和 字 音 标 准 。 但 是 台 湾 和 港 澳 的 繁 体 字 比 较 混 乱 , 字 形 不 统 一 。 字 音 有 差 异 , 大 陆 的 普 通 话 与 台 湾 的 国 语 在 字 音 上 有 分 歧 。 建 议 有 关 政 府 商 谈 解 决 的 方 法 。

geh yoouguan zhehngfuu gohngtorng dihngchu Hahnzih'd zihshuh, zihxirng her duryin deeng biaozhuun. muhqiarn Zhongguor Dahluh her Singapore yiijing yoou yi-taoh gohngtorng'd zihxirng her zihyin biaozhuun. dahnshih Tairwan her Gaang-Aoh'd Farntiizih biijiaoh huhnluahn, zihxirng bu toongyi. zihyin yoou chayih, Dahluh'd Puutonghuah yuu Tairwan'd Guoryuu zaih zihyin'shang yoou fenqir. jiahnyih yoouguan zhehngfuu shangtarn jieejuer'd fangfaa.

geh   yoouguan zhehngfuu   gohngtorng dihngchu  Hahnzih'd zihshuh,             zihxirng        her duryin        deeng biaozhuun.
every related  governments together   stipulate Hanzi's   number of character, character shape and pronunciation etc   standard.
muhqiarn  Zhongguor Dahluh her Singapore yiijing yoou yi-taoh  gohngtorng'd zihxirng        her zihyin        biaozhuun.
currently Chinese Mainland and Singapore already have a set of mutual       character shape and pronunciation standard.
dahnshih Tairwan her Gaang-Aoh'd      Farntiizih biijiaoh      huhnluahn,   zihxirng        bu toongyi.
however  Taiwan  and Hongkong-Macau's Fantizi    comparatively complicated, character shape not united.
zihyin        yoou chayih,      Dahluh'd           Puutonghuah yuu  Tairwan'd Guoryuu zaih zihyin'shang     yoou fenqir.
Pronunciation has  discrepancy, Chinese Mainland's Putonghua   with Taiwan's  Guoyu   at   pronunciation on have difference.
jiahnyih   yoouguan zhehngfuu   shangtarn    jieejuer'd fangfaa.
to suggest related  governments to negotiate solving    method.

Internal code problems[edit]

内 码 问 题

neihmaa wehntir

neihmaa       wehntir
internal code problems

Because of political divide, each to their own, China uses the encoding of GB Code (Guojia Biaozhun Code), Taiwan uses Big-5 Code, causing impediment in information communications.

由 于 政 治 上 的 分 裂 , 各 搞 各 的 , 中 国 所 用 的 内 码 是 GB 码 (GUOJIA BIAOZHUN CODE) , 台 湾 所 用 的 是 大 五 码 (BIG-5 CODE), 造 成 资 讯 沟 通 的 障 碍 。

youryur zhehngzhih'shang'd fenlieh, geh-gaao-geh-'d, Zhongguor suooyohng'd neihmaa shih GB-maa (Guorjia Biaozhuun-maa), Tairwan suooyohng'd shih Dah-5-maa, zaohcherng zixuhn goutong'd zhahng`aih.

youryur    zhehngzhih'shang'd fenlieh, geh-gaao-geh-'d,   Zhongguor suooyohng'd    neihmaa       shih GB-maa  (Guorjia Biaozhuun-maa), Tairwan suooyohng'd    shih Dah-5-maa,  zaohcherng zixuhn      goutong'd       zhahng`aih.
because of political          divide,  each to their own, China     that which use internal code is   GB Code (Guojia Biaozhun Code),  Taiwan  that which use is   Big-5 Code, causing    information communications' impediment.

Ways of solving internal code problems[edit]

内 码 问 题 的 解 决 方 法

neihmaa wehntir'd jieejuer fangfaa

neihmaa       wehntir'd jieejuer fangfaa
internal code problems' solving  methods

Technical solutions[edit]

技 术 上 的 解 决 方 法

jihshuh'shang'd jieejuer fangfaa

jihshuh'shang'd jieejuer fangfaa
technical       solving  methods

Every applications is compatible with various internal codes.

每 种 软 件 都 兼 容 各 种 内 码 。

meei-zhoong ruaanjiahn dou jianrorng gehzhoong neihmaa.

meei-zhoong   ruaanjiahn  dou jianrorng          gehzhoong        neihmaa.
every kind of application all be compatible with various kinds of internal codes.

Political solutions[edit]

政 治 上 的 解 决 方 法

zhehngzhih'shang'd jieejuer fangfaa

zhehngzhih'shang'd jieejuer fangfaa
political          solving  methods

Countries that use Hanzi include China, Singapore, Japan, North/South Korea and Vietnam; together agree upon an universal code.

使 用 汉 字 的 国 家 如 中 国 、 新 加 坡 、 日 本 、 朝 鲜 、 韩 国 和 越 南 共 同 订 出 一 套 统 一 的 内 码 。

shiiyohng Hahnzih'd guorjia rur Zhongguor, Singapore, Rihbeen, Chaorxian, Harnguor her Yuehnarn gohngtorng dihngchu yi-taoh toongyi'd neihmaa.

shiiyohng Hahnzih'd guorjia   rur     Zhongguor, Singapore, Rihbeen, Chaorxian,   Harnguor    her Yuehnarn gohngtorng dihngchu yi-taoh  toongyi'd neihmaa.
using     Hanzi's   countries such as China,     Singapore, Japan,   North Korea, South Korea and Vietnam  together   set out  a set of integrate internal code.

The problems of traditional and simplified Chinese characters[edit]

繁 体 字 和 简 体 字 的 问 题

Farntiizih her Jiaantiizih'd wehntii

Farntiizih            her Jiaantiizih'd          wehntii
Traditional character and simplified character's problems

Hanzi originally has many characters, with the addition of Fantizi, Jiantizi and Yitizi (variant Chinese character), cause Hanzi to become more complicated, increasing system load.

汉 字 本 来 字 数 已 经 繁 多 , 再 加 上 繁 体 字 、 简 体 字 和 异 体 字 , 使 汉 字 更 加 复 杂 , 增 加 电 脑 的 负 担 。

Hahnzih beenlair zihshuh yiijing farnduo, zaih jiashahng Farntiizih, Jiaantiizih her Yihtiizih, shii Hahnzih gehngjia fuhzar, zengjia diahnnaao'd fuhdan.

Hahnzih beenlair  zihshuh          yiijing farnduo, zaih  jiashahng   Farntiizih, Jiaantiizih her Yihtiizih, shii  Hahnzih gehngjia fuhzar,      zengjia    diahnnaao'd fuhdan.
Hanzi  originally character number already many,    again in addition Fantizi,    Jiantizi    and Yitizi,    cause Hanzi   more     complicated, increasing computer's  load.

Solutions to traditional Chinese and simplified Chinese Characters problems[edit]

繁 体 字 和 简 体 字 问 题 的 解 决 方 法

Farntiizih her Jiaantiizih wehntir'd jieejuer fangfaa

Farntiizih                     her Jiaantiizih                   wehntir'd jieejuer fangfaa
traditional Chinese characters and simplified Chinese characters problems  solving  methods

Traditional and simplified Chinese characters are both compatible in computers.

电 脑 都 兼 容 繁 体 字 和 简 体 字 。

diahnnaao dou jianrorng Farntiizih her Jiaantiizih.

diahnnaao dou jianrorng          Farntiizih                     her Jiaantiizih.
computers all be compatible with traditional Chinese characters and simplified Chinese characters.

Indexing problems[edit]

检 索 问 题

Jiaansuoo wehntir

Jiaansuoo wehntir
Indexing  problems

There is no particular order to Hanzi, because Hanzi don't use Roman alphabet (i.e. ABC), so in indexing application is inconvenient. There are currently many indexing methods to Hanzi, including character stroke, character radical, Four-Corner System, Zhuyin, Hanyu Pinyin and etc. The structural problems of Hanzi make indexing difficult.

汉 字 没 有 一 定 的 次 序 , 因 为 汉 字 不 是 用 罗 马 字 母 (就 是 ABC) 组 成 的 , 所 以 在 检 索 的 应 用 很 不 方 便 。 现 在 汉 字 的 检 索 方 法 很 多 , 有 笔 画 、 部 首 、 四 角 号 码 、 注 音 符 号 和 汉 语 拼 音 等 。 汉 字 结 构 的 问 题 使 检 索 很 困 难 。

Hahnzih meiryoou yidihng'd cihxuh, yinweih Hanhzih bushih yohng Roma zihmuu (jiuhshih ABC) zuucherng'd, soouyii zaih jiaansuoo'd yihngyohng heen bu fangbiahn. xiahnzaih Hahnzih'd jiaansuoo fangfaa heen duo, yoou biihuah, buhshoou, Sihjiaao Haohmaa, Zhuhyin Furhaoh her Hahnyuu Pinyin deeng. Hahnzih jiergouh'd wehntir shii jiaansuoo heen kuhnnarn.

Hahnzih meiryoou yidihng'd  cihxuh, yinweih    Hanhzih bushih yohng Roma zihmuu   (jiuhshih ABC) zuucherng'd, soouyii   zaih jiaansuoo'd yihngyohng  heen bu  fangbiahn.
Hanzi   not have particular order,  because of Hanzi   not is use   Roma alphabet (i.e.     ABC) make up,     therefore in   indexing's  application very not convenient.
xiahnzaih Hahnzih'd jiaansuoo fangfaa heen duo,  yoou biihuah,          buhshoou,          Sihjiaao    Haohmaa, Zhuhyin  Furhaoh her Hahnyuu Pinyin deeng.
currently Hahnzih's indexing  methods very many, have character stroke, character radical, Four-Corner Number,  Phonetic Symbol  and Hahnyuu Pinyin etc.
Hahnzih jiergouh'd wehntir  shii  jiaansuoo heen kuhnnarn.
Hanzi   structural problems makes indexing  very difficult.

Solutions to indexing problems[edit]

检 索 问 题 的 解 决

jiaansuoo wehntir'd jieejuer

jiaansuoo wehntir'd jieejuer
indexing  problems  solutions

Related governments together stipulate a unified Hanzi strokes and radicals standard.

有 关 政 府 共 同 订 出 统 一 的 汉 字 笔 画 和 部 首 标 准 。

yoouguan zhehngfuu gohngtorng dihngchu toongyi'd Hahnzih biihuah her buhshoou biaozhuun.

yoouguan zhehngfuu  gohngtorng dihngchu  toongyi'd Hahnzih biihuah her buhshoou  biaozhuun.
related  government together   stipulate unified   Hanzi   strokes and radicals standard.

Suggestion to use Pinyin as indexing method, because Hanyu Pinyin adopts internationally used Roman alphabet, making file order convenient. Pinyin uses phonetic, avoiding traditional and simplified character strokes non-unified problem.

建 议 用 拼 音 作 为 检 索 的 方 法 , 因 为 汉 语 拼 音 采 用 国 际 通 用 的 Roma 字 母 , 便 于 档 案 排 列 。 拼 音 用 的 是 字 音 , 避 开 了 繁 体 字 和 简 体 字 笔 画 不 一 致 的 问 题 。

jiahnyih yohng Pinyin zuohweir jiaansuoo'd fangfaa, yinweih Hahnyuu Pinyin caaiyohng guorjih tongyohng'd Roma zihmuu, biahnyur daang`ahn pairlieh. Pinyin yohng'd shih zihyihn, bihkai'le Farntiizih her Jiaantiizih biihuah bu yizhih'd wehntii.

jiahnyih   yohng  Pinyin zuohweir jiaansuoo'd fangfaa, yinweih Hahnyuu Pinyin caaiyohng guorjih       tongyohng'd Roma  zihmuu,   biahnyur       daang`ahn pairlieh.
suggest    to use Pinyin as       indexing    method,  because Hanyu Pinyin   adopts    international unified     Roman alphabet, convenient for file      order.
Pinyin yohng'd shih zihyihn,  bihkai'le Farntiizih            her Jiaantiizih          biihuah bu  yizhih'd wehntii.
Pinyin uses    is   phonetic, avoiding  traditional character and simplified character stokes  non-unified  problem.

Technical terms translation problems[edit]

专 门 术 语 的 翻 译 问 题

zhuanmern shuhyuu'd fanyih wehntir

zhuanmern shuhyuu'd fanyih    wehntir
special   terms     translate problems

Majority of written language uses Roman alphabet. Hanzi is not a language of alphabetic writing and is not convenient for translation, causing a lot of confusion. Technological terms such as Internet can be translated as Huhliarnwaang (互联网), Guorjih huhliarnwaang (国际互联网), Yintewaang (因特网); laser translated as leirsheh (雷射), leirsheh (镭射), lairsaih (莱塞), jiguang (激光). Proper nouns such as National, Panasonic, Technics is translated as Lehsheng-pair (乐声牌); Sharp is translated as Shengbaao (声宝), Xiahpuu (夏普); Sony is translated as Xinlih (新力), Suoonir (索尼). Place names such as Beeijing is translated as Peking, Beijing; Guaangzhou is translated as Canton, Kwangchow, Guangzhou. People names such as the surname Luor (罗) is translated as Luo, Lo, Law; Lii (李) is translated as Lee, Li; Nixon is translated as Nirkehxuhn (尼克逊), Nirkehsong (尼克松). The same person can be translated into many names.

大 部 分 的 文 字 都 是 用 罗 马 字 母。 汉 字 不 是 拼 音 文 字 , 翻 译 不 方 便 , 做 成 很 大 混 乱 。 科 技 术 语 如 INTERNET 翻 译 为 互 联 网 、 国 际 互 联 网 、 因 特 网 ; LASER 翻 译 为 雷 射 、 镭 射 、 莱 塞 、 激 光 。 专 有 名 词 如 NATIONAL 、 PANASONIC 、 TECHNICS 都 翻 译 为 乐 声 牌 ; SHARP 翻 译 为 声 宝 、 夏 普 ; SONY 翻 译 为 新 力 、 索 尼 。 地 名 如 北 京 翻 译 为 PEKING 、 BEIJING ; 广 州 翻 译 为 CANTON 、 KWANGCHOW 、 GUANGZHOU 。 人 名 如 姓 罗 翻 译 为 LUO 、 LO 、 LAW ; 姓 李 翻 译 为 LEE 、 LI ; NIXON 翻 译 为 尼 克 逊 、 尼 克 松 。 同 一 个 人 可 能 翻 译 为 很 多 译 名 。

dahbufehn'd wernzih dou shih yohng Roma zihmuu. Hahnzih bu shih pinyin wernzih, fanyih bu fanbiahn, zaohcherng heen dah huhnluahn. kehjih shuhyuu rur Internet fanyih weir Huhliarnwaang (互联网), Guorjih Huhliarnwaang (国际互联网), Yintehwaang (因特网); laser fanyih weir leirsheh (雷射), leirsheh (镭射), lairsaih (莱塞), jiguang (激光). zhuanyoou mirngcir rur National, Panasonic, Technics dou fanyih weir Lehsheng-pair (乐声牌); Sharp fanyih weir Shengbaao (声宝), Xiahpuu (夏普); Sony fanyih weir Xinlih (新力), Suoonir (索尼). dihmirng rur Beeijing fanyih weir Peking, Beijing; Guaangzhou fanyih weir Canton, Kwangchow, Guangzhou. rernmirng rur xihng Luor (罗) fanyih weir Luo, Lo, Law; xihng Lii fanyih weir Lee, Li; Nixon fanyih weir Nirkehxuhn (尼克逊), Nirkehsong (尼克松). torng yi'ge rern keenerng fanyih weir hen duo yihmirng.

dahbufehn'd wernzih          dou shih yohng Roma  zihmuu.
majority of written language all is   use   Roman alphabet.
Hahnzih bu  shih pinyin wernzih,     fanyih    bu  fanbiahn,   zaohcherng heen dah huhnluahn.
Hanzi   not is   alphabetic writing, translate not convenient, causing    very big confusion.
kehjih        shuhyuu rur     Internet fanyih    weir Huhliarnwaang (互联网), Guorjih Huhliarnwaang (国际互联网), Yintehwaang (因特网); laser fanyih    weir leirsheh (雷射), leirsheh (镭射), lairsaih (莱塞), jiguang (激光).
technological terms   such as Internet translate as   Huhliarnwaang (互联网), Guorjih Huhliarnwaang (国际互联网), Yintehwaang (因特网); laser translate as   leirsheh (雷射), leirsheh (镭射), lairsaih (莱塞), jiguang (激光).
zhuanyoou mirngcir rur     National, Panasonic, Technics dou fanyih    weir Lehsheng-pair (乐声牌); Sharp fanyih    weir Shengbaao (声宝), Xiahpuu (夏普); Sony fanyih    weir Xinlih (新力), Suoonir (索尼).
proper nouns       such as National, Panasonic, Technics all translate as   Lehsheng-pair (乐声牌); Sharp translate as   Shengbaao (声宝), Xiahpuu (夏普); Sony translate as   Xinlih (新力), Suoonir (索尼).
dihmirng    rur     Beeijing  fanyih    weir Peking, Beijing; Guaangzhou fanyih    weir Canton, Kwangchow, Guangzhou.
place names such as Beeijing  translate as   Peking, Beijing; Guaangzhou translate as   Canton, Kwangchow, Guangzhou.
rernmirng    rur     xihng   Luor (罗) fanyih    weir Luo, Lo, Law; xihng   Lii fanyih    weir Lee, Li; Nixon fanyih    weir Nirkehxuhn (尼克逊), Nirkehsong (尼克松).
people names such as surname Luor (罗) translate as   Luo, Lo, Law; surname Lii translate as   Lee, Li; Nixon translate as   Nirkehxuhn (尼克逊), Nirkehsong (尼克松).
torng yi'ge rern   keenerng fanyih    weir hen  duo  yihmirng.
same  one   person could    translate as   very many translated names.

Technical terms translation problem solutions[edit]

专 门 术 语 翻 译 问 题 的 解 决

zhuanmern shuhyuu fanyih wehntir'd jiiejuer

zhuanmern shuhyuu fanyih      wehntir'd jiiejuer
technical terms   translation problem   solutions

When translating foreign languages, directly transliterate foreign languages can solve problem. For example, Internet directly translate to Internet; laser directly translate to laser; National, Panasonic and Technics directly translate to National, Panasonic and Technics. Names of Chinese people, places and technical terms all use Pinyin to transliterate to foreign languages. For example, Beeijing, Dehng Xiaaopirng and Puutonghuah use Hanyu Pinyin to transliterate to Beijing, Deng Xiaoping and Putonghua.

在 翻 译 外 来 语 时 , 直 接 转 写 外 来 语 就 可 以 解 决 。 如 INTERNET 直 译 为 INTERNET ; LASER 直 译 为 LASER ; NATIONAL 、 PANASONIC、 TECHNICS 直 译 为 NATIONAL、 PANASONIC、 TECHNICS 。 中 国 的 人 地 名 和 专 门 术 语 统 一 用 汉 语 拼 音 转 写 为 外 语 。 如 北 京 、 邓 小 平 、 普 通 话 用 汉 语 拼 音 转 译 为 BEIJING、 DENG XIAOPING、 PUTONGHUA。

zaih fanyih waihlairyuu shih, zhirjie zhuaanxiee waihlairyuu jiuh keeyii jieejuer. rur Internet zhiryih weir Internet; laser zhiryih weir laser; National, Panasonic, Technics zhiryih weir National, Panasonic, Technics. Zhongguor'd rern-dihmirng her zhuanmern shuhyuu torngyi yohng Hahnyuu Pinyin zhuaanxiee weir waihyuu. rur Beeijing, Dehng Xiaaopirng, Puutonghuah yohng Hahnyuu Pinyin zhuaanyih weir Beijing, Deng Xiaoping, Putonghua.

zaih fanyih    waihlairyuu shih,  zhirjie  zhuaanxiee    waihlairyuu jiuh keeyii jieejuer.
in   translate loanword    -when, directly transliterate loanword    then can    solve.
rur     Internet zhiryih            weir Internet; laser zhiryih            weir laser; National, Panasonic, Technics zhiryih            weir National, Panasonic, Technics.
such as Internet directly translate as   Internet; laser directly translate as   laser; National, Panasonic, Technics directly translate as   National, Panasonic, Technics.
Zhongguor'd rern-dihmirng      her zhuanmern shuhyuu torngyi yohng Hahnyuu Pinyin zhuaanxiee    weir waihyuu.
China's     person-place names and technical terms   unify   use   Hanyu   Pinyin transliterate as   foreign language.
rur     Beeijing, Dehng Xiaaopirng, Puutonghuah yohng Hahnyuu Pinyin zhuaanyih     weir Beijing, Deng Xiaoping, Putonghua.
such as Beeijing, Dehng Xiaaopirng, Puutonghuah use   Hahnyuu Pinyin transliterate as   Beijing, Deng Xiaoping, Putonghua.

Appendix[edit]