OpenSCAD User Manual/Modules

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to: navigation, search

usage[edit]

Defining your own module (roughly comparable to a macro or a function in other languages) is a powerful way to reuse procedures.

 module hole(distance, rot, size) {
     rotate(a = rot, v = [1, 0, 0]) {
         translate([0, distance, 0]) {
             cylinder(r = size, h = 100, center = true);
         }
     }
 }

In this example, passing in the parameters distance, rot, and size allow you to reuse this functionality multiple times, saving many lines of code and rendering your program much easier to read.

You can instantiate the module by passing values (or formulas) for the parameters just like a C function call:

 hole(0, 90, 10);

children[edit]

The child nodes of the module instantiation can be accessed using the children() statement within the module. The number of module children can be accessed using the $children variable.

Parameters

empty 
select all the children
index 
integer. select one child, at index value. Index start at 0 and should be less than $children-1.
vector
vector of integer. select children with index in vector. Index should be between 0 and $children-1.
range
[<start>:<end>] or [<start>:<increment>:<end>]. select children between <start> to <end>, incremented by <increment> (default 1).

Deprecated child() module

Up to release 2013.06 the now deprecated child() module was used instead. This can be translated to the new children() according to the table:

up to 2013.06 2014.03 and later
child() children(0)
child(x) children(x)
for (a = [0:$children-1]) child(a) children([0:$children-1])

Examples

Transfer all children to another module:

 // rotate to other center point:
 module rz(angle, center=undef) {
   translate(center)
      rotate(angle)
         translate(-center)
            children()
 }
 
 rz(15, [10,0]) sphere(30);

Use the first child, multiple time:

 module lineup(num, space) {
   for (i = [0 : num-1])
     translate([ space*i, 0, 0 ]) children(0);
 }
 
 lineup(5, 65) sphere(30);

If you need to make your module iterate over all children you will need to make use of the $children variable, e.g.:

 module elongate() {
   for (i = [0 : $children-1])
     scale([10 , 1, 1 ]) children(i);
 }
 
 elongate() { sphere(30); cube([10,10,10]); cylinder(r=10,h=50); }

arguments[edit]

One can specify default values for the arguments:

 module house(roof="flat",paint=[1,0,0]){
   color(paint)
   if(roof=="flat"){
     translate([0,-1,0])
     cube();
   } else if(roof=="pitched"){
     rotate([90,0,0])
     linear_extrude(height=1)
     polygon(points=[[0,0],[0,1],[0.5,1.5],[1,1],[1,0]],paths=[ [0,1,2,3,4] ]);
   } else if(roof=="domical"){
     translate([0,-1,0])
     union(){
       translate([0.5,0.5,1]) sphere(r=0.5,$fn=20);
       cube();	
     }
   }
 }

And then use one of the following ways to supply the arguments

 union(){
   house();
   translate([2,0,0]) house("pitched");
   translate([4,0,0]) house("domical",[0,1,0]);
   translate([6,0,0]) house(roof="pitched",paint=[0,0,1]);
   translate([8,0,0]) house(paint=[0,0,0],roof="pitched");
   translate([10,0,0]) house(roof="domical");
   translate([12,0,0]) house(paint=[0,0.5,0.5]);
 }