Old English/Prepositions of Time
Old English prepositions of time, which detail the temporal relationships of their sentences.
Prepositions of time in the dative case generally concern events within a certain block of time.
- within the limits of a period, in; híe wendon innan þǽre middanwintres tíde they went within the limits of midwinter time
- On with the dative is used with generic time nouns, such as dæg and gēar.
- on + gēare: hæbbe ic þriwa on gēare mid tōþlǣccan gesetne dæg - I have a set day with a dentist thrice in the year.
- on + þǣm + ǣrdæge: on þǣm ǣrdæge ēodon hīe tō cirican - in early morning they went to church.
- on the approach of, towards; tōgeagnes Ēastran cōm þæs pāpan sande the pope's legate came towards Easter
- on/in a day, month, year; This is used with the accusative with named days and months
- on + dæg: gif gē lesaþ wyrte on Sunnandæg - if we gather roots on Sunday
- on + mōnaþ: se ǣresta Frīgedæg þe man sceal fæsten is on Hlȳdan (Hrēþmōnaþ) - the first Friday that one shall fast is in March
- on + morgen: on morgen gā ic tō scōle - in the morning I go to school
Often cases can be used to indicate when something happens. This is often used with the dative, but can also be accusative and genitive.
- Sunnan dagum gā ic tō cirican (or on Sunnandagum) - Sundays I go to church.
- Sunnan dæges cēapinge ne dōþ man (on gehwamlicum Sunnandæge) - Sunday one does not do marketing.
- þȳ gēare æfter his lyre (oþþe on gēare) - the year after his loss (instrumental case)