Neo-Quenya/U-stems

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Nouns in -o that keep -o in all cases[edit]

They are declined as follows (we use carpo "frog"):

singular plural dual part. plural
nominative carpo carpor carpot carpoli
genitive carpo carporon carpoto carpolion
possessive carpova carpoiva carpotwa carpolíva
dative carpon carpoin carpont carpolin
ablative carpollo carpollon(r) carpolto carpolillo(n)(r)
allative carponna carponnar carponta carpolinna(r)
locative carpossë carpossen carpotsë carpolisse(n)
instrumental carponen carpoinen carponten carpolínen
respective carpos carpois carpotes carpolis

The u-duals in this group are declined as follows (we use ondo "stone"):

Nom. ondu, Gen. onduo, Poss. onduva, Dat. ondun,
Abl. ondullo, All. ondunna, Loc. ondussë, Instr. ondunen, Resp. ondus.

Nouns in -u that keep -u in all cases[edit]

There also exist words that end in the nominative in –u, these are however not U-stems. They differ from the U-stems in the nominative and the genitive plural. They also always have a t-dual.

They are declined as follows (we use heru "lord"):

singular plural dual part. plural
nominative heru herur herut heruli
genitive heru heruron heruto herulion
possessive heruva heruiva herutwa herulíva
dative herun heruin herunt herulin
ablative herullo herullon(r) herulto herulillo(n)(r)
allative herunna herunnar herunta herulinna(r)
locative herussë herussen herutsë herulisse(n)
instrumental herunen heruinen herunten herulínen
respective herus heruis herutes herulis

Nouns in -o with a U-stem[edit]

These are the real U-stems. But there are two exceptional categories: the nouns in -co and the nouns in -go.

The others are declined as follows (we use malo, malu- "pollen"). Note that these nouns don't follow the normal rule for the formation of the plural: they get -i as extension instead of the -r that ordinarily follows vowels.

singular plural dual part. plural
nominative malo malui malut maluli
genitive maluo maluion maluto malulion
possessive maluva maluiva malutwa malulíva
dative malun maluin malunt malulin
ablative malullo malullon(r) malulto malulillo(n)(r)
allative malunna malunnar malunta malulinna(r)
locative malussë malussen malutsë malulisse(n)
instrumental malunen maluinen malunten malulínen
respective malus maluis malutes malulis

The u-duals in this group are declined as follows (we use sito, situ- "habit"):

Nom. situ, Gen. situo, Poss. situva, Dat. situn,
Abl. situllo, All. situnna, Loc. situssë, Instr. situnen, Resp. situs.

Note that these forms are, except for the nominative, all equal to the singular.


The noun tuo "muscle" behaves rather strangely because its Old-Elvish stem was túu-. This long ú appears when the ending begins in a single consonant; when the ending starts in a consonant cluster or a vowel, we find u instead of ú, e.g.

Dative singular: tún
Ablative singular: tullo

U-stems in -co[edit]

The special feature here is that the combination cui changes in qui. As an example we look at urco, urcu- "bogey":

singular plural dual part. plural
nominative urco urqui urcut urculi
genitive urcuo urquion urcuto urculion
possessive urcuva urquiva urcutwa urculíva
dative urcun urquin urcunt urculin
ablative urcullo urcullon(r) urculto urculillo(n)(r)
allative urcunna urcunnar urcunta urculinna(r)
locative urcussë urcussen urcutsë urculisse(n)
instrumental urcunen urquinen urcunten urculínen
respective urcus urquis urcutes urculis

The u-duals are just as in the example of sito, except for the nominative, all equal to the singular.

Two nouns behave irregularly:

  • rauco "demon" is only a U-stem in the singular, partitive plural and dual. The plural is formed with the stem rauca-.
  • telco "leg, stem" is only a U-stem in the plural and the dual. The singular and partitive plural are formed with the stem telco- (see above for nouns that end in -o).

U-stems in -go[edit]

The special feature here is that the combination gui changes in gwi. As an example we look at ango, angu- "snake":

singular plural dual part. plural
nominative ango angwi angut anguli
genitive anguo angwion anguto angulion
possessive anguva angwiva angutwa angulíva
dative angun angwin angunt angulin
ablative angullo angullon(r) angulto angulillo(n)(r)
allative angunna angunnar angunta angulinna(r)
locative angussë angussen angutsë angulisse(n)
instrumental angunen angwinen angunten angulínen
respective angus angwis angutes angulis

The u-duals are just as in the example of sito, except for the nominative, all equal to the singular.



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