The locative corresponds to the prepositions "in", "on" and "upon".
It is always used for places:
- ëan coassë "I am in a house"
- i ciryamo ëa i ciryassë "the sailor is on the ship"
- i aiwi háma olwassë "the bird sits upon a branch"
or for a moment or period in time when something happens:
- utúlien i lómissë "I have come in the night"
There are two situations in which we don't use the locative:
- The preposition "into" is translated by mir followed by a nominative:
- nér vantanë mir i mallë "a man walked into the street"
- The preposition "in" can also be used to denote a condition or feeling someone has, in that case we use the preposition mi (or mí, this is short for mi + i):
- nér vantanë mi mornië "a man walked in darkness"
- nér vantanë mí ringa "a man walked in the cold"
We discuss each of the numbers separately:
The basic ending is -ssë after vowels and -essë after consonants.
Most words simply add this ending:
- aran "king" → aranessë
- tári "queen" → tárissë
- vendë "girl" → vendessë
Words that have a stem-form use this stem-form:
- sar "pebble" → sardessë (stem-form sard-)
- curo "device" → curussë (stem-form curu-)
- lómë "night" → lómissë (stem-form lómi-)
- words ending in -s contract with the ending:
- arquilis "desert" → arquilissë
- words ending in -t only get -së as ending:
- ecet "short sword" → ecetsë
- words ending in -l change l + ssë into ldë:
- menel "heaven" → meneldë
- words ending in -n change n + ssë into ndë:
- cemen "earth, soil" → cemendë
Words that in the nominative end on -ssë don't have a locative case, when a locative would be needed they use the preposition mi:
- Víressë "April" → mi Víressë
Stem-forms show quite a lot of exceptions in this case (see Stem-forms):
- The locative of contracted stems doesn't use the stem-form but the nominative singular:
- toron "brother" → torondë (stem-form torn-)
- Doubled S-stems simply add -ë to the stem-form:
- falas "beach" → falassë (stem-form falas-)
- T-stems that add -s also follow this rule:
- henet "window" → henetsë (stem-form henets-)
- C-stems are changed as follows:
- quesset "pillow" → quessexë (stem-form quessec-)
- but nelet uses the rule of the T-stems in this case:
- nelet "tooth" → neletsë (stem-form nelc-)
- M-stems use the nominative instead of the stem-form:
- talan "floor" → talandë (stem-form talam-)
The ending is -ssen after vowels and -issen after consonants.
- macil "sword" → macilissen
- elda "elf" → eldassen
Exceptions: In the plural the different exceptions generally aren't used, only when a word would end on -sissen (or cissen) is the ending shortened:
- words ending in -s:
- arquilis "desert" → arquilissen
- Doubled S-stems:
- falas "beach" → falassen (stem-form falas-)
- T-stems that add -s:
- henet "window" → henetsen (stem-form henets-)
- quesset "pillow" → quessexen (stem-form quessec-)
- nelet "tooth" → neletsen (stem-form nelc-)
- u-duals get -ssë:
- aldu "a pair of trees" → aldussë (nom.sing.: alda)
- t-duals get -së:
- ciryat "a pair of ships" → ciryatsë (nom.sing.: cirya)
- aranet "a pair of kings" → aranetsë (nom.sing.: aran)
We add -ssen or -ssë to the nominative partitive plural:
- ciryali "some ships" → ciryalissen/ciryalissë (nom.sing.: cirya)
(but the ending -ssen is preferred)