Neo-Quenya/Dative

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Usage[edit]

The dative is used for the indirect object.

i nér anta i parma i eldan "the man gives the book to the elf"


The word order is free because we can always recognize the indirect object by its ending:

i nér anta i eldan i parma "the man gives the elf the book"
i eldan i nér anta i parma "to the elf the man gives the book"
i nér i eldan anta i parma


Some verbs can have an indirect object without a direct object:

i vendi liltar i aranen "the girls dance for the king"


The verb apsen- "remit, forgive" has a direct object in the dative:

i aran apsenë i neren "the king forgives the man"


The preposition "on behalf of, for" is used with the dative:

i orco tullë rá Sauronden "the orc came on behalf of Sauron"

Impersonal verbs[edit]

The dative is also used for the recipient of certain impersonal verbs:

i seldon óla aiwion "the boy dreams about birds"

(see also: Special Verbs)

Formation[edit]

We discuss each of the numbers separately:

Singular[edit]

The basic ending is -n after vowels and -en after consonants.

Most words simply add this ending:

aran "king" → aranen
tári "queen" → tárin
vendë "girl" → venden


Words that have a stem-form use this stem-form:

nís "woman" → nissen (stem-form niss-)
curo "device" → curun (stem-form curu-)
lómë "night" → lómin (stem-form lómi-)

Plural[edit]

The ending is -in:

macil "sword" → macilin
elda "elf" → eldain

(note: this ending forms a diphthong when the noun ends in -a, -o or -u)

Exceptions:

  • words ending in -ë drop this -ë and have -ín as ending:
lassë "leaf" → lassín
  • words ending in - drop this - and have -ín as ending:
mornië "darkness" → mornín
  • words ending in -i (or with a stem-form in -i) also get -ín:
tári "queen" → tárín
lómë "night" → lómín

Dual[edit]

The dual is regular:

  • u-duals get -n:
aldu "a pair of trees" → aldun (nom.sing.: alda)
  • in t-duals the final -t is replaced by -nt:
ciryat "a pair of ships" → ciryant (nom.sing.: cirya)
aranet "a pair of kings" → aranent (nom.sing.: aran)

(note: these words are the only Neo-Quenya words that end in more than one consonant)

Partitive Plural[edit]

We always add -n to the nominative partitive plural:

ciryali "some ships" → ciryalin (nom.sing.: cirya)



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