Na'vi/English–Na'vi dictionary/Print version

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Na’vi is a constructed language, created for the fictional Na’vi, the humanoid inhabitants of the moon Pandora in the 2009 film Avatar. It was designed by Paul Frommer, a professor at the Marshall School of Business with a doctorate in linguistics, to fit film director James Cameron's conception of what the language should sound like in the film, to be realistically learnable by the fictional human characters of the film, and to be pronounceable by the real actors, but to not closely resemble any human language.

When the film was released in 2009, Na’vi had a growing vocabulary of about a thousand words, but understanding of its grammar was limited to Frommer.[1] The goal of this book is to make what is known of Na’vi grammar available to fans who are attempting to learn the language.


Na’vi–English

This vocabulary is a simple list of the English glosses in the Na’vi–English dictionary.

Multiple senses of words, which are often ambiguous in English but not in Na’vi, may be distinguished as (n) noun, (v) verb, (adj) adjective, (adv) adverb, (trans) transitive, (intrans) intransitive. A few Terran animals are given approximate Pandoran equivalents. Exclamations which cannot be easily translated are listed at the end. Stressed syllables are bold.


A

abandon: txìng
able: tsusun. be able: tsun
about: concerning: teri, -ìri. about to: ‹ìy›.
above: io. from above: ta'em.
across: ka
action: kem
add: sung
afar: alìm
afraid: be afraid: txopu si
after (time) maw. afterwards: mawkrr. right after: pximaw.
afternoon: ha'ngir, (late) kaym
again: mun
against, counter to: wä+
aged: koak
ago: just a moment ago: pxiswawam. Thursday two weeks ago: mesrrmrrvam.
agree: mllte
agreement: come to an agreement: molte
aim: (v) kan. (n) kan.
air: ya
alala!: ìley!
alien: (n) ketuwong. (adj) kewong.
alike: teng
alive: rusey. be alive: rey.
all: all of (it, you, them): wotx. all the time / at all times: frakrr. not at all: ke ... kaw'it.
allow: tung
almost: stum
alone (of a person) 'awtu
along: ì+, ìlä+
also: kop, nìteng
although: hufwa
always: frakrr
am: lu
amazing (be amazing) wou (slang)
among: kip
amount: hìmtxan. (small) 'it.
ancestor: pizayu
and: (between phrases) . (between clauses) ulte. and you?: nga tut?
anger: (v) steyki. (n) sti.
angry: be angry: sti. angrily: sti.
animal: ioang
another one: lapo
answer: (v) 'eyng, ting tì'eyngit. (n) 'eyng. in answer: 'eyng.
apart, divided: ke'aw
apologize: tsap'alute si
apology: tsap'alute
apparently: tatlam
appear: lam
appearance (look) lam
appetizing: pxasul
approach: lok
are: lu. aren't they?: kefya srak? kefyak?
arm: pxun. (pair of) arms: mepun.
around (spatial) pxaw
arrival: hem
arrive: hem, pate
arrow: swizaw
art: tseo. (visual) reltseo.
? artifact: ngop
artist (visual) reltseotu
as (like) na, pxel, nì-. (the same way as) tengfya. (as for) -ìri.
aside: step/move aside: (give way) tìng tseng. (move) rikx.
ask: pawm
ass (rear end) txìm
assist: srung si
assistance: srung
at: ro+
attack (v) 'eko
attempt (v) fmi
attention: pay attention: eltu si
auspicious: etrìp
avatar: uniltìrantokx
await: pey
awake: txen
aware: be aware, be in tune: kame
away: (direction) neto. (position) so.

B

baby: prrnen
back: (of body) txal. (rear part) pxì. (direction) ne'ìm. (in response) 'eyng. come back, go back, return: txaw. move back, step aside: rikx. to back down: tìng tseng
bad (adj) kawng
badge: tsì
balance of life: rey'eng
ball: rum
banshee (flying mount) ikran
barricade, barrier: ekxan
bat (animal, approx.) riti
bathe (wash oneself) pur
battle group: wempongu
brave: tstew
be (am, is, are): lu. be at, occupy a space: tok.
beat (n) 'ekong
beautiful: (of people) sevin. (of things; pleasant to the senses) lor
beauty (of things) lor
because: (for that reason) taluna (talun), alunta. (due to that cause) taweyka (taweyk), aweykta. because of that: tafral.
become: slu
before: (time) sre+. (beforehand) srekrr. (in front of) eo. just before, right before (time) pxisre+.
begin: (intrans.) sngä'i. (begin something) sngey'i.
beginning: sngä'ikrr
behind: uo. leave behind: txìng.
believe: spaw
beloved (adj.) yawne. (loved one) yawnetu, yawntu
below: äo
best: (adj) swey. (adv) swey.
betray: kavuk si
betrayal: kavuk
between: kam
big (in size or stature) tsawl. get big (grow): tsawl slu.
bind: yìm
bird: yayo
bit: a bit: (n) 'it. (adv) 'it.
bite: frìp
bitter: syä'ä
black: layon
bless: be blessed: Nawma Sa'nok lrrtok si [with dative]
blind: kakrel
blood: reypay
bloom, blossom (v) 'ong
blow, strike (n) takuk
blue, green: ean. in blue: ean.
body: tokx
bond: (neural connection) tsaheylu. (establish a neural connection) tsaheyl si.
book: puk
boom! (sound of thunder) kxangangang
border: pxawpa
bottom: kllpa
bow (weapon) tsko. bow and arrow: tsko swizaw.
brain: eltu
brainworm (hallucinogenic) eltungawng
branch (of a tree) vul
brave: tstew. brave person, hero: txantstew.
bread (approx.) tsyosyu
brief (adj) yol
bring: (take to a place) munge. (bring here) zamunge.
broken: fwel
brother: (sibling) tsmuk, tsmuktu. (male) tsmukan.
bud (n) prrnesyul
bug: 'ang
build (v) txula
building (a thing built): txula
bulk (the major part) txampxì
bull (approx.) talioang
burn (v) nekx
but: (basic sense) slä. (however) ngian. (except) mungwrr, -mungwrr.
butt (rear end) txìm
by, along: ì+, ìlä+

C

call (v) syaw
calm: mawey. calmly: nìmwey.
camp: (n) 'awm. (v) 'awm si.
camping: 'awm
can, be able: tsun
captive: spe'etu
capture: spe'e
careful: be careful: nari si
carry, bring: munge
case: in that case: ha
catch (v) stä'
cattle (approx.) talioang
cause: (reason, source) oeyk. (produce) sleyku.
ceaselessly: nìlkeftang
celebration: ftxo
center (n) kxamtseng
ceremonious: 'eoio. ceremoniously: 'eoio.
certain: law
challenge (ceremonial) fpeio
chance, opportunity: skxom
change (intransitive) latem. (change something) leykatem.
charge: (running attack) kxll. (to attack) kxll si. be in charge, be responsible: kllfro'.
chase (v) fewi
chat: (v) pängkxo. (n) tìpängkxo
check (v) steftxaw
child: 'eveng. (kid) 'evi.
chin: tsuksìm
choice: ftxey
choose: ftxey
circumference: pxawpa
clan: olo'
clan leader: olo'eyktan
clean: laro
clear, certain: law
clearly: law, nìfya'o alaw
clever: (person) kanu. (idea, plan) sìlronsem.
cliff: 'awkx
close (v) tstu si
close (adj): (be close to) lok. (close by) asim.
closed: tstu
club (weapon) txewk
cold: wew. I feel cold: oe 'efu wew.
colleague: lertu
color: 'opin
come: za'u. come back, go back: txaw.
common: (ordinary) letrrtrr.
commune: tireapängkxo
comparatively: to
complete: 'änsyem
completely: wotx
comprehension tslam
computer: eltu lefngap
concerning: teri, -ìri
conclude (end) 'i'a
conclusion (end) 'i'a
congratulations!: aylrrtok ngaru
connect with (establish a neural connection) tsaheyl si
connection (neural) tsaheylu
constantly: nìlkeftang, tut
construct (v) txula
construction: txula (activity or object)
consume: nekx
continually: tut, nìlkeftang
continuation: tut
conversation: tìpängkxo
converse: pängkxo
convey, take: munge
cook (v) 'em
cord (chord? musical?) telem
correct (adj) eyawr
correctness: yawr
counter to, against: wä+
cover, lid: lew. to cover: lew si.
cow (approx.) talioang
crazy, insane: lekye'ung
create: ngop
creation: ngop
creator: ngopyu
creature: swi
crossbow: tskalep
cry (weep) tsngawvìk
cup (n) tsngal
cut (v) mun'i

D

daddy: sempu
daily: (adv) fratrr. (adj) letrr.
dance (v) srew
danger: hrrap
dangerous: lehrrap
dark: vawm
darkness: vawm
daughter: 'ite
dawn (nautical twilight, enough light to navigate) trr'ong. (just before dawn, astronomical twilight, stars disappearing) sresrr'ong. (just after dawn, civil twilight, bright enough to work) trr'ongmaw.
day: trr. Good day!: trr lefpom.
dead (adj) kerusey
death: (Death, abstract) terkup. (of an individual) kxitx.
decide: pe'un
decision: pe'un
deed (n) kem
defeat: be defeated (fall) zup
deer (approx.) yerik
defend: zong
delicious: lor
demon: vrrtep
depart: hum
descend: kll
destroy: ska'a
destruction: tìska'a
die: terkup
difference: keteng
different: keteng
dig up: kllkulat
dim-witted: snumìna
dinner: wutso
dip into liquid: (n) yemfpay. (v) yemfpay si.
direhorse: pa'li
dirty: tsewtx
discover: run
discuss: pängkxo
discussion: tìpängkxo
distant: (be distant) lìm. (at a distance) alìm.
dive (v) tawng
divided: ke'aw
do: si. (suffice) tam. 'that will do': tam tam.
doctor (title) toktor
dog (approx.) nantang
done: hasey
don't!:
dozen: vosìng. two dozen (octal: 30) pxevol
down: downward: nekll. 'Get down!': ne kllte!. 'You're going down!': ngekxetse lu oeru!
dragon (approx.) toruk
draw: (illustrate) weyn. (pull) zarìp.
dream (n) unil
Dream Hunt: Uniltaron
dreamwalker: uniltìranyu
drink (v) näk
drive out: kurakx
drop: (v.trans) tungzup. (fall) zup.
drum (made of skin) au
dry: ukxo
dull (of a blade) tete
dunk: (n) yemfpay. (v) yemfpay si.
during: krr a, a krr, etc.
dusk (nautical twilight, enough light to navigate) txon'ong. (just before dusk, civil twilight, still enough light to work) sreton'ong. (just after dusk, astronomical twilight, stars appearing) txon'ongmaw.
dwell: kelku si

E

ear: mikyun. (pair of) ears: memikyun.
Earth: 'Rrta. Earth Day: Trr 'Rrtayä.
easily: ftue
easy: ftue
eat: yom
edge (perimeter) pxawpa
eh?: ko
eight (octal: 10) vol. (human digit '8') 'eyt</t>.
eighteen (octal: 22) mevomun
eighteenth (number eighteen) mevomuve
eighth (number eight) volve
eighty (exact; octal: 120) zam mevol.
either: either A or B: A, B, ke tsranten.
elbow: pxuntil
eleven (octal: 13) vopey
eleventh (number eleven) vopeyve
else: or else: txokefyaw. someone else, something else: lapo.
encounter (v) ultxarun
end: (v) 'i'a. (n) 'i'a.
ending: 'i'a
enemy: kxutu
English: 'Ìnglìsì. in English: 'Ìnglìsì.
enjoyable: mowan. (of an activity) prrte'.
enough: (adj) letam'. (after an adjective) tam. (be enough) tam.
enter: fpxäkìm
equal: teng
erect: pxim. (sit) erectly: pxim.
error: (mistake) kxeyey. (incorrectness) kxey.
especially: pxi
even: (level) 'engeng. (adv) keng. not even once: ke keng 'awlo. [stress?] even so: tsalsungay.
evening: (dusk) txon'ong. (late afternoon) kaym.
every: fra-. every day: fratrr. every night: fratxon. everyone: frapo. everything: fra'u. everywhere: fratseng. every time: fralo.
everyday, ordinary: letrrtrr
evil (adj) kawng. (n) kawng.
examine, check: steftxaw
example (n) kenong. be an example: kenong.
excellent: txantsan
except: mungwrr
excess (overabundance) hawng
excessive: lehawng. excessively: hawng.
exercise, practice (n) tskxekeng
explain, explain why: oeyktìng
explanation: tìoeyktìng
explode: pxor
expression (phrase) lì'fyavi
eye: nari. eyes (2, of person) menari, (4, of horse, banshee) aynari.

F

face: key
fair: muiä
fall (v) zup
false: tsleng
family: soaia
far: (be far) lìm. (far away) alìm.
fascinating (be fascinating) wou (slang)
fast: (quick) win. (quickly) win.
fasten: yän
fate: syay
father: sempul
favorable: etrìp
fear: (n) txopu. (v) txopu si.
feed: yomtìng
feel: 'efu
feeling: 'efu
female (person) tute
few: hol
field (open terrain) txayo
fifteen (octal: 17) vohin
fifteenth (number fifteen) vohive
fifth (number five) mrrve
fifty (exact; octal: 62) puvolmune, (approx.) puvol
fight (n) wem
fill (v) teya si
final: syen
find (v) run
finger: zek
finished: hasey
fire: txep
first: 'awve, nì'awve
fish (n) payoang
five: mrr. five hundred (approx.) vozam. five thousand (approx.) zazam. [stress?]
flesh: vey
floating mountains: iknimaya
flour: tsyo
flower: syulang. (blue sp.) seze.
fly (v) tswayon
foe: kxutu
follow: (proceed after) nong. (track) sutx. (travel along) kä/za'u ìlä.
food: syuve. (vegetable) fkxen. (animal) vey. (meat) tsngan. (from flour) tsyosyu.
foot: venu. (pair of) feet: mevenu.
for (for the sake of) fpi+
forbidden: kxa
forest: na'rìng
forever: (until the end of time) 'i'avay krrä. (incessantly) nìlkeftang.
forget: tswa'
forgive: forgive me: ngaytxoa
forgiveness: txoa
formal: skepek
former: spuwin
fortunate: be fortunate: Nawma Sa'nok lrrtok si [with dative]
fortune: aylrrtok (from Eywa)
forty (exact; octal: 50) mrrvol
foul (taste or smell) vä'. (do wrong) kxey si
four: tsìng. four hundred (approx.) puzam. four thousand (approx.) zazam.
fourteen (octal: 16) vofu
fourteenth (number fourteen) vofuve
fourth (number four) tsìve
freckle (bioluminescent) tan
fresh (appealing as food) pxasul
Friday (Earth calendar) trrpuve
friend: 'eylan
friendship: 'eylan
from: ta. (direction) ftu. from above: ta'em. from among: takip. from up among: tafkip.
front (part or section) zapxì. in front of: eo.
full: teya
fungus: spxam
funny (odd) hiyìk
future: zusawkrr

G

game: uvan
garbage: sngel. garbage dump: sngeltseng.
get: (receive) tel. (understand) tslam. Got it!: tslolam.
give: tìng. give way: tìng tseng.
glad: be glad teya si [with dative]
go: (move) . (go on, proceed) salew. go after, follow: nong. go down: kll. go in: fpxäkìm. go near: lok.
goal (target) kan
God (Gaea): Eywa, Nawma Sa'nok
good: sìltsan. (appealing as food) pxasul.
goodbye: (farewell) Eywa ngahu. (see you soon) kìyevame
good night (sleep well) hivahaw nìmwey.
Got it!: tslolam
grab: niä
grant (v) teswotìng
grassroots movement: ngrrpongu
great (noble) nawm. (in quantity) txan. great person: nawmtu.
Great Leonopteryx (animal like a large banshee) toruk
greed: txanew
greedy: txanew
green, blue: ean. in green: ean
grok: kame
ground: kllte
group: (of people) pongu. (battle group) wempongu.
grow: tsawl slu
guest: frrtu
guidance: tìfyawìntxu
guide: fyawìntxu
guideline, rule: koren
gunship: kunsìp

H

hair: nikre (aynikre ?)
Hallelujah Mountains: iknimaya
halt (v) txey
Hammerhead Titanothere (animal like a rhino) 'angtsìk
hand: tsyokx. (pair of) hands: mesyokx.
happen: len
happiness, peace: fpom; aylrrtok (from Eywa)
happy (of occasions) lefpom. (of people) nitram. be happy: 'efu nitram. happy (celebration) aylrrtok [with dative]
hard: txa'
harm (n) kxu
harmless: kxuke
harmonious: me'em
harmony: me'em. (with nature) meoauniaea.
hateful: fkay
have: lu [with dative]
he: po, poan
head: re'o
health (physical) fpomtokx
healthy: lefpomtokx
hear: stawm
heart: txe'lan. with all one's heart: ftxavang.
heavy (weight) ku'up
heed: lek
Hellfire Wasp: zize'
hello: kaltxì
help: (n) srung. (v) srung si.
her: (gen) pe. (acc) pot, poti. (dat) por, poru. (after prep.) po.
here: tsenge, fìtseng [syll?]
hero: txantstew
Hexapede (animal like a deer) yerik
hey! (anger, annoyance) oìsss! (threat) saa! (warning, frustration) tsa-hey!, wiya!
high: kxayl
him: (acc) pot, poti. (dat) por, poru. (after prep.) po.
hinge: til
his: pe
hit, strike (v) takuk
hold off (suspend action) fpak
home: kelku
Hometree: Kelutral [stress?]
honor (n) meuia
hookah gourd: txll'u [stress?]
hope (v) sìlpey
horse (approx.) pa'li
hot: som. (to feel that one is hot) 'efu som.
house: kelku
how?: pefya?, fyape?
how many?: polpxay?, holpxaype?
how much?: pìmtxan? hìmtxampe?
however: ngian
howl (n) nguway
human (n) tawtute
hundred: (exact, octal: 144) zam tsìvosìng. (approx.) zam fu mezam. two hundred (approx.) : pxezam. five hundred (approx.) vozam
hunger: tìohakx
hungry: ohakx. be hungry: 'efu ohakx
hunt: (v) taron. (n) taron.
hunter: taronyu
hurry (be in a hurry) winpi
hurt: (be painful) sraw si. (hurt someone or something) sraw seyki.

I

I: oe (we- when inflected). (deferential and ceremonial form) ohe.
idea: fpìl
idiot: skxawng
if: txo. if not: txokefyaw.
illness: (disease) spxin. (state of being ill) spxin.
image (n) rel
immediately: (right now) pxiset. (very soon) pxiye'rìn
immerse: yemfpay si
immersion: yemfpay
important: letsranten. be important: tsranten.
impossible: keltsun
in: mì+
incessantly: nìlkeftang
incorrect: keyawr
incorrectness: kxey
individual (n) 'awpo
individuality (negative connotation) 'awpo
infant: prrnen
inharmonious, divided: ke'aw
insane: lekye'ung
insanity: keye'ung
insect (approx.) 'ang
inside: fa, fa
instance: alo
instead of: tup
instruct: nume si
instruction: nume
insult (n) zoplo
intelligence: kanu. (understanding) tslam.
intelligent: kanu. intelligently: kanu.
interesting (be interesting) eltur tìtxen si
interpret: ralpeng
into (direction) nemfa
intriguing (be intriguing) eltur tìtxen si
invention: ngop
is: lu. isn't it? isn't that so?: kefya srak? kefyak?
it: (animate) po. (inanimate) tsa'u ~ tsaw.
itch (v) fkxake
its: (animate) pe. (inanimate) tse.

J

jellyfish (aerial, approx) fpxafaw
join two things together: 'awstengyem
joint (n) til
journey: sop
joyous (of occassions) lefpom
jump (v) spä
just: (fair, justified) muiä. (only) 'aw. just before: pxisre. just after: pximaw. just now, just a moment ago: ‹ìm›, pxiswawam. in just a moment: ‹ìy›, pxiswaway.

K

keep up with someone: latsi
kid (n) 'evi
kill: (v) tspang. (n) tspang
kind: (n) fnel. what kind? fnepe, pefnel
kiss (v) pom
knee: kinamtil
knife: tstal
know: omum; law lu [with dative]. as is known, as you know: nìawnomum.

L

lake: 'ora
land (n) atxkxe
language: lì'fya
large: apxa
larva, larvae (sp. beetle larva used for food) teylu
last: (final) syen. (previous) ham. last time: alo aham. last night: txonam. last Thursday (Thursday of last week) trrmrrvam.
laugh (n) hangham
lead (v) eyk
leader: eyktan. leader of clan: olo'eyktan
leaf: rìk
leafy: lerìk
lean (v) tuvon
learn: nume
leave: (go away) hum. (abandon) txìng.
left (side, direction) ftär
leg: kinam
Leonopteryx (animal like a large banshee) toruk
lesson: numvi
lest: fteke
let go: lonu
Let's ...!: ... ko
level, even: 'engeng
lid: lew
life (abstract) rey. (living) tìrusey. balance of life: rey'eng.
light (n) atan
light (adj), lightweight: syo
like (as) na, pxel, nì-. (the same way as) tengfya. like this: fya. like that: tsafya.
likewise: teng
lip: seyri
liquid: pay
listen: tìng mikyun (pron. "tìm mikyun")
little (adj) 'i. a little: 'it, nì'it.
live (be alive) rey. (dwell) kelku si.
living: (alive) rusey. (being alive) tìrusey. living thing: rusey.
location: klltseng
lock up: sutx
long: (length) ngim. (time) txan.
look (v) tìng nari (pron. "tìn nari"). look at: nìn. look for: fwew. look like: lam. (n) lam
lose: lose track of: tatep. lose oneself (spiritual sense) 'ia.
loud: wok
love: (n) yawn. (v) lu yawne [with dative]. I love you: nga yawne lu oer.
loved (adj) yawne. loved one: yawnetu, yawntu
low: tìm
lung: tso. (pair of) lungs: meso.

M

majority: txampxì
make: (do) si. (create) ngop. (build) txula.
male (person) tutan
manner: fya'o. in a (certain) manner: fya'o.
mantis (approx.) fwä
many: pxay
marriage: tìmuntxa
marry: muntxa si
mate (v) muntxa si
mated: muntxa
mating (n) tìmuntxa
matriarch: tsahìk
matter: (subject) txele. (be important) tsranten.
may, be possible: tsunslu
maybe: kxawm
me: (acc) oeti (weti). (dat) oeru, oer (weru, wer). (after prep.) oe.
meadow: txayo
meal (served) wutso
meaning: ral
meantime: in the meantime: tsakrrvay
meanwhile (until then) tsakrrvay
meat: tsngan
medusa (approx. a large aerial jellyfish) fpxafaw
meet: (by chance) ultxarun. have a meeting: ultxa si.
meeting: ultxa. have a meeting: ultxa si.
memory, remembrance: 'ok
mess up: kxey si
message: 'upxare
metal: fngap
metallic: lefngap
midday: kxamtrr. (See 'noon'.)
middle, midpoint: kxam
midnight: kxamtxon
mighty: fkew
military squad: wempongu
mind (n) ronsem
mistake: kxeyey. make a mistake: kxeyey si.
model (n) kenong
moment: swaw. (very short time) krr. just a moment ago: pxiswawam. in just a moment: pxiswaway.
mommy: sa'nu
Monday (Earth calendar) trrmuve
more: 'ul. (for comparison, use: to.)
morning: (daylight before noon) rewon. (dawn) trr'ong. (For early morning, see 'dawn'.)
moron: skxawng
moss: prrwll
most: (adv: use frato). (n) txampxì.
mother: sa'nok
mountain: floating mountains: iknimaya
mouth: kxa
move: (shift position) rikx. (move something) rìp.
movement (grassroots) ngrrpongu
much: (great quantity) txan. (great extent) txan. so much: txan.
mushroom (approx.) spxam
music: pamtseo
musical instrument (stringed) i'en
musician: pamtseotu
must: zene. must not: zenke (zengke). don't need to: ke zene.
my: oe (we)
My! (encouragement) nang
myriad: zazam [stress?]

N

Na'vi: (n) tute. (adj) leNa'vi. in Na'vi: Na'vi.
name (n) tstxo. my name is: oeru syaw .... what is your name?: fyape syaw ngar?
near: (be near) sim. (nearby) asim.
neck: pewn
need: (v) kin. (n) kin. do not need to: ke zene
necessary: lekin
neural connection: tsaheylu
never: ke ... kawkrr
nevertheless: tsalsungay
new: mip
news: fmawn
next: hay, -ay. next time: alo ahay. next Thursday (Thursday of next week) trrmrrvay
night: txon. tonight: txon. last night: txonam. tomorrow night: txonay. Good night!: txon lefpom, (sleep well) hivahaw nìmwey.
nine: (octal: 11) volaw. (human digit '9') nayn.
nineteen (octal: 23) mevopey
nineteenth (number nineteen) mevopeyve
ninety (approx.) zam pxevol
ninth (number nine) volawve
no: No!: kehe. (with a noun: no X) kea, ake. No?: kefya srak, kefyak. No way! (vulgar) pxasìk. No, it can't be! (consternation) au!
noble: nawm
none: ke ... ke'u, ke ... kaw'it
nonetheless: tsalsungay
noon: kxamtrr. pre-noon (sun just before zenith) srekamtrr. post-noon (sun just after zenith) kxamtrrmaw.
no-one: ke ... kawtu
nose: ontu
not: ke. not at all, not a bit (adv) ke ... kaw'it.
nothing: (pn) ke ... ke'u. nothing at all (adv) ke ... ke'u.
noun: tstxolì'u
now: (sentence opener) tse. (at this time) set. until now: vay set. right now: pxiset. Thursday two weeks from now: mesrrmrrvay.
number (n) holpxay

O

O! (address) ma
oath: nu?
obey: lek
obstruction: ekxan
occasion (happy) ftxo
occupy (a space) tok
occur: len
ocean: txampay
odd, strange: hiyìk
of: -yä, -ä. (a clan; used in full names) te. (See also 'from'.)
offense: zoplo
often: pxìm
oh! (consternation) au! (poor thing!) keftxo! (exertion) sau!
old: (not new) spuwin. (not young) koak.
okay: tam, tam tam. ...okay?: ... ko
on: mì+. on, onto (?) sìn.
once: (in the past) 'awlie. (not twice) 'awlo.
one: 'aw. one individual: 'awpo. one time (once) 'awlie, 'awlo. one hundred (approx.) zam fu mezam. one thousand (approx.) mevozam. [stress?]
one (pronoun: 'you', 'they') fko
only: 'aw
oomph!: sau!
open: (be open) piak. (open something) piak si.
opinion: in my opinion: 'efumì oe
opportunity: skxom
opposed to:
optimal: swey. optimally: swey.
or: fu. or else: txokefyaw. or not: fuke.
order: in order to: fte [with subjunctive]
ordinary, everyday: letrrtrr
other: lahe. other one (person or thing) lapo. to the others: aylaru.
otherwise: txokefyaw
our (including your) awngeyä, (ay)oengeyä [stress?]
our (but not your) (ay)oe (weyä, aywe)
out there: satseng
outside: wrrpa
overabundance: hawng

P

pain: sraw
painful: sraw. be painful: sraw si
Pandora: Eywa'eveng
panther (approx.) palulukan
part (n) hapxì
party (group of people) pongu
pass (a test) emza'u. (pass by something) ftem.
passionate: ftxavang
passionately: ftxavang
past: the past: ftawnemkrr
pasta (approx.) tsyosyu
path: fya'o
patience: tìmweypey
patient (adj) lemweypey. be patient: maweypey. patiently: nìmweypey. a patient person: maweypeyyu.
pattern (n) renu
pay attention: eltu si
peace: fpom
peaceful: lefpom. peacefully: nìmwey.
peel (v) fkarut
people: (persons) sute. (the People) Na'vi.
perceive: 'efu
perhaps: kxawm
perimeter: pxawpa
person: tute
phrase: lì'fyavi
picture (n) rel
place (n) tsenge, tseng. [syll?] (v) yem.
plain, field: txayo
plan: (v) hawl. (n) hawl.
plant (n) 'ewll
play: (play a game) uvan si
pleasant: (to the senses) lor. (of an activity) prrte'. (enjoyable, of a person or thing) mowan
please!: rutxe!
pleasing: mowan
pleasurable (of an activity) prrte'
pleasure: prrte'
practice, training tskxekeng
pointedly: pxi
poison (n) txum
poor thing!: keftxo!
position: klltseng
possible: letsunslu. be possible: tsunslu.
power: txur
powerful: fkew, txantur
prefer: nulnew
preparations: hawl
prepare, plan: hawl
present (time) sekrr
pretty: sevin
previous: ham. previous instance: alo aham.
prey (n) tspang
proceed: salew
probable; probably: skxakep
produce (v) sleyku
proliferate: vi
promise: (n) nu. (v) nutìng.
propel: spule
proper: muiä
prophesize: srese'a
prophesy: srese'a
protect: hawnu, tìhawnu si
protection: hawnu
pterosaur (approx.) ikran
pull (v) zarìp
purpose (goal) kan
push (v) rìp
put: yem

Q

question (n) pawm
(question marker) srak(e). (with fuke) ftxey.
quiet: (n) fnu. be quiet: fnu.
quote ... unquote: san ... sìk
quotidian: letrrtrr

R

rain (n) tompa
rather: (would rather) nulnew. rather than: tup.
ready: alaksi. get ready: hawl.
rear: (part or section) pxì. (of person) txìm.
reason (n) lun
receive: tel
recent: sok
recline: tuvon
refuge: zongtseng
refuse (v) sto
release: lonu
remain: 'awn
remember: zerok
remembrance: 'ok
represent: kenong
request: (n) ätxäle. (v) ätxäle si.
respond: 'eyng
response: 'eyng. in response: 'eyng.
responsibility: have responsibility (for): kllfro'
responsible: be responsible (for): kllfro'
rest (v) tsurokx
restore: speng
return, go back: txaw
rhino (approx.) 'angtsìk
rhythm: kato
ride (v) makto. ride out: makto.
right: (side, direction) skien. (proper) muiä. (correct) eyawr. you're right: ngaru tìyawr. Right?: kefya srak? kefyak? right now: pxiset. right before: pxisre. right after: pximaw.
river: kilvan. (sacred) Swotulu.
rock, stone: tskxe
root: ngrr
rule (n) koren
run (n) tul
rush: (v, hurry) winpi. (rush something) win si.

S

sacred: swok. sacred place: swotu. Sacred River: Swotulu.
sad: keftxo. sadly: nìkeftxo. How sad! keftxo!
safe: kxuke. safe place: zongtseng.
safely: nìzawnong
sake: for the sake of: fpi+
same: teng
Saturday (Earth calendar) trrkive
save: zong
say: plltxe
saying ...: san ... sìk
school: numtseng
science: tìftia kifkeyä
scream (v) zawng
Screw that! (vulgar) pxasìk
screw up: kxey si
sea: txampay
second (number two) muve. (short time) krr. (look also under 'moment')
see: (physical sense) tse'a. See (spiritual sense) kame. see you soon: kìyevame.
seed: rina'. (of Hometree) atokirina'.
seek: fwew
seem: lam
selfishness: 'awpo
send: fpe'
sense (v) 'efu
serve: kìte'e si
service: kìte'e
seven: ki
seventeen (octal: 21) mevolaw
seventeenth (number seventeen) mevolawve
seventh (number seven) kive
seventy (approx.) zam vol
shaman: tsahìk
sharp: pxi
she: po, poe
shelter (v) hawnu
shoot: (intrans.) tem. (trans.) toltem.
short (of time) yol
show (v) wìntxu
shut: (adj) tstu. (v) tstu si.
sibling: tsmuk, tsmuktu
sick: spxin
sickness: (disease) spxin. (state of being sick) spxin.
side: pa'o
sign, omen: aungia
silence: fnu
simple: ftue
sing: rol. singing (instance of): tìrusol. (art) tseo tìruso.
sister: tsmuke, tsmuk
sit: heyn
six: pukap
sixteen (octal: 20) mevol
sixteenth (number sixteen) mevolve
sixth (number six) puve
sixty (approx.) zam
size: tsawlhì'
skin (n) ta'leng
sky: taw
sleep (v) hahaw. sleep well! hivahaw nìmwey.
slow: 'ong
slowly: nìk'ong
small: (little in size) 'i. (small in quantity) hìm. (a small amount) 'it.
smart: (person) kanu. (idea, plan) sìlronsem.
smell (n) fahew
smile: (n) lrrtok. (v) lrrtok si.
smoke (n) kxener
so: (in that case) ha. even so tsalsungay. so much: txan. so that: fte. so that not: fteke.
soft: (of an object) hewne. (of a sound) 'ango.
some: -o. someone: tuteo. something: 'uo. somewhere: tsengo.
son: 'itan
song: rol, way
songchord: waytelem
soon: ye'rìn. See you soon: kìyevame.
sorry! ngaytxoa
soul: vitra
sound (n) pam
source: tsim
spaceship: tawsìp
spark (n) txepvi
speak: plltxe
spear (n) tukru
spin (v) kìm
spiral (n) heyu
spirit: tirea
spirit animal: tireaioang
spirit path: tireafya'o
spread, proliferate: vi
squad: wempongu
squirt (v) tsä'
Stairway to Heaven: iknimaya
stand (v) kllkxem
star: tan
start: (intrans.) sngä'i. (start something) sngey'i.
stay: 'awn
still: (yet) vay set. (as before) mi.
sting (v) sngap
stingbat (flying animal): riti
stomach (n) ngäng
stone (n) tskxe
stop: (v) ftang. (suspend action) fpak.
stopping: ftang. without stopping: nìlkeftang.
story, tale: vur
straight: (not crooked) yey. (upright) pxim.
strange: (unfamiliar) stxong. (odd) hiyìk.
stream: payfya
strength: txur
strike, blow (n) takuk
strike, hit (v) takuk
stringed instrument: i'en
strong: txur
student: numeyu
study: (v) ftia. (n) tìftia.
stupid: snumìna
sturmbeast (animal like cattle) talioang
subject (n) txele
succeed: flä
such: (adj) nafì'u; tsafnel, fìfnel + genitive; tsafne-, fìfne- (pl. tsayfne-, fayfne-). such as: pxel.
suffice: tam
sufficient: letam
summary: vurvi
sun: tsawke. sunrise: (see dawn). sunset: (see dusk).
Sunday (Earth calendar) trr'awve
supplies: mekre
sustain: fmal
sweet: kalin
swoop (v) tawng
synopsis: vurvi

T

tail: kxetse
take: munge. take time: krrnekx.
tale: vur
tall: tsawl
target (n) kan
teach: kar
teacher: karyu
teaching: nume
tell: peng
ten (octal: 12) vomun
tenth (number ten) vomuve
territory: kllpxìltu
test: (v) fmetok. (n) fmetok.
than: to. than all: frato.
Thanator (animal like a panther): palulukan
thank: irayo si. Thank you!: irayo!
that: tsa-. (that thing) tsa'u, tsaw. (that action) tsakem, tsakem. that one (that person) tsatu. that way: tsafya. that kind of: tsafnel + genitive, tsafne-.
that (conjunction) tsnì. (as for that) furia. (as object) futa. (as subject) fwa. (which, with a noun) a + N, N + a.
their: (animate) fe. (inanimate) se.
them (animate): (acc) fot, foti. (dat) for, foru. (after prep.) fo.
them (inanimate): (acc) sat, sati. (dat) sar, saru.
then: tsakrr
there: tsatseng, tsatseng. out there: satseng. There there!: tam tam.
therefore: tafral
these: fay+. these kinds of: fayfnel + genitive, fayfne-.
they (animate): ayfo, ayfo, fo. (those two) mefo. (those three) pxefo.
they (inanimate): (ay)sa'u, (ay)saw. (those two) mesa'u, mesaw. (those three) pxesa'u, pxesaw. [stress?]
"they" (unspecified agent, 'one', 'you') fko.
thing: (object, fact, abstraction) 'u. (action) kem.
think: fpìl
thinking (way of thinking) fpìlfya
third (number three) pxeyve
thirteen (octal: 15) vomrr
thirteenth (number thirteen) vomrrve
thirty (approx.) tsìvol
this: (with a noun) fì-. (action) kem. (thing) 'u. (one) po. this way: fya. this kind of: fìfnel + genitive, fìfne-. this morning: fìrewon. this afternoon: fìha'ngir. this evening:kaym.
those: tsay+. (those things) sa'u. those kinds of: tsayfnel + genitive, tsayfne-. (See also 'that', 'they'.)
thought: fpìl. thought pattern: fpìlfya.
thousand: (approx.) mevozam. four thousand (approx.) zazam
thread (n) kìng
three: pxey. three hundred (approx.) mrrzam. three thousand (approx.) puvozam. (of other nouns) pxe+.
through: kxam
throat: flew
throw: tsre'i
thunder (sound of) kxangangang!
Thursday (Earth calendar) trrmrrve
thus: fya, tsafya
tie: tie down, fasten: yän. tie up, bind: yìm.
time (n) krr. take time: krrnekx. all the time: frakrr.
time (adv) alo, -lo. 5 times: alo amrr. 1 time (once): 'awlo. 2 times (twice) melo. each/every time: fralo. at all times: frakrr. next time: alo ahay. last time: alo aham.
tired: ngeyn
to: (direction) ne. (recipient) -ur, -ru. (infinitive) fte [with subjunctive].
today: trr
tonight: txon
toe: venzek
together: 'awsiteng
tomorrow: trray. tomorrow night: txonay. tomorrow morning: rewonay. tomorrow afternoon: ha'ngiray. tomorrow evening: kaymay.
tongue: ftxì
too: (as well) teng. (excessively) hawng.
tooth: sre'
top (n) pa
torn apart, divided: ke'aw
totality: wotx
touch (v) 'ampi
track, follow: sutx
training: tskxekeng
trap (v) syep
travel: sop
treachery: kavuk
tree: utral. Tree of Souls: Vitrautral. Tree of Voices: Utral Aymokriyä. Hometree: Kelutral. [stress?]
trip (journey) sop
true: ngay
truly: ngay
trunk (of a tree) tangek
truth: ngay
try (v) fmi
Tuesday (Earth calendar) trrpxeyve
tune: be in tune, be aware: kame
turn (v) mìn
turn (n) alo. my turn: alo oeyä.
twelfth (number twelve) vove
twelve (octal: 14) vosìng
twentieth (number twenty) mevove
twenty: (exact, octal: 24) mevosìng. (approx.) mevol fu pxevol
twice: melo
twilight: See 'dusk', 'dawn'.
two: mune. two hundred (approx.) pxezam. two thousand (approx.) tsìvozam. the two of us: moe, oeng ['weng']. the two of you: menga. [stress?] the two of them: mefo, mesa. (of other nouns) me+.
type, kind: fnel. what type? fnepe, pefnel

U

ugly (sight or sound) vä'
unambiguously: pxi
understand: (a fact) tslam. (a person) kame.
understanding: (comprehension) tslam. (wise) txantslusam.
Understood!: tslolam
unequal: keteng
unfamiliar: stxong
unfold: 'ong
unfortunately: nìkeftxo
unhappy: keftxo
unhealthy: kelfpomtokx
unknown: stxong
unpleasant to the senses: vä'
unquote: sìk
until: vaykrr. until now: vay set. until then: tsakrrvay
up: upward: ne. up among: fkip. up to (place, time, or number): vay.
upright: pxim, nìpxim
upset (sad) keftxo
us (excluding you): (acc) ayoeti (ayweti). (dat) ayoeru, ayoer (ayweru, aywer). (after prep.) ayoe.
us (including you): multiple forms, including (acc) awngati. (dat) awngaru, awngar. (after prep.) awnga, ayoeng (ayweng).
use (v) sar
useful: lesar
using: fa

V

valid: kangay
vegetable (food) fkxen
verb: kemlì'u
versus:
vertical: pxim. vertically: pxim.
very: txan
via: ì+, ìlä+
village: tsray
violet (flower, approx.) seze
viperwolf: nantang
vision (spiritual) äie
visit (v) frrfen
visitor: frrtu
voice (n) mokri

W

wait, wait for: pey
walk (v) ran
want: new
war: tsam. war party: tsampongu.
warrior: tsamsiyu
was: lamu, lolu. wasn't it? kefya srak? kefyak?.
wash: yur. (oneself) pur.
wasp (approx) zize'
watch: (look at) nìn. watch out: nari si. watch it! oìsss!, tsa-hey!, wiya!, saa!
water: pay
way: fya'o. No way! (vulgar) pxasìk. give way: tìng tseng. way of thinking: fpìlfya.
we (but not you): ayoe. we two moe. we three pxoe.
we two (you and I): oeng [weng]. (formal) ohe ngenga. we, all of us (including you) awnga, ayoeng
weak: meyp
weave: ftxu
weaver: ftxuyu
Wednesday (Earth calendar) trrtsìve
weep: tsngawvìk
well: (adv) nìltsan. as well: teng. (See also 'healthy'.)
well: (n) ramunong. Well of Souls: Ayvitrayä Ramunong. [stress?]
well (sentence opener) tse
well-being: fpom
were: lamu, lolu. weren't they? kefya srak? kefyak?.
what?: (action) pehem?, kempe?. (thing) peu?, 'upe?. (word, utterance) pe'u?, lì'upe?. (what kind?) fnepe, pefnel. (with other nouns) pe-, -pe?. what? you call that a ...? (disparagement) pak.
what a ...! (praise) nang.
when: (not a question) a krr, krr a. (if) txo.
when?: pehrr?, krrpe?
where?: peseng?, tsengpe?
whether: san srake, ftxey
which?: pe+, -pe. which kind? fnepe, pefnel. which day (of the week, month)? trrpeve
which (not a question) a + N
while: tengkrr [with the imperfective for the -ing verb]
white: teyr
who?: pesu?, tupe?
whole: (n) wotx. (adj) 'änsyem.
why?: pelun?, lumpe?
wind (n) hufwe
wing: tsyal
wise: txantslusam
wish (v) rangal. I wish ...: rangal.
with: (accompaniment) hu. (by means of) fa.
without: luke
wolf (approx.) nantang
word: 'u
work: (n) kangkem. (v) work: kangkem si.
world (physical) kifkey
worm: ngawng. (hallucinogenic) eltungawng.
worst: 'e'al
worthy: pxan
wow!: tewti!
write: pamrel si
writing: pamrel
wrong: (incorrect) keyawr. (an error) kxey. do wrong: kxey si. you're wrong: ngaru tìkxey

Y

yeah: sran
year: sìt
yellow: rim. in yellow: rim.
yes: srane
yesterday: trram. yesterday night: txonam. yesterday morning: rewonam. yesterday afternoon: ha'ngiram. yesterday evening: kaymam.
yet: (still) mi. not yet: vay set (with negative verb).
you (sg.) nga. (honorific form) ngenga. you two: menga. you three: pxenga. you all: aynga. you (unspecified; 'one', 'they') fko. [stress?]
young: 'ewan
your: nge. (formal) ngenge. [stress?]
yucky: vä'

Z

zero: kew

Discourse particles

The following exclamations have no easy translation into English. They stand as a clause of their own:

of consternation (it can't be!): au
war cry (alala!) ìley
of pity (poor thing!): keftxo
of anger or annoyance (aargh!) oìsss
vulgar (screw that!) pxasìk
alarm cry; call to defense: rawke
as a threat: saa
upon exertion (oomph!) sau
soothing (there there!) tam tam
of surprise and pleasure (wow!) tewti
of warning or frustration (oy!) tsa-hey, wiya

(See also 'yes', 'no', 'yeah', 'please', 'thank you', 'sorry!', 'forgive me!', 'right?', 'okay', 'understood', 'don't!', 'down!', 'well', 'hello', 'goodbye'.)

The following emotive particles occur at the end of a clause:

soliciting agreement (Let's X; X, eh?) ko
surprise, exclamation, encouragement (Oh my! What an X!) nang
disparagement (Pshaw! You call that an X?) pak

Others help the grammatical flow of discourse:

direct address (O!) ma
continuation (And you?) tut