Mirad/Grammar

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

Spelling[edit]

The author of Unilingua, Agapoff, uses a double quote to signal capitalization and thus dispenses with all majuscules. In this Mirad textbook, however, majuscules (upper case graphemes) are used and capitalization adheres to the American English model.
In this book, the mostly Cyrillic single-grapheme characters used by Agapoff for yodified vowels are replaced with the following system:
Pre-yodified vowels, that is, those preceded by a y-glide sound, take an acute accent:
plain vowel pre-yodified vowel
a á (ya)
e é (ye)
i í (yi)
o ó (yo)
u ú (yu)
Post-yodified vowels, that is, those followed by a y-glide sound, take a grave accent:
plain vowel post-yodified vowel
a à (ay)
e è (ey)
i ì (iy)
o ò (oy)
u ù (uy)
Circum-yodified vowels, that is those that are both preceded and followed by a y-glide sound, take a circumflex accent:
plain vowel circum-yodified vowel
a â (yay)
e ê (yey)
i î (yiy)
o ô (yoy)
u û (yuy)
A pre-yodified vowel always begins a new vowel syllabic nucleus, whereas a post-yodified vowel ends a vowel syllabic nucleus.
Upper-case vowels take the yodifying accents just as the lower-case values do (thus Á, È, Ô, etc.

Punctuation[edit]

The punctuation marks in Mirad are the same as in English. For example, a question mark (?) is used at the end of a sentence or sentence fragement to signal an interrogation.

Nouns[edit]

Structure[edit]

All nouns in their base form end in a consonant. This distinguishes them from adjectives and conjugated verbs, which end in a vowel.

Pluralization[edit]

Nouns are made plural by adding the suffix -i.
singular plural
tob man tobi men
dat friend dati friends
car instrument cari instruments

Femininization[edit]

Although nouns do not have inherent gender, the feminine or female-related counterpart of a noun can be formed by post-yodifying the ordinal (inner) vowel, that is, by adding the grave accent ` to the vowel. If the vowel is already pre-yodified (with an acute accent), then the acute accent is replaced with a circumflex (^) (circum-yodification) to show that it is both pre-yodified and post-yodified.


male-related female-related
tad father tàd mother
tob man tòb woman
tóáv sock tóâv stocking
epet bull epèt cow

Case Tagging[edit]

Nouns can take the following case endings, which are shortcuts for prepositional phrases:
case ending category base cased form
-a genetive/possessive/relative/ablative [origin] tob man toba of the man, human (adj.), man's, from the man
-u locative/dative [destination] tam house tamu to the house, (at) home, for the house
comitive [accompaniment] at I, me atà with me
instrumental [means] és work ésè through / by / via work
privative ["without"] tec meaning tecò without meaning, senseless


Examples of the genetive/possessive case:
Meira zem ce gra ama. = The earth's core is very hot.
Ata ted tome íbà. = My father lives far away.
Ed et te dad ifana? = Do you know the language of love?


Examples of the locative/dative case:
Pu tamu! = Go home!
Ít peé tamu. = She is staying at home / in the house / home.
At teaco et uda moju. = I'll see you this evening. (= at this evening)
Buu dén atu! = Give the book to me!
Ev ud ce atu? = Is this for me?


Examples of the comitive case:
Upu atà! = Come with me!
Ud ca ekpan tija tujà. = This was a life-and-death struggle.
At ubeé uda ébdren ifanà. = I am sending you this letter with love.


Examples of the instrumental case:
Et vege nacikcer anà esè. = You can get rich only through work.
It aksa koenè ván. = He succeded by hiding the truth.
Ágpar pa Parisè. = The train went through Paris.


Examples of the privative case:
Et vò vege akser nacò. = You cannot succeed without money.
Tij ifanò vò naze ser. = Life without love is not worth living.
Od et su atò? = What would you do without me.

Pronouns[edit]

Forms[edit]

All animate pronouns (those referring to people) end in t in their base form, while all inanimate pronouns (those referring to things) end in d in their base form. Pronouns can be singular or plural. All plural pronouns take the plural suffix i.
animate animate
singular plural
ot? who?, whom? oti? who all?
at I, me ati we, us
et you eti* you (pl.), you all
it he, him, that person iti they, these persons
ìt she, her ìti they (fem.)
ut this person, he uti those persons, they
ót nobody, no one óti none
át everyone, everybody, each person áti all
ót another, someone else éti others
ít such a person íti such people
ét whoever, anyone óti any
út someone, somebody úti certain people
oát not a single person, nobody, no one  
get the same person geti the same ones
oget someone else ogeti others
gat another one gati several
singular plural
od what odi what things
ad that (relative), the one adi the things that
id that idi those things
ud this udi these things
ód nothing ódi nothing
ád everything, each ádi all things
ód something else, another édi other things
íd such a thing ídi such things
éd whatever, anything édi any
úd something údi some things, certain things
oád not a single thing, nothing oádi none
ged the same thing gedi the same things
oged something else ogedi other things
gad another one gadi several things


    • Note: Agapoff prefers ait, eit, iit for ati, eti, and iti.

Inflection[edit]

All pronouns can take cases, just as nouns do:
genetive/possessive ("of")
ablative ("from")
adjectival
dative ("to/in/on/at")
locative
comitive ("with") instrumental ("by/through/via") privative ("without")
ata my, of me, from me atu to me atà with me atè by me atò without me
eta your, of you, from you etu to you età with you etè by you etò without you
ita his, of him, from him itu to him ità with you itè by him itò without him
ìta her, of her, from her ìtu to her ìtà with her ìtè by her ìtò without her
atia our, of us, from us atiu to us atià with us atiè by us atiò without us
ota whose?, of whom?, from whom? otu to whom otà with whom otè by whom otò without whom
áta everyone's átu to everyone átà with everyone átè by everyone átò without everyone
oda which, of what, from what odu to which, at which, in which odà with what? odè by what?, how? odò? without what?
ida that, of that, from that, those idu to that, at that, in that idà with that idè by that, thus idò' without that
uda this/these, of this, from this udu to/at this, therefore udà with this udè by this, thus udò without this
áda every, each, all ádu to everything, in everyting ádà with everything ádè by everything, by all means ádò without everything
óda not, not a ódu to nothing ódà with nothing ódè by nothing ódò without nothing
oáda not a single, no oádu in not a single one, to none oádà with nothing oádè by nothing, in no way --
éda any, whichever édu to anything édà with whatever édè by whatever, however édò without whatever
úda some, a certain údu at a certain thing údà with something údè by something, somehow údò without something
geda same, the same gedu to the same thing gedà with the same thing gedè by the same thing gedò without the same thing
ogeda different, the other, another ogedu to another thing ogedà with another thing ogedè by something else ogedò without another thing

Possessive Pronouns[edit]

Any of the above pronominal adjective forms can be substantivized by adding -c. The resulting possessive pronouns can then take the plural affix and case endings.
singular plural
atac mine ataci mine
etac yours etaci yours
itac his itaci his
ìtac hers ìtaci hers
atiac ours atiaci ours
etiac yours etiaci yours
itiac theirs itiaci theirs
ìtiac theirs ìtiaci theirs
utac one's utaci one's
otac? whose? otaci whose
átac everyone's átaci everyone's
ótac nobody's ótaci nobody's
odac? which one odaci which ones
ódac the other one ódaci the other ones
udac this one udaci these
idac that one idaci those
ádac each one ádaci all of them
édac any one, whichever one édaci whichever ones
Any of the above substantival pronouns can take case endings:
Mirad English
ataca of mine
otacà with whose
átacu to everyone's
udacò without this one
Examples:


Mirad English
Uda tam ce atac. That house is mine.
Oda déni et dédaé? Which books have you read?
Ída tej aju vò teacâe. Such a life has not been seen before.
Buu atu udi! Give me those!
Áda tej nazace. Every life counts.
Ádac nazace. Each one counts.
Áta tej nazace. Everyone's life counts.
Átac nazace. Everyone's counts.
Áda évcunuti kode. All lawyers lie.
Áti kode. All of them lie.
Át kodeé. Everyone is lying.
Ád ce kod. Everything is a lie.
Mar ce zem áda. The sun is the center of everything.
Ót ége kaer if ádu. One can find pleasure in everything.
If ége uper bi éd. Pleasure can come from anything.
Ud ce ga fia vél id (or: ga fia idu). This is better than that.
Od ce eta dún? What is your name?
At vage éd et vage. I want what(ever) you want.
At vò ta ev it upo. I didn't know whether he would come.
At ta ad it upo. I knew (that) he would come.
Ad tej ce gúa vò vege vodé. That life is hard cannot be denied.
Ev it íztejo vò twe. Whether he will survive is unknown.
At vò te ev it íztejo. I don't know if he'll survive.
Ad ìt sa ce ota seun. What she did is nobody's business.
Atac ce ga aga vé etac. Mine is bigger than yours.
Odac ce etac. Which one is yours?
Édac cu fia atu. Whichever one would be fine for me.
Otac ce ud? Whose is this?
Otaci ce udi? Whose are these?
Ev et co ata dat? Are you going to be my friend?
Oádad ifca atu. I did not like a single one.
Odè ìt tujswa? How (by what) was she killed?
Otà et pa? With whom did you go?
...otacò ait vò vegu íztejer. ...without whose we could not survive.
Odu et sa id? Why (for what) did you do it (that)?
Iti údè kaa mep. They somehow found the way.
Ébdren drwa atà otè? The letter was written to me by whom?
Ota tamu et peé? To whose house are you going?
Otacu et peé? To whose are you going?

Correlatives[edit]

By "correlatives" is meant a set of functional words in the languages than can be arranged in a matrix, all sharing a set of "deictic" or "specifier" prefixes. For example, the English words "which, what, where, why, when, how, who, whether, etc." can be considered part of a matrix of correlatives, because they all ask a question about topics such as "place", "time", "manner", and are therefore called "interrogative correlatives." The situation is similar in Unilingua. Note, however, that some of the correlative words in the chart below are slightly different from those invented by the original author of Unilingua.

Deictic morphemes (specifiers)[edit]

category deictic morpheme
interrogative od- which, what
relative ad- the, the one which
proximal ud- this
distal id- that
intensive íd- so, such a
generic úd- some, a certain
distributive ád- all, every, each
indeterminate éd- any, whatever
negative ód- no, not any
identical ged- same, selfsame
non-indentical oged- different, other

Dimensional Classifiers[edit]

The above deictic morphemes combine with the following dimensional classifiers to form a whole matrix of functional deictic correlatives:
category classifier short version
person -t
thing -d
place -em m
time -job j
manner/means
quality/kind -én
quantity -gan
degree -nog
frequency -jig

Matrix of Deictic Correlatives[edit]

thing person adjective place time manner kind frequency quantity degree
od what ot who oda which odmu where odju when odè how odéna what kind of odjigu how often odganu how much odnogu how
ud this ut this person uda this udmu here udju now udè this way udéna this kind of udjigu this often udganu this much udnogu to this extent
id that it that person, he ida that idmu there idju then idè that way, thus idéna that kind of idjigu that often idganu that much idnogu to that extent
íd such a thing ít such a person ída such, such a ídmu at such a place ídju at such a time ídè in such a way, so ídéna such a ídjigu so often ídganu so much ídnogu so
úd something út someone úda some, a certain údmu somewhere údju sometime údè somehow údéna some kind of údjigu sometimes údganu some údnogu somewhat
ád everything át everyone áda every, each ádmu everywhere ádju every time, always ádè in every way ádéna every kind of ádjigu at all times ádganu all of ádnogu completely
éd whatever, anything ét whoever, anyone éda whichever, any édmu wherever, anywhere édju whenever, anytime édè however, in any way édéna whatever kind of édjigu however often édganu however much, any édnogu to any extent
ód nothing ót nobody óda no, not a ódmu nowhere ódju never ódè in no way ódéna no kind of ódjigu not once ódganu not any, no ódnogu not at all
ged the same thing get the same person, self geda the same, the very gedmu at the same place gedju at the same time gedè in the same way gedéna the same kind of gedjigu as often gedganu, ge as much gednogu, ge to the same degree, as
oged something else oget someone else ogeda the other, another ogedmu elsewhere ogedju at another time ogedè elsewise ogedéna another kind of ogedjigu at a different frequency ogedganu not as much ogednogu otherwise

Basic deictic adjectives / Determiners[edit]

category determiner example
indefinite/unary a a a tam a house
definite/relative ada the ada tam the house, ada tami the houses
interrogative oda which oda dén which book, oda déni which books
proximal uda this, these uda pat this bird, uda pati these birds
distal ida that, those ida pat that bird, ida pati those birds
negative óda no óda mep no road, óda mepi no roads
totalative áda every, all, each áda mep every road, áda mepi all roads
indeterminate éda any, whichever éda voz any color, éda vozi whichever colors
intensive ída such a, such ída dún such a name, ída dúni such names
partitive úda some, a certain, certain úda tob some man, úda tobi certain men
identical geda same geda dún the same name
non-identical ogeda different, other ogeda dún different name, another name
quasi-identical gèda similar gèda ceus a similar sound
superior ga more ga nac vé at more money than I
equal ge as much, as many ge job vé et vage as much time as you want
inferior go less, fewer go és less work
majorative gla a lot, much gla if a lot of fun
quasi-majorative glà a goodly portion of, several glà jubi several days
excessive gra too much, too many gra tel too much food
maximal most gá poti most animals
sufficient enough, quite a bit gé job enough time
minorative glo very little, very few glo auti very few individuals
insufficient gro too little, too few gro ék too little effort
minimal the least gó ék the least effort


Note: Nouns in Mirad are not normally accompanied by a definite article (the) or an indefinite article (a/an). The word tob can mean man, a man, or the man, depending on circumstances. Where further definition is required, a, the numeric or deictic adjective one, can be used for the indefinite article, while ada, the deictic adjective the can be used for the definite article.

Deitic pronouns[edit]

Inanimate pronouns[edit]
singular plural
od? what? odi? what (things)
ad the thing (that) adi the things (that)
ud this udi these
id that idi those
ád everything ádi all things
éd anything, whatever édi any things
íd such, such a thing ídi such things
ód nothing ódi none
úd something údi certain things
ged the same thing gedi the same things
oged another, something else ogedi other things
gèlac a similar thing gèlaci similar things
gac more gaci more things
gec as much geci as many things
goc less goci fewer things
glac a lot, much glaci many things
glàc a goodly portion glàci several things
grac too much graci too many things
gác the most gáci most things
géc enough, quite a bit géci quite a few things
gloc very little gloci few things
groc too little groci too few things
góc the least góic as few things as possible
Animate pronouns[edit]
singular plural
ot? who? oti who (pl.)
at I ati we
et you eti you (pl.)
ut this person, this one uti these
it that person, that one iti those
át everyone áti all people
ét anyone, whoever éti any people
ít such a person íti such people
ót not a single person, noboby óti none
út somebody úti certain people
get the same person, self geti the same people, themselves
oget' the other person, someone else ogeti others, other people
ìt that female,she, her ìti they (f.), them
ùt this female, she, her ùti they (f.), them
aut person, individual auti persons, people
out nobody, no one outi no people, none
  ga auti more people
  ge auti as many people
  go auti fewer people
  gla auti many people
  glà auti several people
  gra auti too many people
  gá auti most people
  gé auti quite a few people
  glo auti few people
  gro auti too few people
  gó auti as few people as possible


Note: As with all pronouns and nouns, the above pronouns can appear in the genetive/ablative/possessive case (-a) or dative/locative case (u). For example: otu to whom, ota whose, áta everyone's, gla autia most people's, ata my, etu to you. The possessive adjective forms can, in turn, be substantivized by adding -c (thing): atac mine, atacu to mine, otac whose, getac the same person's, etc.

Determiners of Place[edit]

place
odmu? where?, whither? (also: odma? from where?, whence?)
udmu here (also: udma from here, hence)
idmu there (also: idma from there, thence)
admu at/in/to the place where (relative)
ódmu nowhere
ádmu everywhere
édmu anywhere, whereever
ídmu at/in/to such a place
ogedmu elsewhere (ogedem alibi)
údmu somewhere
gedmu at/in/to the same place (also: gedma from the same place)
gèdmu at/in/to a similar place (also: gèdma from a similar place)

Determiners of Time[edit]

time
odju? when? (also: odja whence?, ji odjob since when?, etc.)
udju now (also: udja hence)
idju then (also: idja thence)
adju when, at the time when (relative)
ódju never
ádju each time, everytime, always, ever
édju anytime, whenever
ídju at/in/to such a time
údju sometime
gedju at the same time
ogedju at another time

Determiners of Quality[edit]

kind
odéna? what kind of?
udéna this kind of
idéna that kind of
adéna the/what kind of (relative)
ódéna no kind of
ádéna every kind of
édéna any/whatever kind of
ídéna such
údéna some kind of
gedéna the same kind of
gèdéna a similar kind of
ogedéna another kind of

Determiners of Degree[edit]

degree
odnogu? how (...big, ...little, etc.)?, to what extent?
udnogu this, to this degree
idnogu that, to that extent
adnogu how, to what degree, to the extent (that...) (relative)
ódnogu not at all, to no extent
ádnogu completely, to the full extent
édnogu however, to whatever extent
ídnogu so, to such an extent
údnogu in some way, somehow
ge, genogu equally, to the same degree, as
oge, ogenogu unequally, to a different extent
gè, gènogu similarly, to a similar extent
ga, ganogu more, to a greater extent
gla, glanogu very, greatly, very much so
gra, granogu too, to too great an extent, overly, extremely
go, gonogu less, to a lesser extent
glo, glonogu slightly, to a small extent
gro, gronogu to too small a degree, under
gá, gánogu maximally, to the greatest extent possible
gó, gónogu minimally, to the smallest extent possible
gé, génogu enough, rather, pretty, sufficiently, quite
ogé, ogénogu insufficiently
fià, finogu to a good extent, well
fuà, funogu to a bad extent, poorly
végà, véga nogu proportionately
vácà, váca nogu to the right extent, properly, duly
vócà, vóca nogu to the wrong extent, disproportionately, unduly
anogu primarily
enogu secondarily
uja nogu ultimately

Determiners of Manner, Means[edit]

manner
odè? how?, in what way?
udè this way, thus
idè that way, thus
adè how, in the way that, as
ódè in no way
ádè in every way
édè in whatever way, however
ídè so, in such a way
údè somehow'
gedè in the same way, also
ogedè otherwise
gèdè similarly, likewise

Determiners of Quantity[edit]

The noun following the determiner is in the singular if a mass noun (odganu dril how much ink) or in the plural if a countable noun (odganu jubi how many years).
quantity
odganu?* how much, how many
udganu this much, this many
idganu that much, that many
adganu how much, how many, the amount/number that
ódganu no, not any, no amount of
ádganu all
édganu any, however much, however many
ídganu so much, so many
údganu a certain amount of, some, some number of'
ge, geganu as much, as many
oge, ogeganu a different quanity of
ga more
go less, fewer
gla a lot (of), much, many
glà a goodly amount (of), quite a few
glo little, too many
glò barely, scarcely, hardly
most
gro too little, too few
as little/few as possible
a fair amount (of), enough, quite a lot (of)
several
* Literally: in what quantity, as in Odganu nac et àce? How much money do you have?. Used substantively, Odganu becomes Odgan, as in Odgan et àce? How much do you have? If followed by a mass noun, gla means much; if followed by a counting noun, gla means many; if followed by an adjective or adverb, it means very. All of the ga...ge...go words are multifunctional in this way.

Determiners of Frequency[edit]

frequency (jig = rate, frequency
odjigu? how often?(lit: on how many occasions)
udjigu this often
idjigu that often
adjigu as often as, the rate that
ódjigu never
ádjigu every time
édjigu however often, anytime
ídjigu so often
údjigu with some frequency, sometimes'
gejigu as often
ogejigu at a different rate
gajigu more often
gojigu less often
glajigu (very) often, frequently
glojigu seldom, rarely, not very often
grajigu too often
gájigu as often as possible
grojigu too seldom
gójigu as seldom as possible
géjigu quite often, rather often, frequently enough

Prepositions and relational adverbs[edit]

positive   middle   negative  
ab on, at the top of eb between ob off, at the bottom of
áb above, up éb amid, among ób below, down
with, along by, via without
ib away from ---   ub toward
íb far from ---   úb near to
bi from, of be at bu to
starting with, since ---   ending with, up to, as far as
án together ---   ón apart
za in front of ze in the middle of zo behind
forward across back
áz flush with éz in óz out
iza straight --- uza roundabout
íz beyond ---   úz around, about
zi right ---   zu left
all over through zúa round
ja before je during, while jo after
ahead (in time) throughout back (in time)
ji since --- ju until
av for ev if ov against

Compound prepositions[edit]

Prepositions can be compounded for more detailed senses:
compound preposition example
ézbu into It tôapa ézbu tim. He walked into the room.
ézbi in from At upa ézbi mamil. I came in from the rain.
ézbe in (location) Dén ce ézbe ném. The book is inside the box.
ózbu out to Po ózbu ekem. Go out to the playground.
ózbi out of, out from It upea ózbi ita ésim. He was coming out of his office.
ózbe out in (as in: out in the backyard) Potòg ce ózbe mamil. The pet is out in the rain.
ábzè over Mampar pa ábzè tam. The plane flew over the house.
óbzè under At tôapa óbzè domep. I walked under the highway.
zèbu across to At tôapa zèbu ogeda kum. I walked over to the other side.
zèbi across from It beme zèbi at. He sits across from me.
zòbu back to Ait pee zòbu Berlin. We are going back to Berlin.
zòbe back at Ait ce zòbe tom. We are back at home.
zòbi back from Ait ce zóbi Berlin. We are back from Berlin.
zàbu ahead to Teaso zàbu eta oj. Look forward to your future.
zàbi ahead of Ed et ce zàbi at? Are you ahead of me?
ónbi apart from Pa ónbi ogeti. It went apart from the others.
ánbe together with Upo ánbe at. Come along with me.
izbu straight to Po izbu ótotem! Go straight to hell!
izbi straight from Ìt upa izbi nunem. She came straight from the market.
izbe right at At ca izbe zem. I was right at the center.
zabi in front of At ce zabi et. I am in front of you.
zobi in back of Et ce zobi at.' You are in back of me.
abu onto Bo dén abu cem. Put the book onto the table.
abe on (at) Dén ce abe cem. The book is on the table.
obi off of Bio dén obi cem. Take the book off of the table.
obe on the underside of Ece úd obe cem. There is something on the underside of the table.
ábu up to Po ábi eta tim. Go up to your room.
ábe up in Od ce íd ábe mam? What is that up in the sky?
ábi up from It upa ábi aaned. He came up from the first floor.
ábè up (via) At tôapa ábè meb. I walked up the mountain.
óbu down to Upo óbu momtim. Come down to the basement.
óbe down in At ce óbe momtim. I am down in the basement.
óbi dowm from Upo óbi mamtim. Come down from the attic.
óbè down (via) It igpa óbè meb. He hurried down the mountain.
óbézbu down into Pa óbézbu mom. He went down into the underground.
úzbu around to Po úzbu ogeda kum tama. Go around to the other side of the house.
úzbè around (via) Par pa úzbè tam. The car went around the house.
ízbi past, beyond Par pa ízbi ait. The car went past us.
ízbu on to At pa ízbu Kanad. I went on to Canada.

Postpositions / Cases[edit]

The following case endings or postpositions are shortcuts for prepositions:


short form long form
-a of, from bi
-u to, on, at bu to or be at / in / on
with
without
by, via, through, per
For example, the following expressions are equivalent:
short form long form
be tam bi X at the house of X tamu Xa
bi dom bu dom from town to town doma domu
tej bò if life without pleasure tej ifò
bè Paris by way of Paris Parisè
bà at with me atà

Other Prepositional Constructions[edit]

vélu regarding, concerning, about, with respect to
gè ov despite
kumu next to, beside, along, on the side of
ón bi apart from
án bu together with
gal in addition to, plus, including, besides
gol minus, except
gar times, multiplied by
gor divided by
zamu...-a in the face of (also: be zamu bi)
cànu ...-a in the guise of
canu ...-a in the form of
debanu ...-a under the auspices of
ûb in the presence of, in the face of
dida ...-è at the request of
iju...-a at the end of
tecu...-a in the sense of
av búun...-a for the sake of
... thanks to
... along the lines of
izanu...-a in the direction of
zág along
kumnidu ...-a on the edge of, on the brink of
genidu ...-a in line with, parallel to
úbanu ...-a in the vicinity of, around
gáanu ...-a in excess of
bi abem...-a off the top of
bi kumnidu...-a from the brink of
dudea...-u in response to
ovbea in opposition to
... in contrast to
lovanu...-a in spite of
oejanu...-a in the absence of
usu ...-a because of
usu ...-a on account of
gè ov notwithstanding
...-è per
via
vél than, compared to, relative to
adju ...-a at the time of
admu ...-a at the place of

Using prepositions[edit]

Prepositions go between the two elements they link, just as in English. Here are some examples:
Mirad English
Odju et po bu déntam?(or: déntamu) When are you going to the library?
Uda bun ce av et (or: etu). This gift is for you.
Dyen ca ab cem (or: cemu). The book was on the table.
Upu bay at (or: atà). Come with me.
Iyt igpa ub titam. She ran toward the school.
Et co éz gela titim. You will be in the same class.
Tob tyoyapa ózbi tam. The man walked out of the house.
Mampar zaymampa ábzè dom. The plane flew over the city.
Nidpar pa bi him bu hum. The train went from here to there.
Et voy ibo bun ju zemoj. You won't receive the gift until midnight.

Prepositions prefixed to verbs[edit]

As adverbials, many prepositions can be prefixed to other words, especially to verb bases. The following is a list of per (go) and ber (put) verbs with prepositional prefixes. Note that prepositions ending in b drop the b before the verb bases per and ber.


intransitive   transitive  
aper get on aber put on
eper stop eber stop
oper get off ober take off
áper rise áber raise
éper intervene éber block
óper descend óber lower
iper go (away) iber receive
uper come uber send
úper approach úber bring near
íper go away íber take away
ézper enter ézber bring in
ízper surpass ízber take beyond
zéper go through zéber pull through
zèper transit zèber take across
ánper meet ánber unite
ónper separate ónber separate
izper go straight/ head (for) izber guide
zúper roll zúber turn
ózper exit ózber take out
zòper return, go back zòber take back
zòpuer arrive back zòbuer give back
zateaser look forward zoteaser look behind
zèteaser look across zíteaser look all around
zéteaser look through ízteaser look beyond
ézteaser look in ózteaser look out
ábteaser look up óbteaser look down
ibteaser look away izteaser look straight (ahead)
ziteaser look left zuteaser look right
uzteaser look askance úzteaser look around
avdaer speak for ovdaer speak against

Personal pronouns and pronominal adjectives[edit]

Personal pronouns have three persons (represented by the ordinal vowels a (1st), e (2nd), and i (3rd).
The plural forms have the suffix i.
There are also three case forms, which are alternate ways of expressing prepositional relations: Add -a for the genetive/possessive (of, from); -u for the locative/dative (to, at, 'for); (short for ) for with; è (short for ) for through/by, and ò (short for ) for without.
Note: These are the same case endings that can be added to any nouns. For example, tamu (to the house), taébò (without hair), teda (father's).
nominative/accusative genetive/possessive dative/locative comitive instrumental privative
at (I, me) ata (my, mine) atu (to/for me) atà (with me) atè (through/by me) atò (without me)
et (you) eta (your, yours) etu (to/for you) età (with you) etè (through/by you) etò (without you)
it (he, him) ita (his) itu (to/for him) ità (with him) itè (through/by him) itò (without him)
ìt (she,her) ìta (her, hers) ìtu (to/for her) ìtà (with her) ìtè (through/by her) ìtò (without her)
ati (we, our) atia (our, ours) atiu (to/for us) atià (with us) atiè (through/by us) atiò (without us)
eti (you [all]) etia (your, yours) etiu (to/for you) etià (with you) etiè (through/by you) etiò (without you)
iti (they, them (m. or m/f)) itia (their) itiu (to/for them) itià (with them) itiè (through/by them) itiò (without them)
ìt (they (f.)) ìtia (their) ìtiu (to/for them) ìtià (with them) ìtiè (through/by them) ìtiò (without them)


Possessive pronouns are expressed with the addition of -c to the genetive/possessive ending:
English Mirad
This book is mine. Uda dén ce atac.
Those books are ours. Ida déni ce atiaci.
Theirs has not arrived. Itiac vò puaé.
Theirs have arrived. Itiaci puaé.
Is this yours or mine? Ev ud ce etacatac?
Will you come to mine tomorrow? Ev et upo atacu zajubu?
Nothing will happen without yours. ód swo etacò.

Conjunctions[edit]

Correlative Conjunctions/Adverbs[edit]

positive neutral negative
va yes ve maybe vo no
indeed possibly not
và...và both...and vè...vè either...or vò...vò neither...nor
av that, so that, for ev whether, if ov lest, against
à and è or ò but
with by, through, via without
ga more (than) ge as, equal to go less (than
most enough least
also, moreoever even, including except, but
gla very gle somewhat glo slightly, little, not very
gra too (much) gre just, exactly gro too little
Note: oev = unless; ad means that as the conjunction introducing a factual clause, not to be confused with av meaning so that introducing a subjunctive or unreal clause.
English Mirad
I do want to go, but I cannot. At vage per ò at vege.
Do you know whether he's coming. Ev et te ev it upo?
It will either rain or snow. mamilo màlómo.
If it rains, I'll not come. Ev mamilo at vò upo.
No, it's not true that he died. Vo, ce váa ad it tuja.
My father and mother are still alive. Ata ted à tèd gaju tejeé.
Is it true that you were you born here? Ev et tija udmu?
We did not know (that) you were married. Ati ta ad et ce tadca.
The fact that you work is not the issue. Ad et ése vò ce kos.
Whether you work or play is more important. Et ése eke ce ga kíta.
Unless you go to school you will never learn anything. Oev et po titamu et ódju tio úd.
In order to learn you must study more. Av ticer et ége ga tier.
Everyone except you is ready. Yat et ce perfia.
Did you want me to come long?' Ev et vaga av at àpu?
I want you not to leave. At vage ov et piu.
Don't tell her what I did. Ov du ìtu od at sa.
Are you for or against me? Ev et av è ov at?

Other Conjunctional Expressions[edit]

conjunction example
ad that Ati ta ad it upo. We knew (that) he would come.
av so that At egdo id av et tico. I will repeat it so that you'll understand.
avad because It tuja bi us avad it vò abá ígtef. He died because he was not wearing a helmet.
ju until Ju et uvdo at vò teapo et. Until you apologize, I will not visit you.
ji since Ji et pua at cee iva. Since you arrived, I've been happy.
ánad even though, although Ánad et oka, at gaju fítce et. Even though you lost, I still respect you.
ovad despite the fact that Ovad et zageda, et vò upa. Despite the fact that you agreed in advance, you didn't come.
igjo as soon as Igjo ìt pua at gafi teca. As soon as she arrived, I felt better.
váfà ge just as Váfà ge at jada, ija mamiler. Just as I predicted, it started raining.
ge ev as if Ìt teubozá ge ev ìt ca iva. She smiled as if she were happy.
ev whether At vò te ev mamilo. I don't know whether it will rain.
ev if Et zàpo ev et éko. You will advance if you try.
à and Et à at ce gá fia. You and I are the best.
è or Et vege jobier è kobier; ce eta kebi. You can borrow or steal; it's your choice.
kéà ad in the event that Kéà ad mamilo, aúbio eta mamilovar. In the event that it should rain, bring along your umbrella.
fiákea av in the hope that It nucbia drénet fiákea av it ako. He bought a ticket in the hope that he would win.
fúnea ov for fear that It ézpa fúnea ov mamilo. He went inside for fear that it might rain.
ov lest Bono ov et tíjso lopét. Stay calm lest you awake the snake.
ónad aside from the fact that Yonad gaijop mamile, doma mamecan ce gla fia. Aside from the fact that it rains occasionally, the city's weather is very nice.
tea ad knowing that At vage tujer tea ad at po totamu. I want to die knowing that I will go to heaven.

Verbs[edit]

Verbs in Mirad are conjugated for tense (present, past, future), mood (indicative, conditional/imperative/subjunctive/jussive), voice (active, passive), and finiteness. The verbal system is perfectly regular and predictable.
The infinitive, which serves as the dictionary lookup form, always ends in -er. The stem, therefore, is the infinitive without the -er ending. For example, the stem of the verb buner (to push) is bun. The stem is used as the base of all conjugated verb forms.

Finite forms[edit]

Finite verb forms are modulated for tense based on the three-way vowel distinction a (present), e (past), and o (future).
A fourth ending, u is used for the equivalent of the English conditionals, subjunctives, and imperatives.
Verbs can be further modulated for progressive, anterior (perfect), and imminent senses through compounding.
Endings do not change depending on the subject person. For example, unlike in English where am, are, and is are used in the present depending on the subject, the Unilingua verb cer has one present indicative form of to be for all persons: ce.
Mirad English
at ce I am
et ce you are
it ce he is
ìt ce she is
id ce that is, it is
ud ce this is
ot ce who is?
ati ce we are
eti ce you (all) are
iti ce they are
íti ce they are
oti ce who are?
át ce everyone is
ét ce whoever/anyone is
ód ce nothing is
apeti ce horses are
Simple tense forms[edit]
The simple tense verb forms are generated by adding the tense markers a, e, o, or the conditional marker u to the stem of the verb. For example, the stem of the verb ter to know is t and the inflected forms of the simple tenses are as follows:
Active voice forms[edit]
ending meaning example
e present It te. He knows.
a past At ta. I knew.
o future Et to. You will know.
u conditional Iti tu. They would know.
Non-indicative forms[edit]
The u ending is not only used for the conditional as above, but also non-indicatives moods such as the imperative and and subjunctive. The conditional form without a subject is used for imperatives (direct commands). Positive subjunctives and jussives are expressed with the use of the affirmative jussive conjunction av (for, so that, let) followed by the subject and the verb in the conditional.
pattern meaning example
Vu direct command Aku! (short for Av et aku!) Win!.
av N Vu may N V Av ati aku! May we win!.
av N Vu let N V Av it upu. Let him come.
av N Vu wishes, etc. At vàge (av) et piu. I wish you would leave.
Negative subjunctives and jussives are expressed with the use of the negative jussive conjunction ov (against, lest) followed by the subject and the verb in the conditional.
pattern meaning example
ov Vu direct command Ov oku!. Don't lose!
ov N Vu may N V Ov ati oku! May we NOT lose!.
ov N Vu lest N V Ov it upu. Don't let him come.
ov N Vu wishes, etc. At vayge ov et piu. I wish you would NOT leave (lit: I wish lest you leave).
Unreal conditionals are expressed with the conditional conjunction ev (if, whether) followed by the subject and the verb in the conditional (-u) in both the main and subordinate clause..
pattern meaning example
ev N Vu, N Vu... if N were..., N would... Ev at cu edeb, at ívsu it. If I were king, I would free him.
Illative patterns[edit]
Interrogative[edit]
Beginning a sentence with the conditional conjunction ev (whether, if) makes the sentence into a yes/no question:
pattern meaning example
ev + VP Is it true that...? Ev et aka? Did you win?
Negative[edit]
Use the negative adverb voy (not) in front a verb to negate it:
pattern meaning example
vò + V negative Et vò ako. You will not win.
ev + negVP negative interrogative Ev et vò akeé? Aren't you winning?
Affirmative[edit]
Similary, the positive adverb vay' (indeed) is used in various combinations to qualify verbs. Like (not), this adverb immediate preceeds the verb form.
ending meaning example
và + V affirmative At và aka. I did win. / I won indeed.
Potential[edit]
Used the potential adverb (maybe) in front of a verb to qualify it as potential or possible (like English may):
ending meaning example
vè + V potential It vè ako He may win!.
ev + VP negative potential interrogative Ev et vè vò akaú? Might'nt you have won?
Passive voice forms[edit]
The passive voice is formed by preceding the tense endings with w.
ending meaning example
w+e present It twe. He is known.
w+a past It twa. He was known.
w+o future It two. He will be known.
w+u conditional It twu. He would be known.

Progressive aspect forms[edit]

The progressive or continuous tenses, which are optional and used only where the distinction is useful, are formed from the simple present forms by compounding with pre-yodified tense vowels.
ending meaning example
e+é present continuous active At akeé. I am winning. (pronounced: a-KE-ye)
e+á past continuous active At akeá I was winning. (pronounced: a-KE-ya)
e+ó future continuous active At akeó. I will be winning.
e+ú conditional continuous active At akeú. I would be winning.
we+é present continuous passive At akweé. I am being beaten.
we+á past continuous passive At akweá I was being beaten.
we+ó future continuous passive At akweó. I will be in the process of being beaten.
we+ú conditional continuous passive At akweú. I would be in the process of being beaten.

Anterior tense forms[edit]

The anterior or perfect tenses, which are also optional, are formed from the simple past tense form by compounding with pro-yodified tense vowels.
ending meaning example
a+é present perfect active At akaé. I have won.
a+á past perfect active Ati akaá We had won.
a+ó future perfect active Ati akaó. We will have won.
a+ú conditional perfect active Ati akaú. We would have won.
wa+é present perfect passive Iti akwaé. They have been beaten.
wa+á past perfect passive Iti akwaá. They had been beaten.
wa+ó future perfect passive Iti akwaó. They will have been beaten.
wa+ú conditional perfect passive Iti akwaú. They would have been beaten.

Imminent aspect forms[edit]

The so-called imminent tenses are formed from the simple future active tense forms in the same way.
ending meaning example
o+é present imminent active At akoé. I am going to win.
o+á past imminent active At akoá I was about to win.
wo+é present imminent passive Et akwoé. You are going to be beaten.
wo+á past imminent passive Et akwoá. You were about to be beaten.

Non-finite forms[edit]

ending meaning example
er active infinitive Et ége aker You must win.
wer passive infinitive Et vò vagu akwer You would not want to be defeated.
en active verbal noun Aken ce ád. Winning is everything.
wen passive verbal noun At vò ife akwen. I do not like being beaten.
ea active present participle Akea ekut The winning player
aa active past participle Akaa ekut The player who won.
oa active future participle Tob ce tujoa. Man is mortal (about to die).
ua active conditional participle Tob cua deb. The man who would be king.
wea passive present participle Akwea ekut The player being beaten
waa passive past participle Magelwaa taol Cooked meat.
woa passive future participle Teacwoa pancin the film to be seen
wua passive conditional participle Oteacwua tob the invisible man
present affirmative gerundive At teacibso pueà. I will call upon arriving.
present negative gerundive At ija teò éd. I started without knowing anything.
past affirmative gerundive Teacaà at pia. Having seen, I left.
past negative gerundive At pila dom teacaò ád. I left the town without having seen everything.
enè present instrumental gerundive Et akso gla ésenè. You will succeed by working hard.
    • Note: The -ua/wua ending approximates the English -able ending. oteacwua = invisible, íztijua = survivable, ogorwua = 'indivisible, vegua = capable, opanua = immobile. Adding an -n forms the substantive, eg. ogorwuan = indivisibility.

Conditional constructions[edit]

In sentences with conditional clauses the conditional clause is in the same tense as the main clause, contrary to the practice in English:
  • Ev mamilo at co uva. If it rains (= will rain), I will be sad.
  • Ev mamilaú at caú uva. If it had rained (= would have rained), I would have been sad.
  • Ev at cu nasika at ga zípu. If I were (=would be) rich, I'd travel more.
  • Ev et tu dud, (av et) du id atu. If you (= would) know the answer, (= that you would) tell it to me.

Sequence of tenses[edit]

Unlike in English, the tense of a consecutive clause is a real tense, not an adjusted tense relative to the main clause:
  • It da ad it tadco at. He said he would (= will) marry me.
  • It da ad it teaca it ejipu. He said he had seen (= saw) it twice.

Impersonal constructions[edit]

Impersonal verbs are conjugated without the subject personal pronoun:
  • Mamileé. It is raining.
  • Amco. It will warm up.
  • Eco dropek. There will be a war.
  • Ége av et upu já. It is necessary that you come early.
  • Ce fia. It's ok.

The verb "to be"[edit]

In Mirad, the verb cer (to be) is not suppressed in the present tense as in some languages like Russian or Agapoff's original version of Unilingua. Also, there is no existential distinction as in Spanish between ser and estar. Furthermore, the progressive forms ceá and ceé can be used at times as in some of the examples below:
  • Ati ce íva! We are free.
  • At co idmu. I'll be there.
  • Déni ca ab cem. The books were on the table.
  • Cayo e jubi ji at ca dopu. It will have been two days since I was in the army.
  • Cer ey voy cer. To be or not to be.
  • At caú uva ev et vò upaú. I would have been sad if you hadn't

come.

  • Et ceé gla fua. You are being very bad.
  • At vò ceá ivcla. I was not being funny.

Reflexive constructions[edit]

Verbs can be made reflexive by adding the direct object get (self).
  • At vímila get ja per majtulu. I washed up (washed myself) before going to breakfast.
  • Tobet tuja get. The boy killed himself.
  • At teasa get cinzéfu. I looked at myself in the mirror.
  • Tu get! Know thyself!

Modal or auxiliary verbs[edit]

Mirad English Meaning Example
íver may permission Et íve iper. You may leave.
úver must requirement Et úve iper. You must leave.
ûver should obligation Et ûve iper. You should leave.
éger have to necessity At ége iper. I have to leave.
êger should obligation Et êge iper. You ought to leave.
vager want to volition At vage iper. I want to leave.
vaager long to yearning At vaage iper. I long to leave.
vàger would like to preference At vàge iper. I would like to go.
vagrer be eager to eagerness At vagre iper. I am eager to leave.
valter intend to intention At valte iper. I intend to leave.
veger can ability At vege ser id. I can do that.
voger refuse to refusal At voge ser id. I refuse to do that.
áker expect to expectation At áke aker. I expect to win.
áaker hopeto aspiration At áake aker. I hope to win.
éker try to attempt It vò éko iper. He won't try to leave.
ékler dare to dare It vò éklo iper. He will not dare leave.
óker to be surprised to surprise At óka aker. I was surprised to win.
ifer to love to love It ife eker. He loves to play.
ìfer to like to liking It ìfe eker. He likes to play.
ufer to hate to hate It ufe eker. He hates to play.
ùfer to dislike to dislike It ùfe eker. He dislikes playing.
iver to be glad to gladness At ivo iper. I shall be glad to leave.
uver to regret to regret At uva der id. I regretted saying it.
aver to favor espousal At ave iper. I favor leaving.
over to be opposed to opposition At ove eker. I am opposed to playing.
As you see in the examples above, modal verbs are followed by the infinitive form (-er) of the main verb.

Subordinate clauses introduced by ad[edit]

The positive complementizer particle ad (the fact that) is used to introduce a subordinate clause:


  • At ta (ad) it upo. I knew THAT he would come.
  • At ce vala (ad) et vádeé. I'm sure THAT you are telling the truth.
  • Ad mamilo ce valan. THAT it will rain is a certainty.
  • Ata tèd da (ad) iyt co tamu ojo èmaj. My mother said THAT she would be home by noon.
As in English, if the that can be dropped without any loss of meaning, it can be:
  • At da at dro. I said I'd (= I'll) write.
  • Et ta it sa id. You knew he had done (= did) it.
Unlike in English, a relative sequence of tenses is not applied. For example, English "I knew he would come." is rendered in Unilingua as "I knew he will come."
Do not confuse the particles ad and av. Clauses following ad are facts, whereas clauses following av are unreal wishes. Av should be thought of as so that.
  • At pana av it ábtu. I moved so that he could (= would) sit down.
  • At ta ad it ábto. I knew that he would (= will) sit down.

Subordinate clauses introduced by ev[edit]

The conditional complementizer particle ev (whether) is used to introduce a subordinate clause of the type "whether...":
  • At vò ta ev it upo. I did not know whether he would come.
  • Ev it upo ca teskía atu. whether he would or would come was not important to me.

Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives end in the suffix -a. They are invariable in form:
  • aga big
  • oga small
  • aza strong
  • oza weak
  • taba bodily
  • teaba ocular
  • tea aware
  • otea unaware


Adjectives used substantively to describe persons end in -t, while those used to describe things end in -c:


adjective animate substantive inanimate substantive
yoga young / new yogat youth yogac novelty
tuja dead tujat dead person tujac dead thing
fia good fiat good person fiac good thing


Adjectives always preceed the noun they modify:


  • aga tam a big house
  • yaga drun the long sentence
  • aza tob the strong man
  • mona maf a dark cloud


Serial adjectives usually go in the same order as in English:


  • ujna via jeeba jub the last beautiful summer day


Degrees of Comparison in Adjectives and Adverbs[edit]

Summary of Comparison Constructions[edit]
Note: vél is a preposition that comes from the verb véler to relate and is used to signal the object against which a relative comparison is being made (than, relative to).
Mirad English
ga...vél more...than
ge...vél as...as
go...vél less...than
gá...vél the most...in/of
gé...vél rather...compared to
gó...vél the least...in/of
The Comparative of Superiority[edit]
More than is expressed by the adverb ga, followed by the adjective, adverb, or verb and the preposition vél (in relation to, than, as) preceding the noun, pronoun, or predicate being compared:
Mirad English
Ata tadet ce ga aza vél et. My brother is stronger than you.
At ga ése vél et. I work more than you.
Ita tedet ga aga vél ata. His son is taller than mine.
Uda dén ce ga ketlea vél idac. This book is more interesting that that one.
Mam ce ga aga vél et tese. The sky is bigger than you think.
The Comparative of Equality[edit]
As...as' is expressed by the adverb ge, following by the adjective, adverb, or verb and the preposition vél (in relation to, than, as) preceding the noun, pronoun, or predicate being compared.
Mirad English
Ìt ge te vél at. She knows as much as I do.
At ge fi deuze vél et. I sing as well as you do.
Ata tam ce ge aga vél eta. My house is as big as yours.
Ece ge tobi vél tobomi. There are as many grownups as babies.
The Comparative of Inferiority[edit]
Less...than' is expressed by the adverb go, following by the adjective, adverb, or verb and the preposition vél (in relation to, than, as) preceding the noun, pronoun, or predicate being compared.
Mirad English
Ìt go te vél at. She knows less than I do.
At go fi deuze vél et. I sing less well than you do.
Ata tam ce go aga vél etac. My house is less big than yours.
Ece go tobi vél tobomi. There are fewer grownups than babies.
The Superlative of Superiority[edit]
The most...of/in' is expressed by the adverb gya, followed by the adjective, adverb, or verb, and the compared noun or pronoun preceded by the preposition vyel.
Mirad English
Ud ce gya yobaga miam vyel mir. This is the deepest lake in the world.
At gya fi deuze. I sing the best.
Gya fia ticudi vyel ticudyan akbuyo. The best students in the class will be rewarded.
At ce gya ivat vyel yati. I am the happiest person of all.
The Superlative of Inferiority[edit]
The least...of/in' is expressed by the adverb gyo, followed by the adjective, adverb, or verb, and the compared noun or pronoun preceded by the preposition vyel.


Mirad English
Uda ticud ce gó tepaza vél áda ticudi. This student is the least intelligent of all the students.
At gó fi deuze. I sing the least well.
Gó fia ticudi vél ticudyan uóvfuso. The worst students in the class will be punished.
At ce gó ivat vél áti. I am the least happy person of all.
Idioms Using Adjectival/Adverbial Comparison Constructions[edit]
Mirad English example
ga...ga the more...the more Ga mamile ga ilirke. The more it rains, the more it floods.
ga...go the more...the less Ga iva at ce ga azà at dae. The happier I am the louder I speak.
go...ga the less...the more Go et tile ga fia ce. The less you drink the better.
go...go the less...the less Go et ézbue go et ózbie. The less you put in the less you get out.
gá... as much as possible... At tele gá ida telamu. I eat as much as possible in that restaurant.
gá veá... the most possible Puo gá já veá. Arrive as early as possible.
gó veá... the least possible Bookco gó veá. Tire yourself out the least possible.
vòga...vél no more...than At tila oga vél jubénà. I drank no more than usual.


Note: vél, as a preposition, originates from a verb, much like the prepositions gal plus and gar times:


verb preposition
galer to add gal plus
garer to multiply gar times
goler to subtract gol minus
gorer to divide gor divided by
véler to relate vél relative to, than

Adverbs[edit]

Formation[edit]

Adverbs can be formed from adjectives by post-yodifying the adjectival ending, that is, by changing -a to , for example:
adjective adverb
fia good fià well
ana single anà only
gía easy gíà easily
The adverbial ending is really the same as the comitive ending, meaning with. So, in effect, nouns in the comitive case are really adverbs. The same holds true for the instrumental ending by means of, through, by.
noun adverb
gúan difficulty gúanà with difficulty
ágan length áganè lengthwise, by length
bik care bikà with care, carefully
at me atè by me
Similarly, a noun in the dative case (-u) can amount to an adverbial expression.
noun adverb
uda job this day udjobu today
oda em which place od(e)mu where?
tam house tamu (at) home
mep way mepu en route
Some words are inherently adverbs:
  • áb up as in go up
  • ób down as in come down
  • ahead as in run ahead
  • back as come back
  • úz around as in spin around
  • ga more as in eat more
  • go less as in eat less
  • ge same, as as in as big or do the same
  • gla very as in very good
  • glo not so as in not so bad
  • indeed as in He is indeed our leader.
  • not as in He is not our leader.
  • possibly as in It's possibly true.

Comparison[edit]

Adverbs are compared in the same way as adjectives:
normal equalitive degree comparitive degree maximal degree
igà quickly ge igà (vél) as quickly (as) ga igà more quickly gá igà as quickly as possible
ugà slowly ge ugà (vél) as slowly (as) go ugà less slowly gá ugà as slowly as possible

Syntax[edit]

Adverbs, like adjectively, normally precede the element in the sentence which they modify, however, this rule is a loose one and can be bent without peril in most cases.
  • Igà upu! Come quickly!'
  • At anà go te. I know only a little.
  • Uda tam fià ceswa. This house was built well.
  • Et vò sa ge fuà. You did not do as badly.
  • Upu gá ubà. Come as closely as possible.
  • At vò te ev it pa áb è ób. I don't know whether he went up or down.

Shortcuts[edit]

Adverbs formed from adjectives ending in -ia or -ua can be shorted to -i and -u, respectively:
  • Pu fi! Fare well!'
  • vi swa beautifully done
  • ésu gú! Work hard!


Word Families · Conversation Lessons

Word Families · Mirad · Conversation Lessons
Orthography and Pronunciation · Word-building · Word Families · Grammar · Conversation Lessons ·  v  d  e