Metabolomics/Applications/Nutrition/Nutrigenomics

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Nutrigenomics[edit]

nutrigenomics‎

Introduction to Nutrigenomics[edit]

Nutrigenomics is the use of genomic analysis to investigate diet-gene interactions that impact human health and disease. This page provides an overview of eight articles and six websites that relate to the field of nutrigenomics.

The first article summarized is “Nutrigenomics: a case for the common soil between cardiovascular disease and cancer.” In this article, the authors discuss the food-gene interactions that show differences in risk for certain cancers and cardiovascular disease (CVD), dependent on diet. The second article, “Nutrients and nipple aspirate fluid composition: the breast microenvironment regulates protein expression and cancer aetiology,” focuses on how differences in diet composition can influence women’s chances of developing breast cancer. This article reviews existing research to draw their conclusions. The third article, “Complexity of type 2 diabetes mellitus data sets emerging from nutrigenomic research: A case for dimensionality reduction?,” looks at the complexity of nutrigenomic research of complex traits and the need to be able to find useful patterns among large datasets. The authors propose reducing the dimensionality of the datasets in order to find these patterns, which could then be used to create greater understanding of the disease state. The fourth article, "Nutrigenomics and metabolomics will change clinical nutrition and public health practice: insights from studies on dietary requirements for choline," looks into several aspects of nutrigenomic and metabolomic profiling, and how they could change clinical practice in nutrition. The author also discusses the importance of the roles of the nutrition clinician in the future of nutrigenomics and metabolomics. The fifth article, "From nutrigenomics to personalized diet," the author states the importance and advantages to determining individual diets in order to prevent disease or improve health, while discussing the intricate relationship formed between genetics and personal nutrition. The main focus of the sixth article, "Summary of the Effect of Synthetic Dietary Triglycerides," was to research the idea that taking certain triglycerides may increase the chance of human disease and other health concerns. "An Introduction to Nutrigenomics Developments and Trends," the seventh article, offers a broad overview of how and why the field of nutrigenomics came to exist, as well as the legal, ethical, and industrial implications future advances in the field will involve. Last of all, "Genetic Variation and Dietary Response: Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics" presents many examples regarding heritability and genetic variation with respect to diet and metabolism, as well as the enormous implications nutrigenomics has on prevention and management of chronic diseases. Each of these articles provides a glimpse into the current research applications of nutrigenomics.

To provide a more general overview of the science of nutrigenomics three websites were also reviewed. The first website summarized is The European Nutrigenomics Organisation (NuGo). This website provides general information about nutrigenomics, as well as providing information regarding research and links to related websites. Their main objective is to link genomics, nutrition and health research. The second website is for the NCMHD Center of Excellence for Nutritional Genomics. Their main objective is to either reduce or eliminate the heath disparities between populations that occur as a result of gene X environment interactions. Apart from the main objective, this website is similar to the first in that it also provides information for those who want to learn more about nutrigenomics, and offers research and outside links for users to look at as well. The third website that we have presented is for The Centre for Human Nutrigenomics. Their main goal is to establish international collaborative connections to further research in the nutrigenomic field. This site provides a wealth of information regarding the research that they are involved in, and what they hope to accomplish with this research. They also provide information to the public regarding what institutions and other parties are involved in the Centre for Human Nutrigenomics. The International Society of Nutrigenetics / Nutrigenomoics (the fourth website) serves to increase the public understanding of the role of genetic variation and dietary response and the role of nutrients in gene expression. The organization encourages scientists working in various biomedical fields to join their cause in increasing awareness. The fifth website is for the Pennsylvania State University Center for Nutrigenomics. Its goal is to understand nutrition "from the table to the gene and back again." It offers various services to help nutrigenomic research. The final website is based on a radio station talk of the future of nutrigenmomics. The main focus of this website was to sit and talk with several scientists (as they are a radio station) about the dietary substances humans eat and how they may trigger future diseases and other environmental disorders. While the NuGo and NCMHD sites cater to the general public as well as students and scientists, the Centre for Human Nutrigenomics’ website is geared toward those who are interested in learning more about what the center is working on, or looking into getting involved with the organization. The ISNN, on the other hand, has an aim to educate the public and recruit interested scientists into their organization. The PSU Center for Nutrigenomics and the radio station websites further explain the current situation of nutrigenomic research and what scientists are doing to increase awareness of the field.

The purpose of this Wikibook page is to educate people about what nutrigenomics is, and what is being done to advance the field in hopes to improve the world of human health. It is the hope of the authors that visitors of this page become familiar with the term, as well as with some of the published and progressing research within this field.

Articles[edit]

Nutrigenomics:a case for the common soil between cardiovascular disease and cancer[edit]

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=18850195

Licia Iacoviello, Iolanda Santimone, Maria Carmela Latella, Giovanni de Gaetano, and Maria Benedetta Donati
Laboratory of Genetic and Environmental Epidemiology, Research Laboratories, "John Paul II" Centre for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Catholic University, Largo Gemelli, 1, 86100 Campobasso, Italy
Putting the Pieces Together

Main Focus[edit]

This article discusses the link between genetics, diet and disease. There are food gene interactions that show a correlation with an increase/decrease in the risk for certain cancers and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This article suggests using nutrigenomics to tailor ones diet to their genotype in hopes of reducing certain disease and cancer risks and in attempts to maintain a healthier lifestyle.

New Terms[edit]

Genotype
An individual's genetic identity based on the specific set of alleles from maternal and paternal chromosomes
Allele
One of two forms of a gene. One of the alleles is inherited from the mother, the other from the father.
Wild type
most commonly found alleles, considered "normal" as opposed to mutant or variant.
Polymorphism
Differences between otherwise identical DNA
SNP
Common genetic variant consisting of a single nucleotide pair difference between the DNA of the subject or patient and a reference individual. Ex: APOA1- 75G>A or Glu298Asp. There are two different was used to show the difference in alleles. The first says that at position 75 of the APOA1 gene there is an A nucleotide substitution in the DNA sequence for a G. The second shows that different proteins are coded for.
Homozygous
two copies of the same allele for a given gene are called the ex: G/G
Heterozygous
two different alleles for the same gene. Ex: G/g
Metabolism
The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within us. Metabolism consists both of anabolism and catabolism. It is commonly used to refer to breakdown of food and its transformation into energy.
Apolipoproteins
protein component that combines with a lipid to form a lipoprotein.
Fatty Acids
Molecules that are long chains of lipid-carboxylic acid
Polyunsaturated
Fatty acids containing more than one carbon-carbon double bond
Monounsaturated
Fatty acids containing one carbon-carbon double bond
Cholesterol
most common type of steroid in the body, it is a precursor of many molecules and is also necessary to the normal permeability and function of cell membranes, the membranes that surround cells.
HDL
high density lipoproteins, "good" cholesterol because high levels are associated with less coronary disease.
LDL
Low density lipoproteins, "bad" cholesterol high levels are associated with risk of heart disease.
VLDL
very low density lipoproteins
  • Definitions provided by: NuGo.org, Medterms online dictionary, Britannica Encyclopedia

Summary[edit]

"The border between health and disease is often set by a complex equilibrium between two elements, genetics on one hand, lifestyle on the other." Nutrigenomics is the study of the human response to food and its impact on gene expression, biochemistry, metabolism and promotion of health. This article presents several studies, which show the varying metabolic reactions in individuals of a certain genotype when fed a specific diet. Specifically, this article shows a correlation between the consumption of certain fatty acids and reduced risk of CVD and hormone-dependent cancers for individuals of a certain genotype.

Four different genetic/food combinations were shown to have an effect on CVD. Two variant forms of apolipoprotein, A1 and A5, were studied for a relationship with dietary fatty acids. Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) is highly polymorphic; an SNP in its promoter region was shown to have a direct correlation between intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and levels of HDL-cholesterol in women. In the study of APOA1, a relationship between total fat intake and an individual's BMI was affected by a SNP -1131T>C. A relationship between risk of obesity was also derived by testing the fat in take of individuals who were either homozygous for the -1131T allele versus those who possessed a -1131C allele. Another area of interest for this research related to the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family. Individuals who have the Asp298 genotype of endothelium NOS showed an inverse association for the risk of CVD mortality and consumption of fish (a major source of n-3 fatty acids). The final correlation was found between a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes (5-LOX) and the intake of long chain omega 3 fatty acids. Carries of the variant form of 5-LOX reduce production of inflammatory leuktrienes while on diets high in omega 3 fatty acids. This reduction helps negative, pro-atherosclerosis effects of leukotrienes.

Cancer was also a subject of this research. It was determined that the dietary intake of marine fatty acids from fish has been associated with protection against both prostate cancer and breast cancer. In prostate cancer the "association is modified by genetic variation in cyclooxyegenase -2 (COX-2), a key enzyme in eicosanoid synthesis." COX-2 is over expressed in prostate cancer tissue. Among homozygotes or heterozygotes for the variant alleles +6365 T/C SNP, a high intake of salmon-type fish (a good source of omega 3 fatty acids) showed a significant decrease in the risk of prostate cancer. In Singapore an experiment was done in post-menopausal women. Women possessing the genotype for low activity Glutathione S-transferase exhibited stronger inverse associations between marine n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer than those with high activity genotypes.

In conclusion, this article gives a sampling of how beneficial nutrigenomics could be to the medical field. It demonstrates several genetic variants that could be tested for to help doctors tailor patients' diets in order to reduce their risk for CVD as well as certain cancer types.

Nutrients and nipple aspirate fluid composition: the breast microenvironment regulates protein expression and cancer aetiology[edit]

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2467451&tool=pmcentrez

Ferdinando Mannello, Gaetana A. Tonti, and Franco Canestrari
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Sezione di Biochimica Clinica, Universit‡ Studi "Carlo Bo" di Urbino, Via O. Ubaldini 7, 61029 Urbino (PU), Italy

Main Focus[edit]

The main focus of this article is to use existing research to draw conclusions about how differences in diet can influence women's chances of developing breast cancer. It brings together an abundance of information from studies that examine the microenvironment of the breast tissue, analyzing the components therein that seem to have a positive or negative correlation to breast carcinoma.

New Terms[edit]

Aetiology
Also, Etiology. The study of causation; the cause behind a disease or disorder
Xenobiotic
A chemical found in an organism, but which is not normally produced or expected to be present in it; also, substances that are found in higher concentrations than usual
Epidemiology
The study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations
Endogenous
Term used to describe substances that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell; made by the organism
Exogenous
Term used to describe any material that is present and active in an individual organism or living cell that originated outside of that organism
Menarche
Refers to the first menstrual bleeding in females, marking the onset of puberty and fertility
Apocrine
Refers to a type of exocrine gland. Cells which are classified as apocrine bud their secretions off through the plasma membrane producing membrane-bound vesicles in the lumen
Carotenoids
Organic pigments that are naturally occurring in chromoplasts of most photosynthetic organisms. In humans, carotenoids such as beta-carotene are a precursor to vitamin A, a pigment essential for good vision; carotenoids can also act as antioxidants
  • Definitions provided by wikipedia.org

Summary[edit]

Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) is present within the ductal-lobular units of the breast, and reflects the microenvironment of the breast tissue. Most breast cancer originates with these ductal and lobular cells, which are in contact with the NAF. NAF is itself directly representative of not only blood composition, but of the diet. The secretory characteristic of the breast tissue causes it to retain many of the chemicals within NAF, possibly for long periods of time, before it is absorbed or metabolized by epithelial cells. This activity allows many exogenous (ingested) substances to reach breast epithelium in addition to normal, endogenous compounds; these substances could alter the expression of genes in the tissue, or have carcinogenic effects. Occurrence of breast cancer may also be determined by the balance between secretion, reabsorption and turnover of NAF substances; these factors are also influenced by diet composition, and components that lead to high turnover rates or stagnation of fluid can cause carcinogenesis in breast tissue.

The article takes a focus on the effects of lipids, antioxidants and fiber as NAF components that play a role in promoting or preventing carcinogenesis. High fat intake has been connected with increased breast secretory function, increased adipose tissue, variations in estrogen levels, and regulation at the genetic and protein levels. All of these factors are associated with a higher risk of breast cancer. On the other hand, antioxidantsóto some degree carotenoids and tocopherolsóhave shown to have anticarcinogenic effects. Carotenoids are involved in gene expression regulation, and are associated with decreased breast cancer risk. High content of fruits and vegetables in the diet is also linked to a lower risk of breast cancer, which is believed to be a result of high level of antioxidants present in these foods. Likewise, fiber intake has been connected to lowering chances of breast cancer, primarily by limiting ductal cell proliferation and NAF turnover, and possibly by inhibiting intestinal reabsorption of estrogens. The latter function would also serve to counteract one of the effects of fats.

The goal of this article was to present these findings within the context of continuing nutrigenomic research on the factors that lead to breast cancer susceptibility. The interplay between environment, genotype and phenotype is thought to be a significant determinant of cancer risk and tumor behavior, and the field of nutrigenomics offers many answers regarding this connection between diet and an individual's genetic predispositions.

Complexity of type 2 diabetes mellitus data sets emerging from nutrigenomic research: A case for dimensionality reduction?[edit]

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T2C-4NN6TS6-6/2/ad06945d428cba3a9d7edd1a33733edc

Jim Kaputaand Kevin Dawsona
Center of Excellence in Nutritional Genomics, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, United States; Laboratory of Nutrigenomic Medicine, Department of Surgery, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, United States; NuGO (European Nutrigenomics Organisation), The Netherlands

Main Focus[edit]

This article discusses the underlying complexity of nutrigenomics and the importance of finding useful patterns in the large datasets of complex traits, such as Type 2 Diabetes, by reducing the dimensionality of the datasets.

New Terms[edit]

Dyslipidemia
A disorder of lipoprotein metabolism, including lipoprotein overproduction or deficiency.
Epigenetic
relating to, being, or involving changes in gene function that do not involve changes in DNA sequence
Epistasis
suppression of the effect of a gene by a nonallelic gene
Genomics
a branch of biotechnology concerned with applying the techniques of genetics and molecular biology to the genetic mapping and DNA sequencing of sets of genes or the complete genomes of selected organisms, with organizing the results in databases, and with applications of the data (as in medicine or biology)
Hyperinsulinemia
A condition in which the level of insulin in the blood is higher than normal. Caused by over production of insulin by the body. Related to insulin resistance.
Metabolomics
The global analysis of metabolites, small molecules generated in the process of metabolism.
Polydipsia
excessive or abnormal thirst
Polyuria
excessive secretion of urine
Proteomics
a branch of biotechnology concerned with applying the techniques of molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics to analyzing the structure, function, and interactions of the proteins produced by the genes of a particular cell, tissue, or organism, with organizing the information in databases, and with applications of the data
Transcriptomics
The study of the transcriptome, the complete set of RNA transcripts produced by the genome at any one time.
  • Definitions provided by: Merriam-Webster, medterms.com, bddiabetes.co.uk

Summary[edit]

Studying complex phenotypes with nutrigenomics concepts and approaches offers a set of challenges due to the high-dimensional datasets of variables influencing health and disease processes. This article focuses on the concepts which underlie the complexities of nutrigenomics, and takes a look at emerging approaches for analyzing high-dimensional datasets for patterns among symptoms that can explain complex biological processes. Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) is used as the example to show the complexity of traits and the various combinations of factors, including diet, which can affect (and/or cause) the disease state.

The first underlying complexity discussed is clinical complexity. T2DM may have many overlapping molecular and genetic causes which will vary between patients. These differences make it complex to diagnose and optimize treatments including diet, physical activity levels, and medication. Genetic complexity of T2DM confounds simple approaches for identifying gene-nutrient interactions. Various regions of chromosomes have been found to contribute to the trait by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Seven QTLs have been found to have LOD greater than 3.6, while 17 other have been found to be suggestive with LOD scores between 2.0 and 3.6. Due to the complexity of the clinical makeup and genetic makeup of the T2DM trait, each individual will be affected differently by their diets. Which of the aforementioned QTLs is affected by diet is unknown, but it has been found that the expression of genetic information varies based on nutrient intakes. There are other nutrient and non-nutrient factors that may affect T2DM expression as well. These complexities make it difficult to group individuals based on the underlying causes of their conditions; therefore they are grouped by phenotypes.

Other interactions discussed include epistatic interactions, epigenetic interactions, and gene X environment interactions. Epistatic interactions are inherited gene variants that have differing effects based on the population in which the variant is present. Small differences among these populations in the allele frequencies will lead to differences in the responses to environment, including the responses to diet. Epigenetic interactions are changes which occur without affecting the sequence of the nuclear DNA. A good example of these interactions is DNA methylation, which has been found to be affected by being deficient of certain proteins and vitamins. Chromatin remodeling, affected by changes in calorie intake, is another example. Both DNA methlylation and chromatin remodeling suppress gene expression by changing the accessibility of genes. Long-term exposure to diets which influence these and similar pathways may lead to permanent changes in the genomes of individuals. Genotype X environment interactions are the relationships between the affects of nutrients on the expression of genetic information and the affects of the genetic makeup on how nutrients are metabolized. Although similar to the aforementioned interactions, this interaction specifically deals with gene-diet-phenotype association.

Describing the large datasets of biological responses is usually done with linear relationships, but with complex traits such as T2DM a custom algorithm must be created. This algorithm must be able to determine relationships based on the smallest variance, and be able to discovery patterns among the aforementioned interactions that can lead us to greater understanding of disease state.

Nutrigenomics and metabolomics will change clinical nutrition and public health practice: insights from studies on dietary requirements for choline[edit]

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2430757&tool=pmcentrez

Steven H Zeisel
Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.
Choline structure

Main Focus[edit]

This article looks into several aspects of nutrigenomic and metabolomic profiling, and how they could change clinical practice in nutrition. Nutrient-gene interactions such as direct interactions, epigenetic interactions, and genetic variations are supported with concrete examples from current research. The article also discusses the importance of the roles of the nutrition clinician in the future of nutrigenomics and metabolomics.

New Terms[edit]

Epigenetics
changes in phenotype (appearance) or gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence
Nutrigenomics
the study of the bidirectional interactions between genes and diet
Metabolomics
the integrated study of the many small molecules produced by metabolism
Calcineurin
a protein phosphatase that activates the transcription factor NFATc (Nuclear Factor of Activated T cell)
Choline
an organic compound, classified as a water-soluble essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex
Haplotype
a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on a single chromatid that are statistically associated
Endogenous
developing or originating within the organisms or arising from causes within the organism
  • Definitions provided by Wikipedia.org, Biology-Online.org, and the present article

Summary[edit]

“Nutrigenomics and metabolomics are rapidly developing new bodies of knowledge that will change future research and practice in human nutrition.” The author emphasizes on how nutrigenomic and metabolomic profiling will help identify individual variations in dietary requirements and also the capacity to respond to food-based interventions. It also states how the two can enhance nutrition epidemiology and nutrition intervention research. Supported with concrete examples from current research, the article provides a vision of what the future of the field of nutrition could be.

The author focuses on two major nutrient-gene interactions-- epigenetics and the genetic variation. Recently understood, epigenetic mechanisms like methylation, acetylation, and biotinylation are part of the major focus on how they influence gene transcription and genomic stability. DNA is tightly wrapped around histones, preventing access to the promoter sequences. Methylation is an uncoiling mechanism for the histones which in turn form channels through which transcription factors can pass and activate gene promoters. A study on pregnant pseudoagouti mice showed that changing the availability of methyl donors in the diet influenced methylation and subsequently altered gene expression. In a similar study, providing more or less of the methyl donor choline affected the rate at which brain progenitor cells proliferated in the fetus. It also affected the rate of apoptosis in those cells. Epigenetic events play a large role in adults as well, indicating that they are not restricted to fetal life.

Individual variations in the codon sequences for human genes influence nutrient requirements. In folate mechanism, a single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene for the enzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) results in reduced enzymatic activity, leading to elevated plasma homocysteine concentration in the homozygous individual. High amounts of folate are needed in order to modulate this mechanism. Humans with a very common SNP that when given a low-choline diet were more likely to develop signs of choline deficiency. More frequent occurrences of children with neural tube defects were observed in mothers with this SNP than mothers given a high choline diet.

The article concludes by stating the capacity nutrigenomics and metabolomics bring to the clinical nutrition field. The clinical nutrition specialist will be able to perform nutrigenomic and metabolomic profiling and convert it to recommendations.

Course Relevance[edit]

The author shows the effects nutrient-gene interactions that lead to various metabolic pathways to behave a certain way-- their effects on gene and phenotypic expressions, causing changes in the organism's biological processes.

Relevance to Articles[edit]

The present article is very similar to the other articles in its aim to promote further research and education on the role of genetic variation and dietary response and the role of nutrients in gene expression.

From nutrigenomics to personalized diet[edit]

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2474919&tool=pmcentrez

Andrea Palou
Chair of the International Conference “From Nutrigenomics to Personalized Nutrition”, Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Nutrició i Biotecnologia, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Our Genetic Code Reads Our Individual Diet

Main Focus[edit]

The importance and advantages to determining individual diets in order to prevent disease or improve health, while discussing the intricate relationship formed between genetics and personal nutrition.


New Terms[edit]

Phenotype
an observable physical or biochemical characteristic of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences.
Genome
the total genetic content contained in a haploid set of chromosomes in eukaryotes, in a single chromosome in bacteria, or in the DNA or RNA of viruses.
Homeostatic
the ability of an organism to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting physiological processes.
Genomics
a branch of biotechnology concerned with applying the techniques of genetics and molecular biology to the genetic mapping and DNA sequencing of sets of genes or the complete genomes of selected organisms, with organizing the results in databases, and with applications of the data (as in medicine or biology)
Metabolic Systmes
relating to metabolism, the entire range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism.
Omnivorous
a species that consumes both plants and animals as their primary food source.
Synergisitc
working in synergy; working together with other cooperative agents to produce a common final result.
Non-synergistic
not working in synergy; not working together to gain a common final result.
Adipogenesis
production of fat, either fatty degeneration or fatty infiltration.
Adipose
of, relating to, or composed of animal fat; fatty.
Epidemiological Studies
studies concerned with factors determining and influencing the frequency and distribution of disease, injury, and other health related events and their causes in a defined human population.
Cardiovascular disease
the class of diseases that involve the heart, blood vessels, arteries and/or veins.
Obesity
a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse affect on health, leading to a reduced life expectancy.
Type II Diabetes
adult-onset, noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way the body metabolizes glucose.
Osteoporosis
porous bones; a condition characterized by the loss of the normal density of the bone, resulting in fragile bone.
In vitro
the technique of performing a given procedure in a controlled environment outside of a living organism.
  • Definitions provided by: Merriam-Webster, medterms.com.

Summary[edit]

In this article the NuGo held the conference From Nutrigenomics to Personalized Diet. Described is the recent inquisition of the relationship formed between genetics and nutrition as being correlated to personal nutrition. Personalized diets are a new topic that has risen from the ongoing studies of the human genome in relation to dietary intake. By analyzing and obtaining specific information about individuals’ genomes, it is now possible to create a personalized diet that is specific to the metabolic system of each individual. It is becoming more popular to research the effects of nutrition at a molecular and submolecular level, rather than accepting food as a source of nutrients for the body. “Nutrigenomics will contribute in designing optimized dietary intervention strategies to restore and improve metabolic homeostasis, improve health and wellbeing and prevent diet-related disease.” As diets are suggested to those whose health is at risk, not only can we look at the lifestyle and habits of that individual, now through post-genomic technologies, we can assess the way in which food interacts with the bodies genes, proteins and metabolism. As the food we eat is now being looked at a more of a chemical fuel for the body, we begin to look at the many biological systems that use this fuel. The many systems that comprise the body are far from simple; not only are their systems that use the energy provided via food, there are systems that tell the body when it needs food. The fact that our species is better adapted to avoid weight loss than to fight weight gain due to a history of limited food sources provides reason to believe that the human weight control system is not overly efficient. As obesity becomes increasingly popular, it is important to look at the internal signals that control feeding behavior. As this new science of food gains popularity, European legislation is continuing its force on nutritional and health claims made on foods by including not only food composition and properties being labeled but as well as food quality. For example, with accurate scientific support, disease prevention is also being included on food packaging. Epidemiological studies are also being done to show correlation between maternal food intake and the susceptibility of disease for the fetus. This correlation gives rise to early gene and diet interactions that can be studied further through Nutrigenomics. As the knowledge of Nutrigenomics increases, credible diet advice becomes more individualized. Although there will need to be a firm management of individuals information, the importance and availability of a more informed consumer will become more prevalent in an attempt to decrease risk of health related diseases.

Course Relevance[edit]

This article relates to the Biochemistry-Metabolism course via metabolism. The way the body metabolizes and uses energy from a variety of sources has now been found to depend on genetics, so much that it is even possible to create a personalized diet. Presently, laboratories have techniques to analyze one’s genetic code, in order to see specifications to change an individual’s diet; by gaining new knowledge about the way one metabolizes different nutritional sources, it is then possible to prescribe diets that make simple changes in nutritional consumption.

Relevance to Articles[edit]

This article relates to the other articles posted on this site because of its central focus on nutrigenomics. This article discusses the importance of genetics when prescribing a diet to increase health of an individual, and also to decrease disease risk factors.

Effect of Synthetic Dietary Triglycerides: A Novel Research Paradigm for Nutrigenomics[edit]

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2244803&tool=pmcentrez

Sanderson, Linda M., Philip J. de Groot, Guido J.E.J.Hooiveld, Arjen Koppen, Eric Kalkoven, Michael Muller, and Sander Kersten. Effect of Synthetic Dietary Triglycerides:A novel Research Paradigm for Nutrigenomics. Plos One. PubMed Central. 2008. Texas Tech University, USA.

nuclear receptor action with the example of PPAR alpha

Main Focus[edit]

The main focus of this article was to research the idea that taking certain triglycerides may increase the chance of human disease and other health concerns. The researchers took synthetic triglycerides and mice that were fasted for several hours to measure the glyceride uptake on the mice tissues.

New Terms[edit]

Eicosanoids
signaling molecules made up of essential fatty acids, which have a complex role in immunity and inflammation. They are also important messengers for the central nervous system.
Eicosapentaenoic Acid
is a precursor molecule to prostaglandin-3, this molecule inhibits platelets from aggregating. You take this up by eating Omega-3’s in fish oils.
Docosahexaenoic Acid
this molecule is metabolized to form docosanoids, these are essential hormones for brain phospholipids, sperm and in the retina. It is believed that low amounts of this acid results in lower levels of serotonin in the brain and could contribute to ADHD, Alzheimer’s disease, and depression.
Retinoid X Receptor
when this receptor is activated by its ligand, this receptor will promote transcription of the target gene downstream of it into an mRNA and eventually this gene turns on to synthesis a protein
Peroxisome-Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs)
group of nuclear receptor proteins that are used as transcription factors which regulate the expression of genes. These receptors are especially important for cellular differentiation regulation, development, and metabolism of the organism
Synthetic Triglycerides
is a glyceride where there is a glycerol attached with three fatty acids on each of it’s –OH group. For this topic the triglycerides have been made at a lab not natural.
  • Definition and image from Wikipedia

Summary[edit]

For this experiment, the scientists were measuring the effect of dietary fats namely synthetic triglycerides on certain key transcription factors including in it would be PPARs. They wanted to see what the triglycerides eventually do on human health and disease. They used the triglycerides composed of one single fatty acid along with gene expression profiling to see what happens with mice that are wild type and PPAR alpha -/- when they eat the individual dietary fatty acids. The experiment went as followed, the mice were fasted for about 4 hours for a control than were given a dose of synthetic triglycerides with one single fatty acid. The scientists collected the mice tissue for six hours afterwards. It was six hours because the plasma triglyceride levels peaked at 2 hours and returned back to normal levels at around six hours indicating that the fat load cleared from the blood and were brought into the tissues. The results were no major difference between wild type mice and PPARs -/- mice and their TG levels in the tissues of intestinal and plasma but the liver TG levels were higher in the PPARs -/- mice than the wild type mice. However, the WT mice had similar TG levels with other various fatty acids. This data indicates that there is not a major difference between metabolic processing of the dietary fats between wild type and PPARs -/- mice. But was concluded that the dietary unsaturated fatty acids influence gene expression in the mouse liver. This article was related to this course of Biochemistry: metabolism because these triglycerides are important for the process of using transcription factors to synthesize proteins which is very important for metabolism in organisms.

An Introduction to Nutrigenomics Developments and Trends[edit]

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2474912&tool=pmcentrez

Sian B. Astley
Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, NR4 7UA UK
Genetics, Diet, Disease Risk

Main Focus[edit]

This article offers a broad overview of how and why the field of nutrigenomics came to exist, as well as the legal, ethical, and industrial implications future advances in the field will involve.

New Terms[edit]

Genomics
The study of genes and their function. Genomics aims to understand the structure of the genome, including the mapping genes and sequencing the DNA
Nutrigenetics
The relationship between genotype and the risk of developing diet-related diseases, such as cancer, diabetes type II and cardio-vascular diseases.
Systems Biology
The study of biological systems taking into account the interactions of the key elements such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and cells with respect to one another. The integration of this information may be by computer.
Transcriptomics
The study of the transcriptome, the complete set of RNA transcripts produced by the genome at any one time.
Proteomics
The study of proteins and their structure and function.


  • Definitions taken from: medterms.com, nature.com, and the article itself

Summary[edit]

The genetic variation present within all of us gives rise to differential response to ingested dietary components. For this reason, recommended dietary practices for an individual, subpopulation, or population may not be beneficial, or may even be detrimental, to another individual, subpopulation, or population. One example offered within this article is the correlation between serum cholesterol, saturated fat intake, and Cardiovascular Disease incidence (CVD). While a 10% drop in cholesterol levels can halve the risk of CVD in one 40 year old male, the same reduction may have more, or less of an effect on reducing the risk of CVD in another.

The tremendous recent advances in fields such as genomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics have allowed researchers to acquire a much more integrated view on how our bodies respond to the different types of foods we eat. The sheer complexity and intricacy of our metabolic processes, coupled with variable genetic factors and protein interactions necessitates an integrated and multidisciplinary approach in studying it. Conversely, nutrigenetics examines the interactions between single foods and single genes, such as folate and the MTHFR gene. The protein product of the gene, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, plays a key role in metabolism, catalyzing the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, which in turn plays a role in homocysteine methylation. A common polymorphism found in this gene gives rise to 2 protein products; the reference protein (C), and T, the thermolabile version which also exhibits reduced activity. CC, as well as CT phenotypes metabolize folate normally, while individuals possessing the TT phenotype accumulate homocysteine provided their dietary intake of folate is low. This induces a low concentration of methionine in the body, which in turn increases the risk for cognitive decline as well as vascular disease. By supplementing Folate through diet or medication, homocysteine levels drop, and methionine concentration rises to normal.

It is important to realize that these seemingly detrimental phenotypes must persist due to some evolutionary advantage, though this seems counterintuitive. In advancing our knowledge of nutrigenomics, we must also take into account ethical and legal considerations as well, such as ensuring no discrimination occurs against known carriers of disease causing alleles and so forth. Lastly, the article puts forth the idea that we should be careful to not invest unrealistic expectations in advances in nutrigenomics. Dietary recommendations provided by the public health professionals should not be ignored, and nutrigenomics should not be perceived as some sort of alternative to healthy lifestyle choices.

Course Relevance[edit]

This article explains just how variable all of our metabolic processes can be, in terms of metabolic pathway variability arising from our inherent genetic variability.

Relevance to Articles[edit]

This article continues to enhance our understanding of just how individual and populational genetic variability can impact our metabolic processes upon which we rely for day to day life.

Genetic Variation and Dietary Response: Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics[edit]

http://genetica.ufcspa.edu.br/nutric/conteudo/nutrigenomic%205.pdf

Artemis P. Simopoulos
The Center for Genetics, Nutrition, and Health, Washington D.C., USA
Nature vs. Nurture

Main Focus[edit]

This article presents many examples regarding heritability and genetic variation with respect to diet and metabolism, as well as the enormous implications nutrigenomics has on prevention and management of chronic disease. Economic consequences are also considered, as well as the development of novel foods.

New Terms[edit]

Heritability
The proportion of total variance for a given trait that can be explained by genes.
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA)
A fatty acid containing more than one double bond (C=C).
Apolipoprotein E (Apo E)
A type of lipoprotein (a protein connected to a fat). Apolipoprotein E is abbreviated ApoE and the gene that encodes it is known as APOE. APOE is located on chromosome 19 in band 19q13.2.
Angiotensinogen
A serum globulin formed by the liver that is cleaved by renin to produce angiotensin I—called also hypertensinogen.
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
A peptide hormone secreted by the cardiac atria that in pharmacological doses promotes salt and water excretion and lowers blood pressure —called also atrial natriuretic factor
Adducin
A protein that binds to spectrin and actin and appears to play a role in the assembly and maintenance of the spectrin-actin network.
  • Definitions taken from: cancer.gov, medterms.com, merriam-webster.com, biology-online.org

Summary[edit]

More and more, nutrigenomic studies have given us insight into just how relevant the nature part is in the context of the nature v. nurture argument. However, nutrition is a very significant environmental factor, and the field of nutrigenomics is a potent tool in helping us understand the extent of the impact that our genetic variability has on our nutrient intake. While patterns of heritability have been documented with respect to chronic disease, the fact that families share environment and genetic makeup makes elucidating contributing risk factors rather difficult. One study in the U.S, for example, found that about half of the variance in plasma cholesterol concentration is genetically determined. It is important to note that calculations pertaining to heritability are only accurate for that specific population within that specific environment, as the frequencies of disease contributing alleles will differ in another population of another environment.

This article offers many examples of just how much of an impact genetic variability has on intake of many dietary components, and how this may contribute towards the disease state. Essential hypertension has associated risk factors, such as obesity, sodium intake, inactivity, and so forth. However, it is also documented that blood pressure is also determined by the combined effects of many genes. Thus, even within a family, any hypertension present maybe from different causes. Furthermore, only half of all hypertensive patients are actually salt sensitive, mainly those exhibiting low plasma renin. Hence, the general advice of lowering sodium intake is not even appropriate for half of hypertensive patients. Another example is given which discusses the effect of Apolipoprotein E variants on serum cholesterol levels; individuals carrying the ApoE 4/4 allele respond to a low fat/high cholesterol diet by increasing serum cholesterol levels. However, individuals with the ApoE 2/2 and 3/2 variants show no increase. A recent study has suggested that people with the ApoE4 allele respond to low fat/high cholesterol diets by increasing LDL levels to a greater proportion than individuals carrying other ApoE variants.

Gene-nutrient interactions are also discussed within this article, utilizing Folate metabolism in association with the MTHFR gene as an example. A point mutation in this gene gives rise to a thermolabile form (T) of enzyme with is critical in Folate and homocysteine metabolism. Individuals homozygous for the T variant show accumulation of homocysteine (homocysteinemia) when dietary folate intake is low. The ensuing low levels of methionine in the body predispose individuals towards premature cognitive decline and vascular disease. In the broader context, this is an example of how recommended dietary practices may not be appropriate for all individuals, in this instances, daily folate allowance. For this reason, recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for folate has been replaced with dietary reference values.

The author posits that advances in genetic technology in the next 5-10 years will facilitate the discovery of many disease-susceptibility genes, and how they may interact. Personalized medicine is also a possibility by means of haplotype markers; certain medications would be able to be prescribed at a certain dose, to certain people, who contain a certain haplotype. Novel foods, or foods enriched with certain nutrients and non-nutrients, are already available. These foods aim to prevent or treat disease, an example of which are foods enriched with omega-3-fatty acids. In the future, it is likely that a shift will occur within nutrigenomics towards disease prevention, rather treatment. Heightened knowledge concerning genetic susceptibility as well as dietary response within individuals and populations can aid us in not only identifying at risk people, but also in proceeding with a strategy that would maximize the therapeutic benefits for the patient.

Course Relevance[edit]

This article explains just how variable metabolism of nutrients can have a contributing, or protective effect with respect to the development of the disease state.

Relevance to Articles[edit]

This article continues to present specific examples of enhanced or decreased susceptibility to disease as a result of metabolic differences arising from genetic variability.

Websites[edit]

The European Nutrigenomics Organisation[edit]

http://www.nugo.org/everyone/

Nutrisls2.jpg


Main Focus[edit]

NuGO is an organization that brings genomics, nutrition and health research together. This website provides information for health professionals, dietitians, and everyday people who are interested in nutrigenomics. It offers basic definitions as well as current research, links to other websites with similar content and eLearning opportunities.

New Terms[edit]

Genomics
newer term that describes the study of all the genes in a person, as well as interactions of those genes with each other and with that person's environment
Transcriptomics
the study of the transcriptome, the complete set of RNA transcripts produced by the genome at any one time.
Proteomics
The study of the proteome, the complete set of proteins produced by a species, using the technologies of large-scale protein separation and identification.
Metabolomics
The global analysis of metabolites, small molecules generated in the process of metabolism.
Microarray
a tool for analyzing gene expression that consists of a small membrane or glass slide containing samples of many genes arranged in a regular pattern.
Micronutrients
substance, such as a vitamin or mineral, that is essential in minute amounts for the proper growth and metabolism of a living organism.
  • Definitions provided by: CDC, NuGO, Medterm online dictionary and NCBI

Summary[edit]

NuGO is a "European-funded network of Excellence, the full title of which is The European Nutrigenomics Organisation: linking genomics, nutrition and health research." Their website offers one a place to go and learn about the subject of nutrigenomics and the latest research being done. For someone who is new to the topic the site offers a "What is?" section, complete with the basics of nutrigenomics as well as a full glossary of terms that would help a beginner dissect many journal articles and news items relating to the field.

Along with the broad definition of nutrigenomics, there is also an area based on how dieticians are utilizing nutrigenomics. One can find information on how different countries in Europe have used nutrigenomics, as well as current genetic services offered and, for professionals, a link to continuing education. Along with this link for continuing education, NuGO includes other areas for professionals, including a health professional section, bioethical guidelines and job postings.

NuGO's website also offers microarry information related to mice and humans. One can find a presentation on microarry design, probe sequences used as well as the physical array design. For those interested in more information outside of NuGO there are links for conferences and news articles posted by the press, as well as a "NuGO NutriAlert" section and a "links" section which provides a list of online addresses in relating fields.

NuGO is a good website if you are looking for a basic definition of nutrigenomics, but it also offers upper level areas, so it caters to a wide variety. It is also a good source to look up current events happening in the field of nutrigenomics.

NCMHD Center of Excellence for Nutritional Genomics[edit]

http://nutrigenomics.ucdavis.edu/nutrigenomics/

Main Focus[edit]

To reduce and eliminate health disparities between populations as a result of gene X environment interactions, focusing mainly on those that involve dietary, economic, and cultural factors. Genomics, proteomic and bioinformatics are used in the research.

New Terms[edit]

Agonist - Induced Activation
For nuclear receptors, a small molecule -binds to an inactive nuclear receptor causing conformational changes that result in protein-DNA interaction, recruitment of cofactors, transcription factors ultimately leading to gene transcription. After dissociation of the agonist, the nuclear receptor may return to its inactive state.
Array Analysis
A solid support on which a collection of gene - specific nucleic acids are placed at defined locations, either by spotting or direct chemical synthesis. In array analysis, a nucleic acid sample is labeled and then hybridized with the gene - specific targets on the array. Based on the amount of probe hybridized to each target spot, information is gained about the specific identify and quantity of the nucleic acid in the sample. The advantage of arrays is that they allow target sequences to be interrogated by the thousands instead of individually.
Bilirubin
A chemical found in bile that is the normal degradation products of hemoglobin and other heme-containing proteins.
Cellular context
The perturbation state of the cell, which changes as a function of genetic and environmental alterations. Genetic interaction, and thus genetic buffering, is always measured with respect to cellular context.
Ectopic gene expression
Expression of a gene in a cell where it is typically not expressed.
Genetic interaction module
A set of genes sharing the same genetic buffering specificity. Gene interaction modules are experimentally defined using knockout strains in a co-isogenic genetic background, are dynamic with respect to the perturbations and gene deletions tested, and are also dependent upon the method used for classifying genes according to their shared buffering specificity (e.g., hierarchical clustering) .
Metabolic fingerprinting or profiling
Classifying a sample by the types and amounts of metabolites relative to a reference sample(s).
Pathophysiology
The physiology of abnormal states; specifically: the functional changes that accompany a particular syndrome or disease
  • Definitions provided by: nutrigenomics.ucdavis.edu

Summary[edit]

This website provides a very succinct description of their center in which they state three “specific objectives.” These objectives are: developing better research approaches, educating students, health care professionals and biomedical researchers and establishing community outreach. All of these objectives are directed towards increasing research and awareness of gene x environment interactions.

A very large information section, which includes “Concepts in Nutrigenomics,” describes fourteen different fields and topics which have significance in Nutrigenomics. The topics discussed are Aging, Bioinformatics & Biocomputation, Diet and Gene Expression, “Environment, Health, and Disease”, Genetics & Genomics, Health Disparities, Lactose Intolerance, Macronutrients, Maternal Nutrition & Development, Metabolomics, Micronutrients, Model Systems, Personal Nutrition & The Pyramid, and Public & International Health. Each section has a summary of the topic as well as related articles. As well as providing rich information for scientist links “For Kids” and “For Students” are provided. The titles of their ongoing and publicized research are provided as well as descriptions on the core research topics within the center. A mailing list is made available to update subscribers with information related to nutrigenomics from various journals and news outlets.

As mentioned before, education and outreach is one of the specific objectives of the center. As such there is a section dedicated to this objective in which various resources are provided to improve the education of the nutrigenomics field, such as a book, an online course and workshops. The community outreach provides information on past meetings, institutions and collaborative projects. As well as links to many other centers that have been key to the community awareness of the impact of nutrients on gene interactions.

NCMHD stands for the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities. And is a subsidiary of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This center at the University of California, Davis campus is one of 88 centers across the nation.

The Centre for Human Nutrigenomics[edit]

http://www.nutrigenomics.nl/

Main Focus[edit]

"The Centre for Human NutriGenomics aims at establishing an international centre of expertise combining excellent pre-competitive research and high quality (post)graduate training on the interface of genomics, nutrition and human health." This organization is dedicated to advancing the field of nutrigenomics for the purpose of improving human health. They are involved in establishing international connections for collaboration in nutrigenomic research. On their site they provide information about research projects, and also a list of links for further research.

New Terms[edit]

Biomolecular
A term that refers to biomolecules, which are any organic molecules produced by a living organism, including large polymeric molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary and secondary metabolites and natural products http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomolecule

Summary[edit]

From the homepage, a link is provided for the organization's Mission Statement. This page offers an overview of The Centre for Human NutriGenomics, as well as their purpose and what they are presently working on. They state the importance of genomic research for studying nutrigenomics and the impact it can have on the face of human health. They also acknowledge the ethical dilemmas that may go along with this type of research, asserting their view of the importance of communication with society regarding these concerns. The Centre presents its Scientific Objectives, as well as its Further Objectives.

Also on the Mission Statement page, the organizational structure of the Centre is detailed, providing the names of all collaborating partners. The names of those involved with the Steering and Program Committees are provided, as well as information on how to contact those committees. Information regarding the Advisory Board is forthcoming.

The subtitle for The Centre for Human NutriGenomics' website is "Biomolecular Research for Healthy and Safe Foods." The Research link is where one can view all of the research projects with which the Centre is involved. The projects are listed under the subheadings of the organization's Scientific Objectives: (1)Study functionality and safety of food ingredients relevant for human health, (2)Clarify molecular mechanisms underlying health effects of food, (3)Study the impact of genotype in the relation of nutrition and human health, and (4)Develop and apply markers of exposure, bioavailability, function and risk. This serves not only to organize the extensive list of research projects, but also to give the person reviewing them a sense of realism about the Centre for Human NutriGenomics; one can clearly see that the Centre is actively pursuing those goals that are put forth in their Mission Statement.

This website is a good resource for those who want to see what is going on in the world of nutrigenomics. Here one can find out a little about who is involved in research, and a lot about what research is being done. It is also a good connection for getting involved in nutrigenomic research or organizations. The homepage of the Centre for Human NutriGenomics provides a list of links to collaborating partners, where people can learn more.

International Society of Nutrigenetics / Nutrigenomics[edit]

http://www.isnn.info/

Integration of nutrient-gene interactions

Main Focus[edit]

To increase understanding of the role of genetic variation and dietary response and the role of nutrients in gene expression through research and education of professionals and the general public.

New Terms[edit]

Nutrigenetics
The relationship between genotype and the risk of developing diet-related diseases, such as cancer, diabetes type II and cardio-vascular diseases
Genetic variation
Variations of genomes between members of species, or between groups of species thriving in different parts of the world as a result of genetic mutation
  • Definitions from Nature.com, Biology-Online.org

Summary[edit]

Upon arrival at the homepage, one can see the Mission Statement of the International Society of Nutrigenetics / Nutrigenomics (ISNN). The organization was established in order to increase the public awareness of the role of nutrient-gene interactions in gene expression.

Some of the goals of the ISNN include defining the relationship between genes and nutrients, establishing centers and networks that promote the development of programs and awareness of the role of genetic variation and dietary response and the role of nutrients in gene expression. The society also sponsors meetings and serves to link with other organizations, national or international, in order to promote its aims. Scientists working in nutrition, genetics, cellular and molecular biology, physiology, pathology, biochemistry, clinical medicine, and public health are welcome to join the ISNN. The ISNN believes that improved communication between the different branches will stimulate new research and increase knowledge of nutrient-gene interactions and genetic variation and dietary response.

The ISNN is hosting the 3rd Congress of the International Society of Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics in Bethesda, Maryland in October 21-22, 2009. One can see the organization’s effort to bring together affiliated scientists and handle scientific and educational aspects. There is a link to an application for those who are interested in joining the society. Links to related organizations and topics are listed as well in the links section of the site.

The website is good for researchers, educators, and clinicians who are interested in becoming a member of the ISNN. Complimentary subscriptions to the Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics are included as part of the membership. It is an easy way to get connected with other scientists interested in the field of nutrition and receive updates on the progress of the society’s aims to promote research and increase awareness on the role of nutrient-gene interactions in gene expression.

Course Relevance[edit]

The organization includes scientists working in biochemistry who are interested in pursuing the same goals that the ISNN is hoping to accomplish.

Relevance to Articles[edit]

The website and other articles state the importance of nutrient-gene interactions in the future of nutrigenomics and metabolomics.

PSU Center for Nutrigenomics[edit]

From Table to Gene and Back Again

http://nutrigenomics.psu.edu/

From Table to Gene and Back Again

Main Focus[edit]

The Center of Excellence in Nutrigenomics (CEN) is the on campus center for molecular nutritional studies, with the goal of understanding nutrition “from the table to the gene and back again”. The CEN provides services that can be advantageous during nutritional research.

New Terms[edit]

Dietary Bioactives
food that has an effect on living tissue.
Genome
the complete set of hereditary factors contained in the haploid set of chromosomes.
PCR
Polymerase Chain Reaction enables researchers to produce millions of copies of a specific DNA sequence.
Microarray
is a multiplex technology used in molecular biology and medicine; there are many different kinds of biological assays.
SNP Analysis
is a type of DNA microarray which is used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms.
Transcription Factor Profiling
proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA are analyzed.
  • Definitions provided by: Medterm online dictionary, Wikipedia.

Summary[edit]

The Pennsylvania State University Center for Nutrigenomics offers services to help support nutrigenomic research. The CEN staff can assist you in both basic and advanced nutrition studies such as cell culture, gene expression, microarray and polymorphism analysis. They offer a variety of molecular techniques that can enhance your clinical nutritional traits. The services they provide include real time PCR, microarray, SNP analysis and Transcription Factor Profiling. More information on the services provided was unavailable because the links for each service could not be found. The CEN provides services in hopes of creating interdisciplinary publications and enhancing the probability of future extramural applications, aiding by providing detailed methodology and interpretation of the data. The goal of the research and services provided by CEN is to help train graduate students and post-docs. There is a fee for the services provided by the CEN; however, a cost is determined after a proposal has been submitted. Once payment has been received, research will begin, and soon after a report will be generated including details and results. The link to view a price list was unavailable. The Latest News posted on the PSU website describes the Center being a major player in the development of Summer Symposia Series in Molecular Biology. The intent of the program under development is to explore three major topics as they pertain to obesity, Life cycle, Genotype and Environment. Speakers are currently being chosen to discuss and exploration the many different causations and treatments of obesity.

Course Relevance[edit]

This website describes and offers laboratory techniques that help to analyze one's genome in hopes of discovering a personalized diet to increase health and decrease disease risk factors.

Relevance to Websites[edit]

This website offers laboratory techniques to help people look at their own genetics and relate that information to their nutrition and health. The PSU site, like others on this page, offers information to help start researching health in conjunction with genetics and nutrition.

Nutrigenomics recording by National Public Radio[edit]

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1571846

Fruits and vegetables often believed to help lower disease risk

Main Focus[edit]

The main focus of this website was to sit and talk with several scientists (as they are a radio station) about the dietary substances humans eat and how they may trigger future diseases and other environmental disorders. The focus of the website was a further continuation of the previous websites mentioned

New Terms[edit]

PKU
A single gene defect, which affects the person’s way to eat anything with phenylalanine in a negative way.
Agrarian society
society that is based on agriculture as a prime mean for support and sustenance.
Transpositions
process of which sequences of DNA that move to different positions within a genome of a cell.
Prokarin
drug for multiple sclerosis, combines histamine with caffeine and not accepted by the mainstream medical society.

Summary[edit]

In this radio station they brought in three specialists in the area of Molecular Biology who were speaking especially on the topic of nutrigenomics and what they know about it. The three scientists are Raymond Rodriguez, Jim Kaput, and Marion Nestile. The idea of this website was that one day in the future taking cells from a person, mapping the person’s genetic profile, and then figure what kinds of foods would be best for that person. Unfortunately for now, it’s only a hope not a fact but for the genetic defect like PKU, professionals test babies for the defect than if positive make sure the person doesn’t eat anything with phenylalanine. Right now humans use nutrigenomics every time they take vitamins; they are making an educated guess because there is no proof that these vitamin amounts would benefit the specific person. The basis of nutritional genomics is to try to get the best match between common foods and how well people can utilize the food. It is believed that nutritional genomics is a sort of subculture of pharmacogenomics. However there is still that 5 to 10 percent of the population who are more genetically susceptible to certain diseases will still get those certain diseases even with a healthier diet fit for them. The food our society eats is more reassembled than grown which often seems like better nutrition but how they are combined is slightly inappropriate for each genotype. There is still doubt that there will be any magic bullet pill where a person takes three pills and will not get Type 2 diabetes because certain diseases are more complex with multiple gene defects.

Relevance to the Metabolism Course[edit]

This website summery with the radio station was related to the topic of Biochemistry: Metabolism because of the future of swabbing for DNA and to analyze it. This would make the person’s life and health better just by having a better diet.

Articles for future review as Metabolism class assignments[edit]

  1. The challenges for molecular nutrition research 3: comparative nutrigenomics research as a basis for entering the systems level

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Identify the main focus of the resource. Possible answers include specific organisms, database design, intergration of information, but there are many more possibilities as well.

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Enter your article summary here. Please note that the punctuation is critical at the start (and sometimes at the end) of each entry. It should be 300-500 words. What are the main points of the article? What questions were they trying to answer? Did they find a clear answer? If so, what was it? If not, what did they find or what ideas are in tension in their findings?

Relevance to a Traditional Metabolism Course[edit]

Enter a 100-150 word description of how the material in this article connects to a traditional metabolism course. Does the article relate to particular pathways (e.g., glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, steroid synthesis, etc.) or to regulatory mechanisms, energetics, location, integration of pathways? Does it talk about new analytical approaches or ideas? Does the article show connections to the human genome project (or other genome projects)?

  1. Nutrigenomics and metabolomics will change clinical nutrition and public health practice: insights from studies on dietary requirements for choline

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Identify the main focus of the resource. Possible answers include specific organisms, database design, intergration of information, but there are many more possibilities as well.

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Enter your article summary here. Please note that the punctuation is critical at the start (and sometimes at the end) of each entry. It should be 300-500 words. What are the main points of the article? What questions were they trying to answer? Did they find a clear answer? If so, what was it? If not, what did they find or what ideas are in tension in their findings?

Relevance to a Traditional Metabolism Course[edit]

Enter a 100-150 word description of how the material in this article connects to a traditional metabolism course. Does the article relate to particular pathways (e.g., glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, steroid synthesis, etc.) or to regulatory mechanisms, energetics, location, integration of pathways? Does it talk about new analytical approaches or ideas? Does the article show connections to the human genome project (or other genome projects)?

  1. Nutrigenomics: The Genome–Food Interface

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Identify the main focus of the resource. Possible answers include specific organisms, database design, intergration of information, but there are many more possibilities as well.

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Enter your article summary here. Please note that the punctuation is critical at the start (and sometimes at the end) of each entry. It should be 300-500 words. What are the main points of the article? What questions were they trying to answer? Did they find a clear answer? If so, what was it? If not, what did they find or what ideas are in tension in their findings?

Relevance to a Traditional Metabolism Course[edit]

Enter a 100-150 word description of how the material in this article connects to a traditional metabolism course. Does the article relate to particular pathways (e.g., glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, steroid synthesis, etc.) or to regulatory mechanisms, energetics, location, integration of pathways? Does it talk about new analytical approaches or ideas? Does the article show connections to the human genome project (or other genome projects)?

  1. Effect of Synthetic Dietary Triglycerides: A Novel Research Paradigm for Nutrigenomics

Main Focus[edit]

Identify the main focus of the resource. Possible answers include specific organisms, database design, intergration of information, but there are many more possibilities as well.

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Enter your article summary here. Please note that the punctuation is critical at the start (and sometimes at the end) of each entry. It should be 300-500 words. What are the main points of the article? What questions were they trying to answer? Did they find a clear answer? If so, what was it? If not, what did they find or what ideas are in tension in their findings?

Relevance to a Traditional Metabolism Course[edit]

Enter a 100-150 word description of how the material in this article connects to a traditional metabolism course. Does the article relate to particular pathways (e.g., glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, steroid synthesis, etc.) or to regulatory mechanisms, energetics, location, integration of pathways? Does it talk about new analytical approaches or ideas? Does the article show connections to the human genome project (or other genome projects)?

  1. An introduction to nutrigenomics developments and trends

Main Focus[edit]

Identify the main focus of the resource. Possible answers include specific organisms, database design, intergration of information, but there are many more possibilities as well.

New Terms[edit]

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Summary[edit]

Enter your article summary here. Please note that the punctuation is critical at the start (and sometimes at the end) of each entry. It should be 300-500 words. What are the main points of the article? What questions were they trying to answer? Did they find a clear answer? If so, what was it? If not, what did they find or what ideas are in tension in their findings?

Relevance to a Traditional Metabolism Course[edit]

Enter a 100-150 word description of how the material in this article connects to a traditional metabolism course. Does the article relate to particular pathways (e.g., glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, steroid synthesis, etc.) or to regulatory mechanisms, energetics, location, integration of pathways? Does it talk about new analytical approaches or ideas? Does the article show connections to the human genome project (or other genome projects)?

  1. From nutrigenomics to personalised nutrition

Main Focus[edit]

Identify the main focus of the resource. Possible answers include specific organisms, database design, intergration of information, but there are many more possibilities as well.

New Terms[edit]

New Term 1
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 2
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 3
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 4
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 5
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 6
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 7
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 8
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 9
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 10
Definition. (source: http://)

Summary[edit]

Enter your article summary here. Please note that the punctuation is critical at the start (and sometimes at the end) of each entry. It should be 300-500 words. What are the main points of the article? What questions were they trying to answer? Did they find a clear answer? If so, what was it? If not, what did they find or what ideas are in tension in their findings?

Relevance to a Traditional Metabolism Course[edit]

Enter a 100-150 word description of how the material in this article connects to a traditional metabolism course. Does the article relate to particular pathways (e.g., glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, steroid synthesis, etc.) or to regulatory mechanisms, energetics, location, integration of pathways? Does it talk about new analytical approaches or ideas? Does the article show connections to the human genome project (or other genome projects)?

Websites for future review as Metabolism class assignments[edit]

  1. Nutrigenomics recording by National Public Radio
  2. Pennsylvania State University Center of Nutrigenomics
  3. International Society of Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics (ISNN)