Metabolomics/Applications/Nutrition/Lifestyle

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  1. Diet
  2. Exercise

Contents

General Overview[edit]

Many lifestyle factors such as diet, cardiovascular activities, sleeping pattern, consumption of drug and alcohol have a huge impact on the metabolism of each individual. Variations in the diet can alter hormones such as insulin and glycogen thus changing how the body derives the needed energy. The sleeping pattern of a mammal may induce changes in circadian activities. Optimization of the diet may improve the cognitive function and brain efficiency.

Web Sources[edit]

Web Site 1[edit]

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-07/cp-mlf072108.php

Genova, Cathleen. "Missing link found between circadian clock and metabolism" EurekAlert! 24-Jul-2008

General Overview[edit]

Human Biological Clock
Two new research studies have discovered a molecular link between our metabolism and our circadian clock, the internal clock that is best known for controlling our sleeping habits. Mammalian protein Sirtuin 1, SIRT1, previously known to be toggled by the cells' metabolic state and its life-extending properties is now thought to be a connection between circadian machinery and metabolism. While light-dark cycles are the predominant cue for the brain's pacemaker, cyclic feeding behavior has a strong effect on the clocks operating in many other tissues. The clock component affects the way DNA is packaged with histone spools which allow for reversible changes in gene activity and are increasingly being recognized as a critical factor in many developmental, physiological, and metabolic processes. The component transfers an acetly group to histones and other proteins and by reason there must be a component that does the opposite. SIRT1 is a likely candidate for the component because of its dependence on NAD+. Treatments that block SIRT1 activity lead to disturbances in the circadian cycle and in the acetylation of histones and BMAL1. SIRT1 is required for high-magnitude circadian activity of several core clock genes. “It's been dogma for years that the circadian clock is regulated by transcription feedback loops. Now we have another loop, an enzymatic loop.”

New Terms[edit]

Endogenous
Arising from within, something that originates from within an organism. ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endogenous )
Epigenetic
Changes in phenotype that aren't caused by changes in the DNA sequence. ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epigenetic )

Course Relevance[edit]

Cycles are in almost every chapter and nearly all of the metabolism cycles we've covered thus far involve NAD+. Much like the urea acid cycle works along side the citric acid cycle, the circadian cycle works with the glycolysis cycle when the body enters the well fed state.

Web Site 2[edit]

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060522150621.htm

University of California - Los Angeles. "Simple Lifestyle Changes May Improve Cognitive Function And Brain Efficiency." ScienceDaily 22 May 2006. 30 April 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com¬ /releases/2006/05/060522150621.htm>.

General Overview[edit]

Researchers, under Dr. Gary Small, at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA have found that cognitive ability can increase with simple lifestyle changes. One test group was placed on a regiment of memory exercises, healthy eating, maintaining physical fitness, and performing stress relieving activities. Glucose metabolism within the region of working memory of the brain(the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex) was measured using positron emission tomography.
File:Positron.jpg
Positron emission tomography(PET)‎ Showing Intensity Based on Levels of Activity
Change is seen after just fourteen days of the regiment. A 5% decrease in glucose metabolism within the working memory of the brain was observed in the test group. This decrease in glucose metabolism indicates more efficient brain activity. This is because less energy is being consumed while the brain continues to reason effectively. Less glucose is being consumed during the reasoning process, after the lifestyle change. This is clear evidence that lifestyle can affect cognitive ability.
ScienceDaily.com doesn’t just discuss articles like the one above. There are many interesting links to fascinating journals and videos. The website links to a “Health and Medicine” category, which covers many medical topics, such as cancer and gene therapy. Another interesting link is “Mind and Brain”. This link offers information on mental illnesses such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Other useful links include references to a wide range of physical sciences: “Plants and Animals”, “Earth and Climate”, “Space and Time”, “Energy”, “Computers”, and “Fossils”. In addition, the website offers up to date scientific news, where articles on recent developments in fields such as physics, biology, and mathematics are listed. Also, the site has a large bank of scientific articles, such as the one discussed above. There are links to videos of interviews or studies from people of many scientific disciplines. Also, there is a scientific image gallery comprised of images from articles and other sources. All of these links are laid out in an intuitive fashion and possess very descriptive labeling for easy navigation.

New Terms[edit]

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
is an imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or picture of functional processes in the body. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positron_emission_tomography accessed 4/28/09)
Alzheimer’s Disease
is the most common form of dementia. It is incurable, degenerative, and terminal. It is associated with plaques and tangles in the brain. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alzheimer%27s_disease accessed 4/28/09)
omega-3 fats
are in the family of unsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon–carbon double bond in the n−3 position. The human body cannot synthesize n−3 fatty acids and they are nutritionally-essential. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omega-3_fatty_acid accessed 4/28/09)
Antioxidants
are molecules capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules. They are important because oxidants can cause oxidative stress which may damage or kill cells. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antioxidant accessed 4/28/09)
Carbohydrates
fill numerous roles, such as storage, transport of energy, and structural components. They play major roles in the immune system, fertilization, pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbohydrate accessed 4/28/09)

Course Relevance[edit]

In the metabolism course, it is common to study the role of glucose in energy consuming pathways. Here rates of glucose metabolism are correlated to brain activity. Seen here is an example of an inference that can be made from understanding rates of metabolism, as in higher or lower cognitive ability based on glucose consumption. This is an important concept within the scope of the metabolism course.

Web Site 3[edit]

American College of Sports Medicine “Metabolism Is Modifiable With The Right Lifestyle Changes” Medical News Today 27 Mar 2009. 1 Mayl 2009 <http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/143916.php>.

General Overview[edit]

Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes.

Changes in lifestyle may trigger the resting metabolism rate. A resting metabolism rate is the rate the body burns calories in a resting state to keep the internal organs operating. The easiest way to measure the metabolic rate is to multiply an individual’s weight in pounds by a factor of 10. For example, a person who weights 120 pound burns 1200 calories a day. A variety of factors contribute to the metabolic rate of each individual. Most of the factors change along with age but can be controlled based on the effort put in by the individual.

Changes in lifestyle may trigger the resting metabolism rate. A resting metabolism rate is the rate the body burns calories in a resting state to keep the internal organs operating. The easiest way to measure the metabolic rate is to multiply an individual’s weight in pounds by a factor of 10. For example, a person who weights 120 pound burns 1200 calories a day. A variety of factors contribute to the metabolic rate of each individual. Most of the factors change along with age but can be controlled based on the effort put in by the individual.

Body composition plays a big role in metabolism. The more muscle an individual has, the more calories one will utilize. By doing strength training one can replace fat for lean muscle to increase metabolic rate. As one ages, his metabolic rate decreases by 2 to 3 percent every 10 years after the age of 20. To counter this effect one can do strength training to reduce lean muscle mass. Hormones play the biggest role in controlling the resting metabolic rate. Thyroid hormone regulates the cells oxygen utilization and the amount of calories to burn. After the 40 the secretion of thyroid hormone slows downs causing weight gain in women. Finally, calorie restriction and diet plays a big role in metabolic rate. Self-starvation may send signals to the body to conserve calories thus reducing metabolic rate. Keep a balanced diet by including protein in 20% of the die, eating more fibers to keep you feeling full.

New Terms[edit]

Resting state – the state of relaxation and peaceful wakefulness, associated with prominent alpha brain wave activity Lifestyle changes (biology) – change in daily routine of an individual including dietary and cardiovascular activities Metabolic rate – the rate the body burns calories Thyroid hormone – They act to increase the basal metabolic rate, affect protein synthesis Dietary components – the components of one’s diet that is divided into macro and micro nutrients


Course Relevance[edit]

Metabolic rate controls the amount of calories burned by the body and avoid them from being stored as reserve energy as glycogen. Here the author breaks down the causes of metabolic slowdown and methods to counter them.

Website 4[edit]

ADOLESCENT BINGE DRINKING MAY COMPROMISE THE BRAIN'S WHITE MATTER, NECESSARY FOR INFORMATION RELAY

Altered White Matter Integrity in Adolescent Binge Drinkers. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research, ScienceDaily (Apr. 23, 2009) <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090422175144.htm>

General Overview[edit]

Results from this study has shown that youth with a history of binge drinking has a negative effect on the integrity of the white matter fibers of the brain which suggest poorer white matter health. However, it is uncertain to when do the effects of white matter abnormalities become apparent. The results suggest that the brain is more vulnerable towards the effects of neurotoxins such as alcohol during the adolescence stage because the brain is still developing. What astonish the researchers is that the test was done on those who have no signs of alcohol abuse or dependence, yet, the detrimental effects of binge drinking can still be seen on their white matter. In addition, studies relating to alcohol effects on the brain development of animals have suggested the accuracy of this results.

White matter is important because it relays information within the brain and is linked to the performance on a range of cognitive tests. Abnormalities in the white matter could lead to a hazardous situation when making decisions rationally and functioning emotionally. Furthermore, the findings indicate youth who are engage in binge drinking shows low level of brain function and organization. This may be a risk in the accelerated use of alcohol or the negative effects of alcohol. More research is suggested as the integrity of the brain might be at risk through the use of alcohol.

Long Terms Effect of Alcohol.

From the 1991 NIAAA publication, Alcohol Research: Promise for the Decade. Department of Health and Human Services. (http://www.unm.edu/~sophiek/brain.html)


Terms[edit]

Grey matter
A major component of the central nervous system containing neuronal cell bodies, neuropil, glial cells and capillaries. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grey_matter accessed 04/28/2009)
MRI
Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) which primarily is a medical imaging method used to visualize the internal structure and function of the body in radiology. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MRI accessed 04/28/2009)
Myelinated axons
An axon that is insulated by an envelope of myelin which facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses. (http://www.answers.com/topic/myelin-1 accessed 04/28/2009)
Neurotoxins
It is a toxin that acts specifically by destroying or damaging the nerve cell. (http://www.answers.com/neurotoxin accessed 04/28/2009)
White matter
A major component of the central nervous system composed mainly of the fibers or axons of nerve cells and lipids. (http://www.answers.com/white%20matter accessed 04/28/2009)

Course Relevance[edit]

Binge drinking have often been associated with the lifestyle of young adults looking to socialize. As the study suggest binge drinking can be detrimental to the development of the brain cells due to the affects of alcohol poisoning. The integrity of the brain can be damaged because alcohol causes the white matter fibers, which relays information within the brain, to be incoherent. Therefore, it is important to continue using study of metabolism to provide awareness to the public on the negative effects of drinking.


Article Sources[edit]

Article #1[edit]

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1370926&tool=pmcentrez.

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. "REDUCTION IN THE INCIDENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES WITH LIFESTYLE INTERVENTION OR METFORMIN" N Engl J Med. 2002 February 7; 346(6): 393–403.

General Overview[edit]

Nitrogen base (blue) groups provide the foundation of Metformin anti-diabetic drug for type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 8% of adults in the United States. Risk factors include; elevated plasma glucose concentrations in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load, over weight and sedentary lifestyle. The hypothesis is that modifying these risk factors with either lifestyle modification or metformin would prevent or delay the onset of diabetes. Test subjects were selected from 27 areas with high risk for diabetes. 3234 eligible participants, selected by risk factors, were randomly put into three groups; lifestyle modification, metformin and placebo. Participants assigned to the lifestyle modification program were asked to achieve and maintain weight reduction of 7% of initial body weight through a healthy low-calorie, low-fat diet and to engage in physical activity of moderate intensity for 150 minutes per week. A 16-lesson curriculum covering diet, exercise and behavior modification were designed to help participants achieve these goals. The outcome, diabetes, was diagnosed on the basis of an annual oral glucose-tolerance test or a semiannual fasting plasma glucose test. Participants were asked to continue with the experiment unless their fasting blood glucose concentration reached 140 mg per deciliter, at which point the participant was referred to a physician. Avg. weight loss for the three programs was 0.1, 2.1 and 5.6 kilograms in the placebo, metformin and lifestyle groups respectively. Crude incidence of diabetes was 11, 7.8 and 4.8 per 100 person years for the placebo, metformin and lifestyle groups, respectively. The estimated cumulative incidence of diabetes at 3 years was 28.9%, 21.7% and 14.4 % for the placebo, metformin and lifestyle groups, respectively. The lifestyle intervention was highly effective in all subgroups. Is effect was significantly greater among persons with lower baseline glucose concentrations 2-hours after a glucose load and among persons of greater age. The opposite is the case for metformin. The rate of gastrointestinal symptoms was highest in the metformin group and musculo-skeletal symptoms in the lifestyle group.

New Terms[edit]

Lifetable Methods
Tables used to calculate the probability of certain events. ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_table )
Glucophage
Trade name for Metformin, an anti-diabetic drug used to reduce LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels while not causeing hypoglycemia. ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucophage )
Bonferroni-adjusted criteon of P
To test two independent hypotheses on the same data at 0.05 significance level, instead of using a p value threshold of 0.05, one would use a stricter threshold of 0.025. ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bonferroni_correction )

Course Relevance[edit]

We discussed the regulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis with the amount of GTP in active muscles which would increase glycolysis which would decrease the amount of glucose in the bloodstream which is what is the problem of type 2 diabetes.

Article 2[edit]

REDUCTION IN THE INCIDENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES WITH LIFESTYLE INTERVENTION OR METFORMIN

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group: N Engl J Med. 2002 February 7; 346(6): 393–403. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1370926&tool=pmcentrez

Main Focus[edit]

The introduction of lifestyle change or treatment with a new drug called metformin is shown to significantly reduce the incidence of type two diabetes in high risk individuals. Type two diabetes is especially prevalent in the United States; approximately eight percent of adults suffer from the illness. Being overweight or having a sedentary lifestyle are the predominate causes of the disease. This article separately explores the benefits of a lifestyle change and receiving metformins to avoid developing the debilitating illness.

General Overview[edit]

Lifestyle intervention and treatment with metformins both interfere with the onset of diabetes. Three years of study reveals, diabetes incidence is reduced by 58% in individuals receiving lifestyle change treatment, within the study. This contrasts to a reduction in only 31% of those treated solely with metformins.
The following figure demonstrates this trend: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1370926&rendertype=table&id=T2 The data suggests lifestyle change is the most effective means of preventing the onset of diabetes, within the test group. The study was broadened to account for the large diversity within the United States. The following table shows the characteristics of the study subjects: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1370926&rendertype=table&id=T1 The study is insufficient to determine differences in treatment responses due to race, ethnic group, or sex. However, greater benefits from lifestyle change rather than metformin treatments were observed for older persons and those with a lower body-mass index than in younger persons and those with a higher body-mass index. The data presented is in agreement with the focus of the paper showing that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed in persons at high risk for the disease.

New Terms[edit]

Glycosylated Hemoglobin
is a form of hemoglobin used primarily to identify the average plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time.
Troglitazone
is an anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory drug.
Biguanide
are molecules based on a biguanide molecule and can function as oral antihyperglycemic drugs used for diabetes mellitus or prediabetes treatment.
Metformin
is an oral anti-diabetic drug from the biguanide class and is the first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in overweight and obese people.
Body-mass index
is body-weight in kilograms divided by the square of the body-height in meters.

Course Relevance[edit]

In metabolism, the process for breaking down metabolites, such as glucose, is often discussed. This article is relevant to the metabolism course, because it discusses treatment for an illness characterized by dysfunctional metabolism. Regulation of blood glucose levels are controlled by a complex interaction of multiple chemicals and hormones, especially, insulin, which finds its way into many pathways the metabolism course has us study.

Article 3[edit]

LOW-CARBOHYDRATE NUTRITION AND METABOLISM

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 86, No. 2, 276-284, August 2007. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/86/2/276

Main Focus[edit]

The modification of diet may be the key factor in encountering type 2 diabetes epidemics. The diet of the peoples of the First Nations of Canada prior to the arrival of European settlers comprised of fish, meat, wild plants and berries. The introductions of sugar and flour by the settlers into their diet were well-documented to have caused various health problems. Prior to the discovery of insulin, the change of diet in glycosuria patients was effective in improving their health conditions. A recent study revealed that the increase in carbohydrate in the diet correlates with the increase in calories. Based on these evidences it is reasonable to postulate that low-carbohydrate diet may be healthier than high-carbohydrate diet.

General Overview[edit]

Beta-D-glucose

Low-carbohydrate-diet (LCD) stimulates the body to respond with the change of insulin and glucagon concentration to allow the oxidation of fat. In the introduction stages of LCD, the recommended concentrations of carbohydrate is very low at <20-50g/d. The formation of ketone bodies with low carbohydrate concentrations prompted the distinction between low-carbohydrate-ketogenic-diet (LCKD) and LCD; where the latter does not break down endogenous protein to generate energy. In LCD, the reduction of carbohydrate intake prompts the body to change from glucocentric to adipocentric metabolism. The state of a person undertaking LCD can be compared to the starve state with the exceptions that there is no intake of exogenous carbohydrate and the glucose levels are maintained by the processes of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in the kidney and liver. With LCD, energy sources are derived from exogenous sources of fat and protein with the additional use of endogenous fat and glycogen if the caloric expenditure is more than intake.

New Terms[edit]

Insulin resistance – resistance of the bodily cells to cascade the signals presented by insulin

Ketogenesis – the process where fatty acid is broken down

Very-low-carbohydrate-ketogenic-diet (VLCKD) – a diet that is comprises of lower than 50g / d carbohydrate

Biomarkers - indicator of a particular disease state or a particular state of an organism

Hypertension - a medical condition in which the blood pressure is chronically elevated


Course Relevance[edit]

The bodies of type 2 diabetes patients are resistant to insulin making LCD a good diet alternative to improve glymic control. By limiting the carbohydrate intake, the patient maintains acceptable glucose levels while reducing overall calorie intake. In controlled trials LCD has been proven to lead to weight loss. LCD has provided fundamental questions regarding insulin resistance and cellular fuel regulation including the role of dietary carbohydrate as an essential nutrient. Utilization of LCD may provide physicians more options in designing strategies in treating nutrition-related patients.

Article 4[edit]

GENDER-DEPENDENT PROGRESSION OF SYSTEMIC METABOLIC STATES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD

EMBO and Nature Publishing Group, Published online 2008 June 3 http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2483410&tool=pmcentrez

Main focus[edit]

Multiple age- and gender- related changes in metabolome is found which are potentially significant in medicinal science Using the hidden markov models on samples from a large birth cohort study. A fresh approach is used to categorize young children, age between birth and 4 years old, in terms of their metabolic state throughout their developmental stages. The major contributor to the difference in the development state of boys and girls is sphingolipids, a class of lipids that plays important roles in neuronal signaling in the body. Also, the study suggest using state-based approach in children may be advantageous in search for markers and slight physiological changes in metabolomic profiling.

General Overview[edit]

The development stages of boys and girls from birth until the age of 4, according to their metabolomic function can be categorized into five HMM states. The transition of stage 1 to stage 2 which adds to the approximate age of 1 year shows an increase in proinflammatory lysophosphatidylcholines and short-chain triacylglycerols. This may be because of the child exposure to the surrounding elements and major changes in diet which increases the likelihood of infections. Also, another observation to note is that the level of sphingomyelins is higher in girls than in boys which may be linked to the dependence of sphingomyelins levels on estrogen metabolism.


http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2483410&rendertype=figure&id=f3

This graph shows the comparison between male and female children average metabolite concentrations on the five different states procured using the HMM. The five groups are base on different time order in the different development states of the children. As observed, there is a significance in the concentration of metabolites based on gender and the number of days in development.


http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2483410&rendertype=figure&id=f2

As indicated in the figure above, it shows the relationship between the HMM states and the changes in lipids concentration(A). It shows a difference in the concentration of lipids between boys and girls. Also, in figure (B) it shows the HMM state distribution among the different developmental level of the child. The individual sample was evaluated by computing the HMM and the state progession.The different colors in Figure (C) shows the different concentration of metabolites separating the boys and girls according to the HMM state.


Terms[edit]

Hidden Markov models(HMM)
A statistics model which deals with at least two levels of uncertainty, in which all have to be random processes, and a Markov chain, the probability of the interactions among the states. Particularly in the HMM, the unobserved states, the state in which the model passes are analyzed, not its parameters.
Lipid metabolism
The process that involves the synthesis and degradation of lipids.
Lysophosphatidylcholines
A group of phospholipids which has choline as a headgroup that are abundant on biological membranes especially on the outer leaflet the membrane.
Structure of Sphingomyelin.
Sphingomyelin
A group of phospholipids composed of phosphoric acid, choline, sphingosine and a fatty acid typically found in the animal nerve cell myelin sheath membrane.
Sphingolipids
A group of lipids which composed of a fatty acid and sphingosine, an aliphatic amino alcohol. It participate in multiple cellular function mainly in the signaling pathway of the organism.
Pediatrics
The study of medicine that deal with infants, children and adolescents.

Course Relevance[edit]

It is important to note that the early developmental stages of human being is one of the most important stages in life. Understanding the metabolomics of these earlier stages may lead to advance in medical science as to how the immune system develops and helps to understand the basis for the biological difference and needs of the male and female child.

Metabolic Syndrome[edit]

Is diagnosing metabolic syndrome a uniquely simple way to predict incident type 2 diabetes mellitus?

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=19289800

Metabolic syndrome can be used to identify individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. The two most commonly cited definitions of metabolic syndrome might differ in diagnostic criteria, but always consist of the same components: increased adiposity, hypertension, a degree of hyperglycemia, a high level of triglycerides and a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Metabolic syndrome has proven to be as effective as impaired glucose tolerance when predicting incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Individual components of metabolic syndrome have also proven to be as useful as the overall syndrome when predicting incident diabetes. Although it is not the simplest approach for assessing an individual’s risk of type 2 diabetes, it is believed that narrowing the diagnosis to some combination of two of the five metabolic syndrome components would vastly simplify the method, while remaining equally effective.

Early Glucometabolic Profile in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes and Metabolic Syndrome

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0066-782X2009000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

This source has revealed the major glucometabolic abnormalities that occur in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Based on a homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), patients with diabetes (DM) were revealed as more insulin-resistant than those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Beta-cell responsiveness was also impaired in subjects with DM, when compared to NGT or IGT patients.

Insulin resistance was discovered to be more frequent in patients with no previous diagnosis of DM. It was concluded that insulin resistance is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and new-onset diabetes.

DM subjects were revealed to have low beta-cell responsiveness.

Endothelin 1 (EDN1) is one of the three isoforms of endothelin proteins that constrict blood vessels and raise blood pressure. Endothelins are kept balance at all time in the body to prevent hypertension (over-expressed endothelin) and heart disease.

Insulin deficiency and insulin resistance can be associated with endothelial dysfunction, because insulin-signaling pathways include the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the secretion of endothelin-1. Inflammatory stimuli may cause a further imbalance between NO production and endothelin-1 secretion, in patients with MetS. This would ultimately reduce blood flow and impair glucose uptake in peripheral muscle. What’s more, endothelial dysfunction has been connected to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.

These glucometabolic abnormalities have been identified as the most significant predictors of death and major cardiovascular events. The Euro Heart Survey has discovered that 20 – 30% of patients that have either acute coronary syndrome or chronic coronary artery disease with glucose intolerance or diabetes, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was decidedly the most pragmatic assessment of glucometabolic status in these patients. It has also been realized that DM diagnosis offers the capacity for developing preventative strategies against cardiovascular mortality.

It has been concluded that an early OGTT will identify subjects with DM or IGT to establish appropriate treatments. It is believed that this method will also actualize target lipid, blood pressure and glucose metabolism goals. These achievements will surely improve the outcomes of high-risk populations.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19360242?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum

Influence of prior nutritional status on the development of the metabolic syndrome in adults.

It is believed that excess weight among increasingly younger age groups may lead to the early onset of cardiovascular risks. It has been discovered that a significant portion of the risk factors for cardiovascular conditions that begin during childhood and adolescence will continue into adulthood. This emphasizes the importance of primary prevention measures for cardiovascular disease.

Metabolic syndrome has only recently become prevalent among young adults. The nutritional conditions of these individuals have decidedly had a direct impact on their nutritional conditions. It seems to be the case that the nutritional status of adolescence serves as a risk factor for nutritional status and chronic-degenerative disease development during adulthood. Thus, attending to the health status of young adults is essential to awarding them healthier lifestyles in their futures.

Articles for future review as Metabolism class assignments[edit]

Characterization of proteomic and metabolomics responses to dietary factors and supplements

Main Focus[edit]

Identify the main focus of the resource. Possible answers include specific organisms, database design, intergration of information, but there are many more possibilities as well.

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Summary[edit]

Enter your article summary here. Please note that the punctuation is critical at the start (and sometimes at the end) of each entry. It should be 300-500 words. What are the main points of the article? What questions were they trying to answer? Did they find a clear answer? If so, what was it? If not, what did they find or what ideas are in tension in their findings?

Relevance to a Traditional Metabolism Course[edit]

Enter a 100-150 word description of how the material in this article connects to a traditional metabolism course. Does the article relate to particular pathways (e.g., glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, steroid synthesis, etc.) or to regulatory mechanisms, energetics, location, integration of pathways? Does it talk about new analytical approaches or ideas? Does the article show connections to the human genome project (or other genome projects)?


Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism

Main Focus[edit]

Identify the main focus of the resource. Possible answers include specific organisms, database design, intergration of information, but there are many more possibilities as well.

New Terms[edit]

New Term 1
Definition. (source: http://)
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Summary[edit]

Enter your article summary here. Please note that the punctuation is critical at the start (and sometimes at the end) of each entry. It should be 300-500 words. What are the main points of the article? What questions were they trying to answer? Did they find a clear answer? If so, what was it? If not, what did they find or what ideas are in tension in their findings?

Relevance to a Traditional Metabolism Course[edit]

Enter a 100-150 word description of how the material in this article connects to a traditional metabolism course. Does the article relate to particular pathways (e.g., glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, steroid synthesis, etc.) or to regulatory mechanisms, energetics, location, integration of pathways? Does it talk about new analytical approaches or ideas? Does the article show connections to the human genome project (or other genome projects)?


Lifestyle Intervention and Metformin for Treatment of Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain

Main Focus[edit]

Identify the main focus of the resource. Possible answers include specific organisms, database design, intergration of information, but there are many more possibilities as well.

New Terms[edit]

New Term 1
Definition. (source: http://)
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Definition. (source: http://)

Summary[edit]

Enter your article summary here. Please note that the punctuation is critical at the start (and sometimes at the end) of each entry. It should be 300-500 words. What are the main points of the article? What questions were they trying to answer? Did they find a clear answer? If so, what was it? If not, what did they find or what ideas are in tension in their findings?

Relevance to a Traditional Metabolism Course[edit]

Enter a 100-150 word description of how the material in this article connects to a traditional metabolism course. Does the article relate to particular pathways (e.g., glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, steroid synthesis, etc.) or to regulatory mechanisms, energetics, location, integration of pathways? Does it talk about new analytical approaches or ideas? Does the article show connections to the human genome project (or other genome projects)?


Systemic Immune Mediators and Lifestyle Changes in the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes

Main Focus[edit]

Identify the main focus of the resource. Possible answers include specific organisms, database design, intergration of information, but there are many more possibilities as well.

New Terms[edit]

New Term 1
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 2
Definition. (source: http://)
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Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 8
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 9
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 10
Definition. (source: http://)

Summary[edit]

Enter your article summary here. Please note that the punctuation is critical at the start (and sometimes at the end) of each entry. It should be 300-500 words. What are the main points of the article? What questions were they trying to answer? Did they find a clear answer? If so, what was it? If not, what did they find or what ideas are in tension in their findings?

Relevance to a Traditional Metabolism Course[edit]

Enter a 100-150 word description of how the material in this article connects to a traditional metabolism course. Does the article relate to particular pathways (e.g., glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, steroid synthesis, etc.) or to regulatory mechanisms, energetics, location, integration of pathways? Does it talk about new analytical approaches or ideas? Does the article show connections to the human genome project (or other genome projects)?


Protein nutrition and insulin-like growth factor system

Main Focus[edit]

Identify the main focus of the resource. Possible answers include specific organisms, database design, intergration of information, but there are many more possibilities as well.

New Terms[edit]

New Term 1
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 2
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 3
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 4
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 5
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Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 8
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 9
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 10
Definition. (source: http://)

Summary[edit]

Enter your article summary here. Please note that the punctuation is critical at the start (and sometimes at the end) of each entry. It should be 300-500 words. What are the main points of the article? What questions were they trying to answer? Did they find a clear answer? If so, what was it? If not, what did they find or what ideas are in tension in their findings?

Relevance to a Traditional Metabolism Course[edit]

Enter a 100-150 word description of how the material in this article connects to a traditional metabolism course. Does the article relate to particular pathways (e.g., glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, steroid synthesis, etc.) or to regulatory mechanisms, energetics, location, integration of pathways? Does it talk about new analytical approaches or ideas? Does the article show connections to the human genome project (or other genome projects)?

Personalized Exposure Assessment: Promising Approaches for Human Environmental Health Research

Main Focus[edit]

Identify the main focus of the resource. Possible answers include specific organisms, database design, intergration of information, but there are many more possibilities as well.

New Terms[edit]

New Term 1
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 2
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 3
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 4
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 5
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 6
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 7
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 8
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 9
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 10
Definition. (source: http://)

Summary[edit]

Enter your article summary here. Please note that the punctuation is critical at the start (and sometimes at the end) of each entry. It should be 300-500 words. What are the main points of the article? What questions were they trying to answer? Did they find a clear answer? If so, what was it? If not, what did they find or what ideas are in tension in their findings?

Relevance to a Traditional Metabolism Course[edit]

Enter a 100-150 word description of how the material in this article connects to a traditional metabolism course. Does the article relate to particular pathways (e.g., glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, steroid synthesis, etc.) or to regulatory mechanisms, energetics, location, integration of pathways? Does it talk about new analytical approaches or ideas? Does the article show connections to the human genome project (or other genome projects)?


Gender-dependent progression of systemic metabolic states in early childhood

Main Focus[edit]

Identify the main focus of the resource. Possible answers include specific organisms, database design, intergration of information, but there are many more possibilities as well.

New Terms[edit]

New Term 1
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 2
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 3
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 4
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 5
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 6
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 7
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 8
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 9
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 10
Definition. (source: http://)

Summary[edit]

Enter your article summary here. Please note that the punctuation is critical at the start (and sometimes at the end) of each entry. It should be 300-500 words. What are the main points of the article? What questions were they trying to answer? Did they find a clear answer? If so, what was it? If not, what did they find or what ideas are in tension in their findings?

Relevance to a Traditional Metabolism Course[edit]

Enter a 100-150 word description of how the material in this article connects to a traditional metabolism course. Does the article relate to particular pathways (e.g., glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, steroid synthesis, etc.) or to regulatory mechanisms, energetics, location, integration of pathways? Does it talk about new analytical approaches or ideas? Does the article show connections to the human genome project (or other genome projects)?


Evidence of different metabolic phenotypes in humans

Main Focus[edit]

Identify the main focus of the resource. Possible answers include specific organisms, database design, intergration of information, but there are many more possibilities as well.

New Terms[edit]

New Term 1
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 2
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 3
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 4
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 5
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 6
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 7
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 8
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 9
Definition. (source: http://)
New Term 10
Definition. (source: http://)

Summary[edit]

Enter your article summary here. Please note that the punctuation is critical at the start (and sometimes at the end) of each entry. It should be 300-500 words. What are the main points of the article? What questions were they trying to answer? Did they find a clear answer? If so, what was it? If not, what did they find or what ideas are in tension in their findings?

Relevance to a Traditional Metabolism Course[edit]

Enter a 100-150 word description of how the material in this article connects to a traditional metabolism course. Does the article relate to particular pathways (e.g., glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, steroid synthesis, etc.) or to regulatory mechanisms, energetics, location, integration of pathways? Does it talk about new analytical approaches or ideas? Does the article show connections to the human genome project (or other genome projects)?

Websites for future review as Metabolism class assignments[edit]

Lifestyle Issues and Drug Metabolism

Lifestyle Metabolism Centers

Metabolism Is Modifiable With The Right Lifestyle Changes