Manchu/Lesson 2 - Nouns, Script

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Dialogue & Translation[edit]

ᡝᡵᡝ ᡥᠠᡥᠠ ᠣᠴᡳ ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᠠᠮᠠ᠉ This man is my father.
ᡨᡝᡵᡝ ᡥᡝᡥᡝ ᠣᠴᡳ ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᡝᠮᡝ᠉ That woman is my mother.
ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᡝᠮᡝ ᠣᠴᡳ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᠨᡳᠶᠠᠯᠮᠠ᠉ My mother is Manchu.
ᡝᡵᡝ ᠣᠴᡳ ᠸᡝ ᡳ ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ᠉ Whose book is this?
ᡝᡵᡝ ᠣᠴᡳ ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᡝᠮᡝ ᡳ ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ᠉ This is my mother's book
ᠰᡳᡴᠰᡝ ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᠠᠮᠠ ᡥᠠᡵᠪᡳᠨ ᡩᡝ ᡤᡝᠨᡝᡥᡝ᠉ ᡥᠠᡵᠪᡳᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠᠰᠠ ᠯᠠᠪᡩᡠ᠉ My father went to Harbin yesterday. There are many Manchus in Harbin.
ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᠠᠮᠠ ᡥᠠᡵᠪᡳᠨ ᡩᡝ ᡝᡵᡝ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ ᡨᠠᠴᡳᡵᡝ ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ ᡠᡩᠠᡥᠠ᠉ In Harbin my father bought this book to learn Manchu.
ᡳ ᡝᡵᡝ ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ ᠪᡝ ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᡝᠮᡝ ᡩᡝ ᠪᡠᡥᡝ᠉ He gave this book to my mother.
ᡨᡝ ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᡝᠮᡝ ᡳᠨᡝᠩᡤᡳᡩᠠᡵᡳ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ ᠪᡝ ᡨᠠᠴᡳᠮᠪᡳ᠉ Now my mother studies Manchu everyday.
ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᡝᠮᡝ ᡥᡝᠨᡩᡠᠮᡝ᠄ 《ᠨᡳᡴᠠᠨ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ ᠴᡳ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ ᠵᠠ》᠉ My mother says that Manchu is easier than Chinese.
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Vocab[edit]

............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................
Manchu Vocabulary English Translation Manchu Vocabulary English Translation
ᠠᡴᡡ Isn't, there isn't ᠠᠮᠠ Father
ᠠᡵᠠᡵᠠ Present/future tense of ᠠᡵᠠᠮᠪᡳ (to write) ᠊ᠪᡝ Accusative case marker
ᠪᡳ To have ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ Book
ᠪᡠᡥᡝ Past tense of bumbi (to give) ᠊ᠴᡳ Ablative case marker (from)
᠊ᡩᠠᡵᡳ Repetitive suffix, each, every.. ᠊ᡩ Locative/dative case marker (at/to)
ᡝᠮᡝ Mother ᡝᠮᡠ One
ᡝᡵᡝ This ᡤᡝᠨᡝᡥᡝ Past tense of ᡤᡝᠨᡝᠮᠪᡳ (to go)
ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ Language ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ Country
ᡥᠠᡥᠠ Man ᡥᠠᡳᡵᠠᠮᠪᡳ To love
ᡥᠠᠯᡠᡴᠠᠨ Hot ᡥᡝᡥᡝ Woman
ᡥᡝᠨᡩᡠᠮᡝ Present tense of hendumbi (to say) with converb -me He/she
᠊ᡳ Genitive case marker (of) ᡳᠯᡥᠠ Flower
ᡳᠨᡝᠩᡤᡳ Day ᡳᠨᡝᠩᡤᡳᡩᠠᡵᡳ Each day
ᡳᠰᡳᠨᠠᡥᠠ To have arrived ᠵᠠ Easy
ᡴᠣᠮᠰᠣ A few ᠯᠠᠪᡩᡠ Many
ᠮᠠᡶᠠ Ancestoral, grandfather ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ Manchu
ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠᠰᠠ Manchus ᠮᡳᠨᡳ My
ᠨᡳᡴᠠᠨ Chinese ᠨᡳᠶᠠᠯᠮᠠ Person
ᠨᡳᠶᡝᠩᠨᡳᠶᡝᡵᡳ Spring
ᠣᠴᡳ Is (conditional of ᠣᠮᠪᡳ - to become) ᠊ᠣᡥᠣ Became (past tense of ᠣᠮᠪᡳ - to become)
᠊ᠰᠠ Plural marker ᠰᡳᡴᠰᡝ Yesterday
ᡨᠠᠴᡳᡵᡝ Present/future tense of ᡨᠠᠴᡳᠮᠪᡳ (to study) ᡨᡝ Now
ᡨᡝᡵᡝ That ᡨᡠᠪᠠᡩᡝ There
ᡠᡩᠠᡥᠠ Past tense of ᡠᡩᠠᠮᠪᡳ (to buy) ᠸᡝ Who
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Grammar[edit]

Nouns[edit]

Manchu nouns have number and case but do not really have gender. Nouns can consist solely of a stem such as 〈ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ〉 (book), are formed by adding suffixes to other words, or be formed by adding two nouns together such as 〈ᠠᡥᡡᠨ ᡩᡝᠣ〉 (brothers).

The most common suffixes that can be added to words to form nouns include:


Note, there are 3 hyphens between the stem and suffix in these examples, as well as a single hyphen before all suffixes.

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Suffixes used with verb stems Examples
᠊ᠨ ᡨᠠᠴ᠊᠊᠊ᠨ – Learning. From the verb stem ᡨᠠᠴᡳ᠊᠊‍ᠮᠪᡳ (to study)
᠊ᡤᠠᠨ᠈ ᠊ᡤᡝᠨ᠈ ᠊ᡤᠣᠨ᠈ ᠊ᡥᠠᠨ᠈ ᠊ᡥᡝᠨ᠈ ᠊ᡥᠣᠨ ᠨᡳᡵᡠ᠊᠊᠊ᡤᠠᠨ – Drawing. From the verb stem ᠨᡳᡵᡠᠮ᠊᠊᠊ᠮᠪᡳ (to draw)
᠊ᡴᡠ᠈ ᠊ᡴᡡ ᠠᠨᠠ᠊᠊᠊ᡴᡡ - Key. From the verb stem ᠠᠨᠠ᠊᠊᠊ᠮᠪᡳ (to push)
᠊ᠴᡠᠨ ᠪᡠᠶᡝ᠊᠊᠊ᠴᡠᠨ - Love. From the verb stem ᠪᡠᠶᡝ᠊᠊᠊ᠮᠪᡳ (to love)
Suffixes used with nouns and verbs Examples
᠊ᠰᡳ ᡠᠰᡳ᠊᠊ᠰᡳ – Farmer. From the noun ᡠᠰᡳᠨ (field)
᠊ᠴᡳ ᠠᡩᡠ᠊᠊᠊ᠴᡳ - Herdsman. From the noun ᠠᡩᡠᠨ (herd)
᠊ᠵᡳ᠈ ᠊ᠯᠵᡳ᠈ ᠊ᠮᠵᡳ᠈ ᠊ᠨᠵᡠ ᠪᠣᡳᡤᠣ᠊᠊᠊ᠵᡳ – Host. From the noun ᠪᠣᡳᡤᠣᠨ (family)
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Grammar[edit]

Nouns[edit]

Note: The examples below have 3 hyphens between the stem and suffix, where it applies, and one hyphen before all lone suffixes.

Manchu nouns have number and case but do not really have gender. Nouns can consist solely of a stem such as 〈ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ〉 (book), are formed by adding suffixes to other words, or be formed by adding two nouns together such as 〈ᠠᡥᡡᠨ ᡩᡝᠣ〉 (brothers).


The most common suffixes that can be added to words to form nouns include:

............................................................ ............................................................
Suffixes used with verb stems Examples
᠊ᠨ ᡨᠠᠴ᠊᠊᠊ᠨ – Learning. From the verb stem ᡨᠠᠴᡳ᠊᠊‍ᠮᠪᡳ (to study)
᠊ᡤᠠᠨ᠈ ᠊ᡤᡝᠨ᠈ ᠊ᡤᠣᠨ᠈ ᠊ᡥᠠᠨ᠈ ᠊ᡥᡝᠨ᠈ ᠊ᡥᠣᠨ ᠨᡳᡵᡠ᠊᠊᠊ᡤᠠᠨ – Drawing. From the verb stem ᠨᡳᡵᡠᠮ᠊᠊᠊ᠮᠪᡳ (to draw)
᠊ᡴᡠ᠈ ᠊ᡴᡡ ᠠᠨᠠ᠊᠊᠊ᡴᡡ - Key. From the verb stem ᠠᠨᠠ᠊᠊᠊ᠮᠪᡳ (to push)
᠊ᠴᡠᠨ ᠪᡠᠶᡝ᠊᠊᠊ᠴᡠᠨ - Love. From the verb stem ᠪᡠᠶᡝ᠊᠊᠊ᠮᠪᡳ (to love)
Suffixes used with nouns and verbs Examples
᠊ᠰᡳ ᡠᠰᡳ᠊᠊ᠰᡳ – Farmer. From the noun ᡠᠰᡳᠨ (field)
᠊ᠴᡳ ᠠᡩᡠ᠊᠊᠊ᠴᡳ - Herdsman. From the noun ᠠᡩᡠᠨ (herd)
᠊ᠵᡳ᠈ ᠊ᠯᠵᡳ᠈ ᠊ᠮᠵᡳ᠈ ᠊ᠨᠵᡠ ᠪᠣᡳᡤᠣ᠊᠊᠊ᠵᡳ – Host. From the noun ᠪᠣᡳᡤᠣᠨ (family)
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Note: of the above suffixes, the suffixes ᠊ᡴᡠ᠈ ᠊ᡴᡡ are used for instruments, the suffix ᠊ᠴᡠᠨ is used for abstract concepts, and the suffixes ᠊ᠰᡳ᠈ ᠊ᠴᡳ᠈ and ᠊ᠵᡳ are used to denote people by what they do (Gorelova, M. P.198). When adding suffixes to nouns, the final 〈᠊ᠨ〉 is often dropped.


Gender of Manchu Nouns[edit]

Nouns usually do not have gender, although some obviously masculine nouns have masculine vowels, while feminine nouns have feminine vowels, e.g. ᡥᠠᡥᠠ (man), ᡥᡝᡥᡝ (woman), ᠠᠮᠠ (father) and ᡝᠮᡝ (mother).


Number:[edit]

There are several ways to express the plural in Manchu:

Through the use of the suffix ᠊ᠰᠠ 〔᠊ᠰᡝ᠈ ᠊ᠰᠣ᠈ ᠊ᠰᡳ〕

  • E.g. ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ᠊᠊᠊ᠰᠠ - Manchus

Through use of one of the suffixes ᠊ᡨᠠ᠈ ᠊ᡨᡝ᠈ ᠊ᡵᡳ

  • This is mostly used for family relationships (note final 〈᠊ᠨ〉 is often omitted).
  • E.g. ᠮᠠ᠊᠊᠊ᡨᠠ - fathers
  • The suffix '-ri' is only used with a few words. E.g. ᠮᠠᡶᠠ᠊᠊᠊ᡵᡳ - grandfathers/ancestors

Through the use of adjectives

  • like ᡤᡝᡵᡝᠨ (many/all), ᡝᡳᡨᡝᠨ (all), ᡨᡠᠮᡝᠨ (a myriad) or verbally with ᡤᡝᠮᡠ (all)
  • E.g. ᡨᡠᠮᡝᠨ ᠵᠠᡴᠠ - The myriad things


Case[edit]

Manchu has 5 different cases. Cases can be attached to the proceeding noun or written seperately:

Nominative (no suffix).

  • This is the natural case and has no suffix.
  • E.g. ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ - book

Genitive 〔᠊ᡳ᠈ ᠊ᠨᡳ after ᠊ᠩ〕.

  • This case is used to show the possessive. The suffix ᠊ᡳ 〔᠊ᠨᡳ〕 can also be used for instrumental case which shows the means or cause of which something happens.
  • E.g. ᡝᡵᡝ ᠣᠴᡳ ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᡝᠮᡝ ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ - This is my mother's book (Possessive)
  • E.g. ᠮᠠᡶᠠ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ᡳᠯᡥᠠ - The fatherland's flowers (Possessive)
  • E.g. ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ ᠠᡵᠠᠮᠪᡳ - To write by means of Manchu (Instrumental)

Dative/Locative 〔᠊ᡩᡝ〕.

  • This case is used to show location or direction (at/to).
  • E.g. Direction: ᡥᠠᡵᠪᡳᠨ ᡩᡝ ᡤᡝᠨᡝᡥᡝ - He went to Harbin (Dative)
  • E.g. Location: ᡥᠠᡵᠪᡳᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠᠰᠠ ᠯᠠᠪᡩᡠHarbin de manjusa labdu - There are many Manchus in Harbin (Locative)
  • E.g. ᡤᡝᠮᡠᠨ ᡥᡝᠴᡝᠨ(Beijing) ᡩᡝ ᠨᡳᠶᡝᠩᠨᡳᠶᡝᡵᡳ ᡳᠰᡳᠨᠠᡥᠠ - In Beijing spring has arrived

Accusative 〔᠊ᠪᡝ〕.

  • This case is used to make a noun the direct object of an action.
  • E.g. ᡳ ᡝᡵᡝ ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ ᠪᡝ ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᡝᠮᡝ ᡩᡝ ᠪᡠᡥᠠ - He gave this book to my mother
  • E.g. ᡨᡝ ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᡝᠮᡝ ᡳᠨᡝᠩᡤᡳᡩᠠᡵᡳ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ ᠪᡝ ᡨᠠᠴᡳᠮᠪᡳ - Now my mother studies Manchu everyday.
  • E.g. ᠪᡝ ᠮᠠᡶᠠ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ᠪᡝ ᡥᠠᡳᡵᠠᠮᠪᡳ - We love the fatherland

Ablative 〔᠊ᠴᡳ〕.

  • This case is used to show point of departure or for comparison.
  • E.g. ᠣᠩᡤᠣ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ᠴᡳ ᠵᡳᡥᡝ ᠨᡳᠶᠠᠯᠮᠠ - The people who came from Mongolia (Point of departure)
  • E.g. ᠨᡳᡴᠠᠨ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ ᠴᡳ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ ᠵᠠ - Manchu is easier than Chinese (Comparison)
  • E.g. ᡝᠮᡠ ᡳᠨᡝᠩᡤᡳ ᠴᡳ ᡝᠮᡠ ᡳᠨᡝᠩᡤᡳ ᡥᠠᠯᡠᡴᠠᠨ ᠣᡥᠣ - Each day is hotter than the one before (Comparison)

Lesson 1 (Pronunciation) ---- Contents ---- Lesson 3 (Pronouns)