Lower Sorbian/Grammar/Numerals

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Numeral with noun groups[edit]

(a) accommodation of numeral groups in a sentence - as a subject

  • the numeral jaden, jadna, jadno `1` is formally an adjective– i.e. it creates with a noun a relationship of agreement, in which the noun is the domining part
  • the numeral dwa, dwě `2`,

being a main part of the numeral group, it goes into a relationship of a mutual accommodation: it triggers dual number in a noun, the noun triggers than a dual number in a verb

  • the numerals tśo, tśi `3` and styrjo, styri `4` behave like the numeral 2, however they trigger in a noun (and directly - in a verb) plural number
  • numerals higher than 5[apart from compounds with numeral 1-4, what will be mentioned here later] are formally singular nouns, the objects of which are the quantified nouns on a principle of government – triggering GEN. pl.; those numerals trigger plural number in a verb** [!] (np. Gospoza jo wšykno wurěšyła a te šesć paršonow su zasej

zgromaźone, SC-1926-032, Po 10 dnjach su něto hyšći pěś zasypanych gornikow žywe k swětłu pśišli, NSC-1923-024)

[* - the numerals 1-10 have alternative forms, extended with an ending –o, which are used to quantify masculine nouns – those than take w NOM. pl., e.g. Šesćo Nimce su jogo wobstupili, SC-1926-040]

[** - if the numeral group follows linearly a verb, the verb can also take singular number, e.g. Běšo wosym wosobow śěžko a šesć lažko zranjonych, NSC-1923-016]

(b) accommodation of numeral groups and oblique cases

  • the numerals 1-4 mandatory take categorial forms, expected by a government binding, e.g. Njejsu mogli z tśomi konimi woz wuśěgnuś, SC-1926-024
  • the numerals 5-40 can take categorial forms, expected by a government binding, yet they can do otherwise, e.g. Jěł jo Hansko nalědy, k šesćim korcam nawora, MWi_DobWjac, Nowy sud ze styrźasćimi politiskimi a juristiskimi sobucłonkami, NSC-1923-005

wobec Cogodla ma južo we styrźasća lětach šere włosy, Prat-1935, W slědnych šesć dnjach woranja jo bur był lichy, SC-1924-039

Declension of the numerals 1-4[edit]

(a) jaden, jadna, jadno `1`

m

n

NOM. sg.

jaden

jadno

GEN. sg.

jadnogo

DAT. sg.

jadnomu

ACC. sg.

=NOM./GEN. (anim.)

jadno

INS. sg.

jadnym

LOC. sg.

jadnom

[NOM. f. and du. i pl. - strictly according to the adjectival pattern]

(b) dwa, dwěma `2`

m

f, n

NOM. sg.

dwa

dwě

GEN. sg.

dweju

ACC. sg.

=NOM./GEN. (pers.)

=NOM.

DAT. INS. LOC. sg.

dwěma

(c) tśo, tśi `3` i styrjo, styri `4` - pluralia tantum

m. pers.

m. impers., f, n

NOM. pl.

tśo, styrjo

i, styri

GEN. pl.

och, styrjoch

ich, styrich

DAT. pl.

om, styrjom

im, styrim

ACC. pl.

och, styrjoch

=NOM.

INS. pl.

omi, styrjomi

imi, styrimi

LOC. pl.

och, styrjoch

ich, styrich

(d) inflective numerals over 4 are inflected like tśi, styri

Cardinal numerals[edit]

n: 1.'' jaden, 2. dwa, 3. tśi, 4. śtyri, 5. pěś, 6. šesć, 7. sedym, 8. wosym, 9.źewjeś, 10. źaseś

10 + n, n < 10: n + nasćo /11. jadnasćo/

d = 10n, 4 > n > 1: n + źasća /40. styŕzasća/

d' = 10n, 10 > n > 4: n + źaset

d + n, n < 10: n + a + d / d + a + n, e.g. 21. jaden a dwaźasća, dwaźasća a jaden

a) numerals over 100 are treated as nouns, including the rules of accommodation to the numerals-multipliers, e.g. sto – dwě sćě

b) lower positions are added to them by attaching to them a coordinate group after a conjunction a, e.g. dwě sće a jaden

100 sto
1000 towzynt (tysac)
1 000 000 milion

Ordinal numerals[edit]

Formally they are adjectives.

1.'' prědny, 2. drugi, 3. tśeśi, 4. stworty, 5. pěty, 6. šesty, 7. sedymy, 8. wosymy, 9. źewjety, 10. źasety

G - cardinal numeral, P - ordinal numeral

G[x...nasćo] > P[x...nasty]
G[x...źasća] > P[x...źasty]
G[x...źaset] > P[x...źasety]

100.'' hundertny (stoty)
100n, n < 10: G+hundertny, np. 200. dwahundertny
100 + n, n < 100: sto + P[n], np. 150. sto a pěśźasety
1000. ''towzyntny (tysacny)

a) in compound ordinal numerals by a rule only the last part takes a form of an ordinal numeral, while the remaining ones retain the form of ordinal numerals, e.g. 583. pěś stow a tśi a wosymźasety

b) in tens-ones compounds both parts can take inflective form of an ordinal numeral, even independently of the order of the tens and ones, np. we tśeśem a wosymźasetem

Adjectival derivates of numerals[edit]

a) frequentative numeral adjective - (1. jadnaki), 2. dwoji, 3. tšoji, 4. stwory, ... [G + ory]; from the frequentatives are also derived collective nouns + they stay before pluralia tantum (in neuter gender)

b) manifold adjectives - 1. jadnaki, 2. dwojaki, 3.tšojaki, 4. stworaki, ... [G + raki]

c) frequentative adverbs - 1. raz, 2. dwojcy; higher ones G + a noun raz or krot

Fractional numerals[edit]

a) 1/x, 11 > x > 2: x+in /3. tśeśina, 4. stworśina/, np. pěśina

b) x/(x+1): x + adequately inflected noun źěł, np. 2/3. dwa źěła

c) x/y: x + źěł wót + P[y] w GEN., np. 2/5. dwa źěła wót pěśich