Lower Sorbian/Grammar/Adverbs

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Deadjectival derivation[edit]

(a) adjectival stem ending in b, p, w, m (labials), n, r, ł, d, t (dentals) - adverb ending -'e, e.g. słaby - słabje `weakly`, pšawy - pšawje `rightly`, rědny - rědnje `beautifully`

(b) adjectival stem ending in k, g, ch (velars), c, z (africates and fricatives) - adverb ending -o: blizki - blizko `nearly`, drogi - drogo `expensively`

(c) numerous adverbs ending in -'e have alternative forms ending in -o, e.g. malsnje:malsno `quickly`, spěšnje:spěšno `hastily`, tešnje:tešno `timidly`, tužnje-tužno `sadly`, wěrnje:wěrno `loyally`, bytśe:bytšo `brightly`, twarźe:twardo `hardly`, cele `fully` : ceło `regularly`

(d) exceptions in -o: lubo `willingly`, tunjo `cheaply`, nowo `newly`, mało `few`, napśismo `miraculously`, jěsno `quickly`, cesto `often`, gusto `densely`

(e) adjectives ending in -ski form adverbs ending in -ski, e.g. serbski-serbski `Sorbian`

Gradation of adverbs[edit]

With an ending –‘ej, e.g. lubo-lubjej, drogo-drošej, śicho-śiśej `more quietly`

(a) adjectives on -tki, -dki form comparative grade of adverb in positive grade, thus there happens alternation k:č, more rarely k:c, while the new-formed ending čej turns into the ending -šej, e.g. krotko - krotšej, gładko - gładšej, žydko - žydšej, esp. wuzko - wuzčej `more narrowly`, śěžko - śěžčej `more heavily`, lažko – lažčej `more lightly`

(b) irregular adverbs: derje `well` - lěpjej `better`, zlě `badly` - gorjej `more badly`, wjele - wěcej `more`, mało `few` - mjenjej `fewer`, skoro `soon` - skerjej `sooner`, dłujko `long` - dlej `longer`

Some non-deadjectival adverbs[edit]

(a) more often non-deadjectival adverbs of place: źo `where, where to`, how, tudy, tuder `here`, howko `just here`, tam `there`, tamkor `just there`, prězy `in front of`, wót prědka `from the front side`, doprědka `to the front`, naprědk `to the front`, zaprědka, zwoprědka `firstly`; slězy, slědk, zeslědka `behind`, wot slědka `from behind`, naslědku, pśi-, napo- pśiposlědku `in the end`;
spozy, spodku `on the bottom`, wót spodka `from the bottom`; zwěrcha `from upside`, wót zwěrcha `upside`; gorej `up`; gorejkach `over`, dołoj `down`, dołojkach `under`; nutś `inside`, nutśi, nutśikach `into`, wót nutśi `from the inside`;
wen `outside`, wence, wenku ,`to the outside`; śrjeź `in the middle`, wośrjeź `to the middle`, dośrjeźa, dośrjeźi `in the middle`;
wšuźi, wšudy, wśuder `wszędzie`, źožlem `wherever`, kamsy `wherever to`;
z dala, nazdala `from far away`, z blizka a z daloka `from near and far`;
gromaźe, gromadu `together`, roztyla `separate`

(b) more often non-deadjectival adverbs of time: gdy, ga `when`, gdyga, gadga `when`, něga `once`, něgdy `before`, nigdy, nikul `never`, tegdy `then`, gažlem, gdyžlem `whenever`;
tencas `than`, tenraz `now`, tuchylu `meanwhile`;
zajtša, nazajtša `in the morning`, rano `early`, hyšći `yet`, pozdźe `late`, dopołudnja `forenoon`, wótpołudnja `afternoon`, połudnja `in the noon`; połno, pśezpołnjo `in the noon`; z wjacora, pod wjacor `in the evening`
witśe `tomorrow`, do witśego `until tomorrow`, pśezwitśe `the day after tomorrow`;
cora `yesterday`, až do corajšego `until yesterday`, pśedcorajšem `the day before yesterday`, lětos, lětosa `this year`, znowa `next year`, łoni `a year before`, pśedłońskem `2 years ago`;
něto `now`, až do něta `until now`, wót něta `from now on`, dejeto, dawjeto `a while before`, gano, dygato `from lately`, potom `then`, wotergi `sometimes`

(c) more often non-deadjectival adverbs of manner: kak `how`, kadga `how`, tak, tako `so`, wšako `diversely`, někako `somehow`, nikako `not at all`, hynacej, hynak `differently`;
wópak `awry`, dosć `enough`, dodosća `fair enough`;
wewšosć `quite, rather`, wělgickano `very`;
podla `next to, by`, prjeki `across`, prjeki a podlu, dliw a prjeki `along and across`;
kšajźi `stealthily`, kradu `neatly`, z razom, naraz `suddenly, miraculously`, pśeliš `too much`, naspět, wospět `again`, napłošeń `from the other side`;
mimo, źěła `next to, by`; lěbda, lědma, lěbdycka `barely`
sobu `from`, zasobu `forwards`, posobicy, posporomje `next to each other`;
kaksy `anyhow`; z lažka, lažkim `easily, lightly`, z krotkim a ze słodkim `short and well`