Lower Sorbian/Grammar/3rd conjugation

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  • all over-1-syllable-long verbs ending with -iś, -yś
  • most of the verbs ending with -eś
  • verbs ending with -ojaś, -ejaś, -šaś, -žaś, -caś, -šćaś

Present tense[edit]

1. sg. pšosym palim
2. sg. pšosyš pališ
3. pl. pšose pale

Imperative[edit]

2. 3. sg. pšos! ø, pal!ø

Imperfect[edit]

1. sg. pšosach, palach 2. 3. sg. pšosašo, palašo

Other forms[edit]

  • Past active participle: pšosył; palił
  • Infinitive: pšosyś; paliś [3]
  • Supine: pšosyt; palit
  • Present active participle: pšosecy; palecy
  • Past passive participle: pšosony; palony
  • Verbal noun: pšosenje, palenje

Notes[edit]

[1] verbs with infinitive ending in -iś, -yś, -aś form imperfect with -ach, -ašo; verbs with -eś form imperfect with -ech, ešo

[2] verbs with infinitive with –iś, -yś, the stems of which end in consonantal group, form an imperative with –i, e.g. modli!

[3] compounds ending in -iś, -yś, -eś form their proper present tense (durative) in 1. conjugation by lengthening the stem with a suffix -ij, -yj, -ej; forms of present tense in 3. conjugation have futural meaning, e.g. se gorjeś `burn`, se zagorjejo `he burns`, se zagorjo `he will burn`

Verbs not fitting the pattern[edit]

rdžaś (džaś) `shiver`: pres.džym, džyš, džy, etc., 3. pl. džyju (džaju); pres. act. part. džujucy (džajucy); imperative: džyj (džaj)

gorjeś se `burn`: in present tense according to 1. conjugation - gorju, gorjoš, gorjo se; pres. act. part. gorjecy; imperf. gorješo se

kśěś `want`

spaś `sleep`: pres. spim, spiš... 3. pl.spě (spiju); imperative spi!; pres. act. part. spicy (spijucy); impf. spach

spomńeś `evoke, remind`: pres.=fut. spomnim, spomniš... spomnjeju or spomnu, spomnjoš... spomnjeju; aor. spomnjech; imperative spomnjej!

wocuśeś `wake`: pres. wocuśeju, wocuśejoš

verbs ending in -ojaś, -ejaś in present tense and aorist omit vowel -a- from the stem ending, e.g. se bojaś - ja se bojm