Lower Sorbian/Grammar/1st conjugation

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  • verbs with infinitives ending with -sć and -c
  • verbs with infinitives ending with -nuś
  • 1-sylable verbs ending with
  • all verbs ending with -owaś
  • 'some polysylabic verbs ending with -eś; some polysylabic verbs ending with -aś

Present tense[edit]

1. sg. pišu njasu [1]
2. sg. piš njas
3. pl. pišu njasu'

Imperative[edit]

2. 3. sg. piš!ø, njas!ø[2]

Imperfect[edit]

1. sg. pisach njasech [4]
2. 3. sg. pisašo njasešo

Other forms[edit]

  • Past active participle: pisał; njasł
  • Infinitive: pisaś; njasć
  • Supine: pisat; njast
  • Present active participle: pisajucy (pišucy); njasecy [3]
  • Past passive participle: pisany; njasony
  • Verbal noun: pisanje; njasonje

Notes[edit]

[1] in 1. sg. there are alternative endings -u i -om

[2] verbs with infinitive ending with -nuś have an imperative ending with -ni

[3] verbs with infinitive ending with -sć i -c have present active participle ending with -ecy (and an older alternative form with -ucy);
verbs with infinitive with -nuś have present active participle only with -ecy;
verbs with -aś have pres. act. part. with -ajucy, alternatively with older -ucy;
verbs with -otaś generally have pres. act. part. with -otajucy

[4] verbs ending with -sć, -nuś form imperfect with -ech ending
verbs ending with -c, -ś, -aś, owaś - with -ach ending;
verbs braś, žraś, se drěś - with -ach or with -ech, using present or past stem

Verbs not fitting the patterns[edit]

(1) graś `play` - in compounds a prefix is generally followed by -j-, np. wujgraś `win`

(2) hyś `go`, ja du, ty źoš, wón źo, ...wóni du; imperative źi, źimy, źiśo!; imperf. źěch, źěšo; initial j- appears in compounds and the negation e.g. njejś, zajś, itp.

(3) root -jěś `take` in compounds: wześ, wezmu,etc.; in infinitive compounds -jmjeś, e.g. wobojmjeś `embrace, contain`

(4) kśěś `want` partially after 3rd conjugation: ja cu, ty coš, wóni kśě; negation: ja njok, ty njocoš, wóni njekšě; imperf. kśěch, kśěšo; aor. zekśech, zekśe; past active part. kśěł; impersonal-reflexive use: mě se co `I want`

(5) łdgaś `lie`, łdžu, łdžoš, wóni łdžu (łdgaju), imperative. łdžy! łdgaj!

(6) mjasć `sweep` i wjasć `lead` - in the present stem have ablaut a:e - mjetu, mjeśoš; wjedu, wjeźoš

(7) mlaś `mill`, mjelu, mjeloš, imperative mjel, mlej!; part active part. mleł; past passive part. mlety

(8) móc `can` - negation njamóc, njamógu, etc.; imperf. možach; past active part. mógł (mógał)

(9) mrěś `die`, mrěju, mrějoš; in compounds the older conjugation: wumru, wumrjoš

(10) pałkaś `wash` i płakaś `weep` form 1. sg. i 3. pl. followingly: pałku, płaku, alternatively to the older pałcu, płacu


(11) -pěś `strain`, only in compounds: pśipeś `conjoin`, se napjeś `get tight`; pres.: pśipnu, pśipnjoš, resp. pśipjeju; aor. pśipjech; past active part. pśipjeł

(12) rjac `speak` - only in present tense: rjacom, rjacoš, wóni rjaku, imperative rjac!; other forms are formed supletively of a verb rjaknuś


(13) rość `grow` - in imperative and past active participle without -t-: ros!, rosł

(14) słaś `make the bed`, sćelu; imperf. sćelech

(15) směś `can, be allowed to`, ja směju
smjaś se `laugh`, ja se smjeju

(16) staś `stay` - appears only in compounds, except from the imperative stań! `stay!`; compounds form present tense after wuknuś, e.g. dostać, dostanu, dostanjoš

(17) źaś `say` - only in present tense, imperfect and present participle; present tense: źěju, źejoš..., imperf.: źach, źašo, present part.: źějucy
źaś `make, act` have all forms regularly: źaju, źajoš, etc.
-źěś appears only in regular compounds, e.g. woźeś `cover`