Linguistics/Appendix A

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Linguistics:

GlossaryAppendix AFurther readingBibliographyLicense
00. Introduction01. Phonetics02. Phonology03. Morphology04. Syntax
05. Semantics06. Pragmatics07. Typology08. Historical Linguistics09. Orthography
10. Sociolinguistics11. Psycholinguistics12. Evolutionary Linguistics13. Language Acquisition
14. Creole Languages15. Signed Languages16. Computational Linguistics

The International Phonetic Alphabet[edit]

The International Phonetic Alphabet is a system of phonetic notation which provides a standardized system of representing the sounds of spoken languages. It may be represented visually using charts, which are given here for reference:

Consonants[edit]

Pulmonic consonants are those made by obstructing the glottis (the space between the vocal cords) or oral cavity (the mouth) and either simultaneously or subsequently letting out air from the lungs. Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged as impossible.

View this table as an image.
Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k g q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
Trill ʙ r ʀ
Tap or Flap ɾ ɽ
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ ʢ
Lateral approximant l ɭ ʎ ʟ

Coarticulated consonants are sounds that involve two simultaneous places of articulation (are pronounced using two parts of the vocal tract). In English, the [w] in "went" is a coarticulated consonant, because it is pronounced by rounding the lips and raising the back of the tongue. Other languages, such as French and Swedish, have different coarticulated consonants.

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ʍ Voiceless labialized velar approximant
w Voiced labialized velar approximant
ɥ Voiced labialized palatal approximant
ɕ Voiceless palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
ʑ Voiced palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
ɧ Voiceless "palatal-velar" fricative

Non-pulmonic consonants are sounds whose airflow is not dependent on the lungs. These include clicks (found in the Khoisan languages of Africa), implosives (found in languages such as Swahili) and ejectives (found in many Amerindian and Caucasian languages).

View this table as an image
Clicks Implosives Ejectives
ʘ Bilabial ɓ Bilabial ʼ For example:
ǀ Laminal alveolar ("dental") ɗ Alveolar Bilabial
ǃ Apical (post-) alveolar ("retroflex") ʄ Palatal Alveolar
ǂ Laminal postalveolar ("palatal") ɠ Velar Velar
ǁ Lateral coronal ("lateral") ʛ Uvular Alveolar fricative

Vowels[edit]

Below is a chart depicting the vowels of the IPA. The IPA maps the vowels according to the position of the tongue. In places where vowels are paired, the right represents a rounded vowel (in which the lips are rounded) while the left is its unrounded counterpart.

View the vowel chart as an image
Front Near- front Central Near- back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i · y
ɨ · ʉ
ɯ · u
ɪ · ʏ
ʊ
e · ø
ɘ · ɵ
ɤ · o
ə
ɛ · œ
ɜ · ɞ
ʌ · ɔ
æ
ɐ
a · ɶ
ɑ · ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open