Linguistics

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This online textbook serves to provide an introduction to the science of linguistics, its major subfields, and its theoretical consequences.

Part of the Linguistics Collection

Contents[edit]

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00.Introduction- How does language work?

linguistics, descriptivism, hidden knowledge, deep structure, experimental data

"Freedom" (amagi), or "liberty", taken from a clay document written about 2300 B.C. in the Sumerian city-state of Lagash.



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01.Phonetics- The sounds of speech

articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics, auditory phonetics, the International Phonetic Alphabet

"IPA" in IPA



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02.Phonology- Internal Representations and Rules of Sounds

phonemes, allophony, morphophonology

Cardinal vowel chart-accurate(png).svg



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03.Morphology- How we make words

morphemes, affixes, other morphemes, inflectional morphology, derivational morphology, morphosyntax, non-morphemic theories

Word structure tree of Dutch compounds



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Parse of the sentence "John hit the ball".



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Gavagai



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Inclusive and exclusive "nous"



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07.Typology- The unity and diversity of language

phonological, morphological, morphosyntactic, syntactic

Ergative morphosyntactic alignment



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An example Old English typeface called "Blackletter".



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09.Orthography- The use of written language

directionality, spelling systems, alphabets, abjads, abugidas, syllabaries, logographies, mixed scripts, unwritten language and new orthographies

An icon showing glyphs from different alphabets



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Multilingual sign in Nador, Morocco



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11.Psycholinguistics- Language in the mind

understanding of language

Linguistic hedge effect



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Skull of Homo neanderthalensis



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Tok Pisin Wikipedia logo



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Sign language hands



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Computer and stack



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Glossary

definition of terms



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Appendix A

IPA chart



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See also[edit]