LPI Linux Certification/LPIC1 Exam 102/Detailed Objectives

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The following material is directly from the Linux Professional Institute at Objectives 102 reprinted with their permission. Note that their inclusion in this book in no way signifies endorsement on the part of LPI.


This is a required exam for LPI certification Level 1. It covers basic system administration skills that are common across all distributions of Linux.

Each objective is assigned a weighting value. The weights range roughly from 1 to 10, and indicate the relative importance of each objective. Objectives with higher weights will be covered in the exam with more questions.

Contents

Topic 105: Kernel[edit]

1.105.1 Manage/Query kernel and kernel modules at runtime[edit]

Weight
4

Description: Candidates should be able to manage and/or query a kernel and kernel loadable modules. This objective includes using command-line utilities to get information about the currently running kernel and kernel modules. It also includes manually loading and unloading modules as appropriate. It also includes being able to determine when modules can be unloaded and what parameters a module accepts. Candidates should be able to configure the system to load modules by names other than their file name.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/lib/modules/kernel-version/modules.dep
/etc/modules.conf & /etc/conf.modules
depmod
insmod
lsmod
rmmod
modinfo
modprobe
uname

1.105.2 Reconfigure, build, and install a custom kernel and kernel modules[edit]

Weight
3

Description: Candidates should be able to customize, build, and install a kernel and kernel loadable modules from source This objective includes customizing the current kernel configuration, building a new kernel, and building kernel modules as appropriate. It also includes installing the new kernel as well as any modules, and ensuring that the boot manager can locate the new kernel and associated files (generally located under /boot, see objective 1.102.2 for more details about boot manager configuration).

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/usr/src/linux/* 
/usr/src/linux/.config 
/lib/modules/kernel-version/* 
/boot/*
make
make targets: config, menuconfig, xconfig, oldconfig, modules, install, modules_install, depmod

Topic 106: Topic 106 Boot, Initialization, Shutdown and Runlevels[edit]

1.106.1 Boot the system[edit]

Weight
3

Description: Candidates should be able to guide the system through the booting process. This includes giving commands to the boot loader and giving options to the kernel at boot time, and checking the events in the log files.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/var/log/messages 
/etc/conf.modules or /etc/modules.conf
dmesg
LILO
GRUB

1.106.2 Change runlevels and shutdown or reboot system[edit]

Weight
3

Description: Candidates should be able to manage the runlevel of the system. This objective includes changing to single user mode, shutdown or rebooting the system. Candidates should be able to alert users before switching runlevel, and properly terminate processes. This objective also includes setting the default runlevel.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/inittab
shutdown
init

Topic 107: Printing[edit]

1.107.2 Manage printers and print queues[edit]

Weight
1

Description: Candidates should be able to manage print queues and user print jobs. This objective includes monitoring print server and user print queues and troubleshooting general printing problems.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/printcap
lpc
lpq
lprm
lp

1.107.3 Print files[edit]

Weight
1

Description: Candidates should be able to manage print queues and manipulate print jobs. This objective includes adding and removing jobs from configured printer queues and converting text files to postscript for printing.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

lpr
lpq
mpage

1.107.4 Install and configure local and remote printers[edit]

Weight
1

Description: Candidate should be able to install a printer daemon, install and configure a print filter (e.g.: apsfilter, magicfilter). This objective includes making local and remote printers accessible for a Linux system, including postscript, non-postscript, and Samba printers.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/printcap
/etc/apsfilter/*
/var/lib/apsfilter/*/
/etc/magicfilter/*/
/var/spool/lpd/*/
lpd

Topic 108: Documentation[edit]

1.108.1 Use and manage local system documentation[edit]

Weight
4

Description: Candidates should be able to use and administer the man facility and the material in /usr/share/doc/. This objective includes finding relevant man pages, searching man page sections, finding commands and man pages related to them, and configuring access to man sources and the man system. It also includes using system documentation stored in /usr/share/doc/ and determining what documentation to keep in /usr/share/doc/.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

MANPATH man
apropos
whatis

1.108.2 Find Linux documentation on the Internet[edit]

Weight
3

Description: Candidates should be able to find and use Linux documentation. This objective includes using Linux documentation at sources such as the Linux Documentation Project (LDP), vendor and third-party websites, newsgroups, newsgroup archives, and mailing lists.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

not applicable

1.108.5 Notify users on system-related issues[edit]

Weight
1

Description: Candidates should be able to notify the users about current issues related to the system. This objective includes automating the communication process, e.g. through logon messages.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/issue 
/etc/issue.net 
/etc/motd

Topic 109: Shells, Scripting, Programming and Compiling[edit]

1.109.1 Customize and use the shell environment[edit]

Weight
5

Description: Candidate should be able to customize shell environments to meet users' needs. This objective includes setting environment variables (e.g. PATH) at login or when spawning a new shell. It also includes writing bash functions for frequently used sequences of commands.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

~/.bash_profile 
~/.bash_login 
~/.profile 
~/.bashrc 
~/.bash_logout 
~/.inputrc
function (Bash built-in command) 
export 
env 
set (Bash built-in command) 
unset (Bash built-in command)

1.109.2 Customize or write simple scripts[edit]

Weight
3

Description: Candidate should be able to customize existing scripts, or write simple new (ba)sh scripts. This objective includes using standard sh syntax (loops, tests), using command substitution, testing command return values, testing of file status, and conditional mailing to the superuser. This objective also includes making sure the correct interpreter is called on the first (#!) line of scripts. This objective also includes managing location, ownership, execution and suid-rights of scripts.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

while 
for 
test 
chmod

Topic 111: Administrative Tasks[edit]

1.111.1 Manage users and group accounts and related system files[edit]

Weight
4

Description: Candidate should be able to add, remove, suspend and change user accounts. Tasks include to add and remove groups, to change user/group info in passwd/group databases. The objective also includes creating special purpose and limited accounts.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/passwd 
/etc/shadow 
/etc/group 
/etc/gshadow
chage 
gpasswd 
groupadd 
groupdel 
groupmod 
grpconv 
grpunconv 
passwd 
pwconv 
pwunconv 
useradd 
userdel 
usermod 

1.111.2 Tune the user environment and system environment variables[edit]

Weight
3

Description: Candidate should be able to modify global and user profiles. This includes setting environment variables, maintaining skel directories for new user accounts and setting command search path with the proper directory.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/profile 
/etc/skel 
env 
export 
set 
unset 

1.111.3 Configure and use system log files to meet administrative and security needs[edit]

Weight
3

Description: Candidate should be able to configure system logs. This objective includes managing the type and level of information logged, manually scanning log files for notable activity, monitoring log files, arranging for automatic rotation and archiving of logs and tracking down problems noted in logs.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/syslog.conf 
/var/log/*
logrotate 
tail -f

1.111.4 Automate system administration tasks by scheduling jobs to run in the future[edit]

Weight
4

Description: Candidate should be able to use cron or anacron to run jobs at regular intervals and to use at to run jobs at a specific time. Task include managing cron and at jobs and configuring user access to cron and at services.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/anacrontab 
/etc/at.deny 
/etc/at.allow 
/etc/crontab 
/etc/cron.allow 
/etc/cron.deny 
/var/spool/cron/*
at 
atq 
atrm 
crontab

1.111.5 Maintain an effective data backup strategy[edit]

Weight
3 Description:

Description: Candidate should be able to plan a backup strategy and backup filesystems automatically to various media. Tasks include dumping a raw device to a file or vice versa, performing partial and manual backups, verifying the integrity of backup files and partially or fully restoring backups.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

cpio 
dd 
dump 
restore 
tar

1.111.6 Maintain system time[edit]

Weight
4

Description: Candidate should be able to properly maintain the system time and synchronize the clock over NTP. Tasks include setting the system date and time, setting the BIOS clock to the correct time in UTC, configuring the correct timezone for the system and configuring the system to correct clock drift to match NTP clock.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/usr/share/zoneinfo 
/etc/timezone 
/etc/localtime 
/etc/ntp.conf 
/etc/ntp.drift 
date 
hwclock 
ntpd 
ntpdate

Topic 112: Networking Fundamentals[edit]

1.112.1 Fundamentals of TCP/IP[edit]

Weight
4

Description: Candidates should demonstrate a proper understanding of network fundamentals. This objective includes the understanding of IP-addresses, network masks and what they mean (i.e. determine a network and broadcast address for a host based on its subnet mask in "dotted quad" or abbreviated notation or determine the network address, broadcast address and netmask when given an IP-address and number of bits). It also covers the understanding of the network classes and classless subnets (CIDR) and the reserved addresses for private network use. It includes the understanding of the function and application of a default route. It also includes the understanding of basic Internet protocols (IP, ICMP, TCP, UDP) and the more common TCP and UDP ports (20, 21, 23, 25, 53, 80, 110, 119, 139, 143, 161).

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/services
ftp 
telnet 
host 
ping 
dig 
traceroute 
whois

1.112.3 TCP/IP configuration and troubleshooting[edit]

Weight
7

Description: Candidates should be able to view, change and verify configuration settings and operational status for various network interfaces. This objective includes manual and automatic configuration of interfaces and routing tables. This especially means to add, start, stop, restart, delete or reconfigure network interfaces. It also means to change, view or configure the routing table and to correct an improperly set default route manually. Candidates should be able to configure Linux as a DHCP client and a TCP/IP host and to debug problems associated with the network configuration.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/HOSTNAME or /etc/hostname 
/etc/hosts 
/etc/networks 
/etc/host.conf 
/etc/resolv.conf 
/etc/nsswitch.conf
ifconfig 
route 
dhcpcd, dhcpclient, pump 
host 
hostname (domainname, dnsdomainname) 
netstat 
ping 
traceroute 
tcpdump 
the network scripts run during system initialization.

1.112.4 Configure Linux as a PPP client[edit]

Weight
3

Description: Candidates should understand the basics of the PPP protocol and be able to configure and use PPP for outbound connections. This objective includes the definition of the chat sequence to connect (given a login example) and the setup commands to be run automatically when a PPP connection is made. It also includes initialisation and termination of a PPP connection, with a modem, ISDN or ADSL and setting PPP to automatically reconnect if disconnected.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/ppp/options.* 
/etc/ppp/peers/* 
/etc/wvdial.conf 
/etc/ppp/ip-up
/etc/ppp/ip-down
wvdial 
pppd

Topic 113: Networking Services[edit]

1.113.1 Configure and manage inetd, xinetd, and related services[edit]

Weight
4

Description: Candidates should be able to configure which services are available through inetd, use tcpwrappers to allow or deny services on a host-by-host basis, manually start, stop, and restart Internet services, configure basic network services including telnet and ftp. Set a service to run as another user instead of the default in inetd.conf.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/inetd.conf 
/etc/hosts.allow 
/etc/hosts.deny 
/etc/services 
/etc/xinetd.conf 
/etc/xinetd.log

1.113.2 Operate and perform basic configuration of sendmail[edit]

Weight
4

Description: Candidate should be able to modify simple parameters in sendmail configuration files (including the "Smart Host" parameter, if necessary), create mail aliases, manage the mail queue, start and stop sendmail, configure mail forwarding and perform basic troubleshooting of sendmail. The objective includes checking for and closing open relay on the mailserver. It does not include advanced custom configuration of Sendmail.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/aliases or /etc/mail/aliases 
/etc/mail/* 
~/.forward 
mailq 
sendmail 
newaliases

1.113.3 Operate and perform basic configuration of Apache[edit]

Weight
4

Description: Candidates should be able to modify simple parameters in Apache configuration files, start, stop, and restart httpd, arrange for automatic restarting of httpd upon boot. Does not include advanced custom configuration of Apache.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

httpd.conf
apachectl 
httpd 

1.113.4 Properly manage the NFS, smb, and nmb daemons[edit]

Weight
4

Description: Candidate should know how to mount remote filesystems using NFS, configure NFS for exporting local filesystems, start, stop, and restart the NFS server. Install and configure Samba using the included GUI tools or direct edit of the /etc/smb.conf file (Note: this deliberately excludes advanced NT domain issues but includes simple sharing of home directories and printers, as well as correctly setting the nmbd as a WINS client).

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/exports 
/etc/fstab 
/etc/smb.conf 
mount 
umount

1.113.5 Setup and configure basic DNS services[edit]

Weight
4

Description: Candidate should be able to configure hostname lookups and troubleshoot problems with local caching-only name server. Requires an understanding of the domain registration and DNS translation process. Requires understanding key differences in configuration files for bind 4 and bind 8.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/hosts 
/etc/resolv.conf 
/etc/nsswitch.conf 
/etc/named.boot (v.4) or /etc/named.conf (v.8)
named

1.113.7 Set up secure shell (OpenSSH)[edit]

Weight
4

Description: The candidate should be able to obtain and configure OpenSSH. This objective includes basic OpenSSH installation and troubleshooting, as well as configuring sshd to start at system boot.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/hosts.allow 
/etc/hosts.deny 
/etc/nologin 
/etc/ssh/sshd_config 
/etc/ssh_known_hosts 
/etc/sshrc 
sshd 
ssh-keygen 

Topic 114: Security[edit]

1.114.1 Perform security administration tasks[edit]

Weight
4

Description: Candidates should know how to review system configuration to ensure host security in accordance with local security policies. This objective includes how to configure TCP wrappers, find files with SUID/SGID bit set, verify packages, set or change user passwords and password aging information, update binaries as recommended by CERT, BUGTRAQ, and/or distribution's security alerts. Includes basic knowledge of ipchains and iptables.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/proc/net/ip_fwchains 
/proc/net/ip_fwnames 
/proc/net/ip_masquerade 
find 
ipchains 
passwd 
socket 
iptables

1.114.2 Setup host security[edit]

Weight
3

Description: Candidate should know how to set up a basic level of host security. Tasks include syslog configuration, shadowed passwords, set up of a mail alias for root's mail and turning of all network services not in use.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

/etc/inetd.conf or /etc/inet.d/*
/etc/nologin 
/etc/passwd 
/etc/shadow 
/etc/syslog.conf

1.114.3 Setup user level security[edit]

Weight
1

Description: Candidate should be able to configure user level security. Tasks include limits on user logins, processes, and memory usage.

Key files, terms, and utilities include:

quota 
usermod