Kapampangan/Inclusive And Exclusive We

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Part A: Description[edit]

Distinction between inclusive we and exclusive we is required in Kapampangan. Inclusive "we" specifically includes the addressees (that is, one of the words for "we" means "you and I"), while exclusive "we" specifically excludes them (that is, another word for "we" means "them and I, but not you"), regardless of who else may be involved.

ikata (dual inclusive), ikatamu (plural inclusive), and ikami (exclusive).

Part B: Application[edit]

Part C: Exercises[edit]

Part D: Summary[edit]

You now know how to use the various Kapampangan translations of "We". Also you have learned the following new words and phrases:

Kap. word 1 Eng. trans 1
word 2 trans 2

Part E: Formal description[edit]

In linguistics, clusivity is a distinction between inclusive and exclusive first-person pronouns and verbal morphology, also called inclusive "we" and exclusive "we". Inclusive "we" specifically includes the addressees (that is, one of the words for "we" means "you and I"), while exclusive "we" specifically excludes them (that is, another word for "we" means "he/she/they and I, but not you"), regardless of who else may be involved.


Clusivity paradigms may be summarized as a two-by-two grid (this grid addresses only plural forms):

Includes the addressee?
Yes No
Includes
the speaker?
Yes Inclusive we Exclusive we
No 2nd person 3rd person