Japanese/Lessons/Introduction/Ogenki desu ka/Yes and no
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- はい hai: yes
- ええ ee: yes (less formal)
- うん un: yeah (less formal)
- そう sou: so, like that
- いいえ iie: no
- いえ ie: no (less formal)
- いや iya: nope (less formal)
- ううん uun: oh, no (less formal)
違います chigaimasu: That's wrong. (formal) 違う chigau: That's wrong. (informal) 分かりません wakarimasen: I don't know. (formal) 分からない wakaranai: I don't know. (informal) 分かんない wakannai: I don't know. (very informal)
- どうですかね dou desu ka ne: Hmm...I wonder. (formal)
- どうかなあ dou ka naa: Hmm...I wonder. (informal - masculine)
- どうかしら dou kashira: Hmm...I wonder. (informal - feminine)
- The basic words for "yes" and "no" are はい hai and いいえ iie. However, as you see above, there are many variants, as well as other common responses to yes/no questions.
- Comparing はい hai, ええ ee, and うん un
- はい hai is a general purpose way of saying "yes" and can be used in almost any situation.
- ええ ee is a more formal way of saying "yes" and also carries a somewhat feminine connotation.
- うん un is a more casual way of saying "yes" and is closer to the English word "yeah".
- Comparing いいえ iie, いえ ie, いや iya, and ううん uun
- いいえ iie is a general purpose way of saying "no" and can be used whenever a clear-cut "no" is needed.
- いえ ie is a non-slurred version of the above.
- いや iya is a less formal version and also caries a masculine connotation.
- ううん uun is informal and connotes a bit of surprise. It could be translated as "oh, no" or "certainly not".
As a statement, そう sou can be used by itself as an interjection or as a na-adjective followed by です desu or だ da. As a question, そう sou can be used by itself with a rising tone, or followed by か ka or ですか desu ka. It means "that is right," or "that is so," and is used as an affirmative answer to a question.
- Interjection examples
学生ですか。 Gakusei desu ka?
- そうです。 Sou desu.
- Are you a student?
- Yes, I am.
- そうよ。 Sou yo.
- Are you American?
- Yes, I am.
看護士です。 Kangoshi desu.
- そうですか。 Sou desu ka?
- I'm a nurse.
- Are you really?
簡単な 宿題だ。 Kantan na shukudai da.
- そう？ Sou?
- This is simple homework.
- Is it?
- Na-adjective examples
弁護士さんですか。Bengoshi-san desu ka?
- そうです。Sou desu.
In Japanese, はい hai is similar to the English word "yes", while いいえ iie is similar to "no". The use of the Japanese terms, however, does not correspond exactly to that of the English words. More precisely, はい hai in Japanese means, "I agree with you", or, "It is correct." Thus, English speakers may struggle with the proper Japanese answer to negative questions (e.g. Don't you ...? or ..., don't you?). Specifically, はい hai answers a negative question in the sense that corresponds to the English "No". Likewise, いいえ iie answers a negative question in the sense that corresponds to the English "Yes".