Irish/English-Irish Cognates

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The English and Irish words in this list generally agree sufficiently in both spelling and pronunciation between the languages to be immediately recognisable, and also have the same meaning in both languages. They therefore can be of help, especially for the novices.

The words in the word pairs in this list are similar, since in 'fairly recent time' one of them was borrowed from the other, or both were borrowed from a third language. 'Fairly recent time' here in general stands for 'At most a few hundred years back'. There are also word pairs which are related, but where the common ancestor of the words split at an earlier time. In fact, there are many such words, since both English and Irish ultimately derive from a common Proto-Indo-European language, spoken perhaps five thousand years ago. However, both language branches changed radically in these millennia, and most such 'cognates' are unrecognisable to-day, without studying a bit of philology. For examples, English three and Irish tri are cognates, originating from the same Proto-Indo-European word, as are four and ceathair. The first pair actually might be recognised also without an interest in etymologies, but hardly the second one.

English Irish
able ábalta
abnormal mi-normálta
banana banana
bar barra
bolt bolta
brandy branda
bulb bulba
cable cábla
camp campa
can canna
card carta
clamp clampa
cord corda
coast costa
coat cota
crock croca
cross crosta
crust crusta
cube ciúb
drum druma
drug druga
dust dusta
elephant eilifint
force fórsa
form forma
gate geata
gross grósa
group grúpa
gun gunna
hall halla
hat hata
lamp lampa
monkey moncaí
muff mufa
mug muga
normal normálta
note nóta
pack paca
pearl péarla
pan panna
pin pionna
piece piosa
plug pluga
plum pluma
plate plata
pot pota
pump pumpa
plug pluga
prune prúna
raft rafta
ramp rampa
rasp raspa
robe roba
roll rolla
roast rósta
roll rolla
root ruta
rope rópa
rug ruga
rung runga
sample sampla
scroll scrolla
sloop slúpa
slug sluga
spoke spóca
spot spota
stall stalla
stamp stampa
strap strapa
stump stumpa
table tabla
tar tarra
theme téama
ton tonna
turnip tornapa
toast tósta
tug tuga
volt volta
vote vóta