Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Ethics
Intellectual Property Rights
The general definition of the word ethics, define the elements important to humans' morals. Ethics could be referred to as specific values, standards, rules, and agreements. For example, not being involved in software piracy, is a matter of ethics. Computer ethics is a set of morals that regulate the use of computers. It is important for computer users to be aware of the ethical use of copyrighted material, the ethical use of resources and information, and ethical use of school, company, and employee information. Common issues of computer ethics are the following: privacy concerns, how computer affects society, and intellectual property rights. It is a very common and easy practice to burn a CD or movie for a friend. However, another option would be to tell the friend to buy the CD or movie as an ethical alternative. The privacy of another person is also an ethical issue of today. People's information are easily accessible through the computer; the ethical solution would be to not access another person's private information, unless given permission. Ethics certainly guide our behavior, and it is the source of the acts we will and will not part take in.
Computers and Your Health
Because of our fast growth and use of technology there are many positive advantages of using computers and much more; however, in recent years emotional health has become an important factor with the use of computers and technology. The use of computers in general can cause much stress and anxiety for workers in different fields today. When computers were first introduced to the working field, secretaries had to learn how to change from a typewriter to a keyboard. Many people now widely understand the use of computers, but the downfall is keeping up with the changing technology.  Every few years a new system, computer design, etc. are updated and sent out to the market. This makes operating a company more difficult when programs and systems need to be updated. Because the Internet can be accessed 24/7 the stress of being “on-call” is worrisome to many workers. They worry they do not have enough down time to themselves, after they come home from work that day. In the U.S. information is right at citizens’ fingertips, which can sometimes create an information overload. There is always news to be caught up with, as well as catching up with email, text messages, and social media as well. Many can become exhausted from being on the computer (or cell phone) too much. This is called burnout which is long-term exhaustion and diminished interest in work.  A more common type of “emotional health” deals with teenagers who have a technology addiction. Social media plays a huge role in this now today. 
The Americans with Disabilities Act requires companies with more than 15 employees to make reasonable accommodations for anyone that has known limitations. Nowadays, there is hardware and software specifically designed to aid individuals with physical disabilities. The most common technology that has been introduced is used to help those who are visually impaired or hard of hearing. There are various input devices available today to assist users communicate, usually on the computer. Braille or large-print keyboards, one-handed keyboards, switches, eye tracking systems, pointing devices, and voice input devices are all used today. In addition to the various input devices, there are output systems as well. The most common one is a screen reader that can read text information for the blind. There are also printers that can print in Braille instead of the conventional ink. Assistive technology is not always the best option, however. Often times it can be too expensive for the individual and not match their exact needs.  Devices should be researched and tried out before purchasing. Training for these devices also needs to be taken into consideration. For example, what if this technology stops working for the user?
Green Computing is refers to the use of computers in an environmentally friendly manner, but computing is not currently as environmental friendly. According to the guide to greener electronics only 2 out of 18 of the Pc are considered on the green rating. The reason is because companies are subjected to make energy and hence cost saving in the face of rising electricity prices. One of the activates that could help environmental savings is existing hardware which can be in place of it there are software’s called LittleGreenGenie. This software permit certain individuals to measure reduce and carbon offset from computer use. Its stats that it takes about 1.8 tons of chemicals, fossil fuels and water to produce a typical desktop computer and there’s about one billion PCs sold. Although putting a computer on standby or sleep mode will save a lot of power, people are unaware that shutting down a computer doesn't completely turn it off because the computer power supply will remain physically switched on. This leads the motherboard still partially on waiting for a signal to boot up again. The following are certain tasks that can be beneficial in reducing energy consumption which are lower power hard drive, visualization, cloud computing, energy effecting coding, improved repair, re-use recycling and disposable and less pollutant manufacture.  
Terms and Definitions 
assistive technology Hardware and software specifically designed for use by individuals with physical disabilities.
burnout A state of fatigue or frustration usually brought on by overwork.
business ethics Standards of moral conduct that guide a business’s policies, decisions, and actions.
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) A painful and crippling condition affecting the hands and wrist that can be caused by computer use.
code of conduct A policy, often for a school or business, that specifies allowable use of resources, such as computers and other equipment.
code of ethics A policy, often for an organization or industry, that specifies overall moral guidelines adopted by that organization or industry.
computer ethics Standards of moral conduct as they relate to computer use.
computer hoax An inaccurate statement or story spread through the use of computers.
copyright The legal right to sell, publish, or distribute an original artistic or literary work; it is held by the creator of a work as soon as it exists in physical form.
cybersquatting The act of registering a domain name with the intent to profit from the goodwill of a trademark belonging to someone else.
DeQuervain’s tendonitis A condition in which the tendons on the thumb side of the wrist are swollen and irritated.
digital divide The gap between those who have access to technology and those who do not.
digital manipulation The alteration of digital content, usually text or photographs. digital rights management (DRM) software Software used to protect and manage the rights of creators of digital content, such as art, music, photographs, and movies.
digital watermark A subtle alteration of digital content that is not noticeable when the work is viewed or played but that identifies the copyright holder.
docking station A device designed to easily connect a portable computer to conventional hardware, such as a keyboard, mouse, monitor, and printer.
eco-label A certification, usually by a government agency, that identifies a device as meeting minimal environmental performance specifications.
ENERGY STAR A program developed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to encourage the development of energy-saving devices.
ergonomic hardware Hardware, typically an input or output device, that is designed to be more ergonomically correct than its nonergonomic counterpart.
ergonomics The science of fitting a work environment to the people who work there.
ethics Overall standards of moral conduct.
etrash Electronic trash or waste, such as discarded computer components.
green computing The use of computers in an environmentally friendly manner.
intellectual property rights The legal rights to which creators of original creative works (such as artistic or literary works, inventions, corporate logos, and more) are entitled.
Internet addiction The problem of overusing, or being unable to stop using, the Internet.
notebook stand A device that elevates the display of a notebook or tablet computer to a better viewing height; can contain USB ports to connect additional hardware.
patent A form of protection for an invention that can be granted by the government; gives exclusive rights of an invention to its inventor for 20 years.
plagiarism' Presenting someone else’s work as your own.
repetitive stress injury (RSI) A type of injury, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, that is caused by performing the same physical movements over and over again.
trademark A word, phrase, symbol, or design that identifies goods or services.
True or False
1. All unethical acts are illegal.
2. Changing the background behind a television newscaster to make it appear that he or she is reporting on location instead of from inside the television studio would be an example of digital manipulation.
3. Carpal tunnel syndrome can be caused by using a computer keyboard.
4. As computer use has become more common, the potential for stress related to computer use has decreased.
5. Assistive technology is hardware and software designed to help all beginning computer users learn how to use a computer.
6. A software program would be protected by copyrightlaw, while a corporate logo would be protected by trademark law.
7. Turning in a copy of a poem you found on a Web site as your original composition for a poetry class assignment is an example of plagiarism.
8. Registering the domain name microsft.com to profit from it would be an act of cybersquatting.
9. The digital divide can be used to describe discrepancies in access to technology by individuals within a country, as well as to compare access from country to country.
10. Match each term to its description or example, and write the corresponding number in the blank to the left of each description or example.
A. What the symbol © stands for.
B. Can vary from another's depending on his or her values, culture, and so forth.
C. A warning about a nonexistent virus spread via e-mail.
D. A subtle alteration of digital content that identifies the copyright holder.
i. Computer hoax
iii. Digital watermark
6. copyright; trademark
9. digital divide
10. A. ii. B. iv. C. i. D. iii.