Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Computer Networks and the Internet

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The History of the Internet[edit]

The history of the internet begins in 1962 with J.C.R. Licklider’s memos about an Intergalactic Network idea, in which users around the world are connected and can access programs and data. With colleagues, he forms a research program called Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO). After an experiment with an air travel reservation system, the first communication satellite is launched that can allow machines to exchange data. Soon, IBM introduces System 360 computers into the market which becomes remarkably popular. American Airlines debuts IBM’s SABRE air travel reservation system to process on-line transactions, which links over 50 cities through telephone lines (1964).

Original Macintosh Computer

[1] By 1965 the first wide-area network connection is established by Larry Roberts and Thomas Marill. Over the next four years, the Network Working Group works diligently, creating a router, a modem, and even experimenting with monitors. On October 29, 1969 the first host-to-host connection was made! Then, over 3 years, memory, speed, processing, and communication capabilities are tested and refined and protocols are made. By 1973, 30 institutions are connected to the network called ARPANET.[2] In 1977 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak announce the Apple II computer, opening the consumer and small business market for computers. This led to the creation of more modems for dial up services. A computer science research network called USENET sets up a server where newsgroups can post to, in 1979. A year later an email only service opens. Less than a decade later, 30,000 networks are on the internet due to the advances with computers, including the new Macintosh computer and the use of Ethernet. [3] Within 2 years the number of hosts jumps to over 160,000! By 1991 over 600,000 hosts are connected in over 100 countries! [4] In just 30 years the hypothetical concept J.C.R. Licklider once toyed with has become a part of everyday life! A lot of experimenting and funding went into the creation of this remarkable "cyberspace."

From ISP to URL[edit]

Domain names are like fingerprints; no two are alike.

Now that you know the history of how the internet came to be, it's time to start exploring. You double-click your browser of choice, the screen opens up... and you start drawing blanks. 'Where do I go from here?' you might start asking yourself. Just take a deep breath; using the internet isn't as complicated as you might think. The most important thing to understand before you start browsing through the cornucopia of online resources is the internet address. Just like a street name and number is necessary if you want to visit a friend, the internet address in the top and leftmost white bar is necessary to take you wherever you'd like to go online. The two parts that make up an address are the URL and the domain name. The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) uniquely identifies a specific Web page and is the http (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) or https (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) part of the web address. Everything that you type after the URL is the domain name, which is defined as the textual method of identifying computers available through the internet. If you want to have your own website, you have to buy the domain name and then build upon your address. [5] The most interesting tidbit about domain names is that, just like fingerprints, no two can ever be the same. Unfortunately, this means you can't ever own the domain name www.apetit.com.

Internet Communication[edit]

Facebook icon.jpg

In today's technologically booming society, there are hundreds of ways we are connected to computers and the Internet every day. We use computer networks (collections of computers and other devices that are connected together to enable users to share multiple forms of information)[6] on a daily basis. While it is not always free to do so, such as having to pay an Internet service provider (ISP), there are many places that offer free wifi to people in their area. Today, we mostly use networks for social media, communication, and spreading of information. Think of the networks in your life. I'm guessing something like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or LinkedIn came to mind along with many others[7]. These are all networks that allow us to share information whether it be personal, images, news stories, surveys, information on new products, etc., these networks have become engrained into our daily lives and most people see them as helpful devices for distance communication and spreading of ideas. Another way we use the Internet for communication is through email. Most people today have an email address because they are required for registration for many different things we use on a daily basis (such as the networks previously listed)[8]. Today's evolving technology is making it easier to access things like networks and email through all of the mobile devices available and the use of apps or condensed mobile versions of the full desktop websites. All in all, the Internet and computer have changed our world in forms of communication.

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