Intellectual Property and the Internet/Arab Spring

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to: navigation, search

The Arab Spring (Template:Lang-ar ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabiyy), otherwise known as the Arab Awakening,[1] is a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world that began on Saturday, 18 December 2010. To date, there have been revolutions in Tunisia[2] and Egypt;[3] a civil war in Libya resulting in the fall of its government;[4] civil uprisings in Bahrain,[5] Syria,[6] and Yemen, the latter resulting in the resignation of the Yemeni prime minister;[7] major protests in Algeria,[8] Iraq,[9] Jordan,[10] Kuwait,[11] Morocco,[12] and Oman;[13] and minor protests in Lebanon,[14] Mauritania, Saudi Arabia,[15] Sudan,[16] and Western Sahara.[17] Clashes at the borders of Israel in May 2011 and the Palestine 194 movement were also inspired by the regional Arab Spring.[18]

The protests have shared techniques of civil resistance in sustained campaigns involving strikes, demonstrations, marches and rallies, as well as the use of social media to organize, communicate, and raise awareness in the face of state attempts at repression and Internet censorship.[19]

Many demonstrations have met violent responses from authorities,[20][21][22] as well as from pro-government militias and counter-demonstrators.[23][24][25] A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world has been ash-shab yurid isqat an-nizam ("the people want to bring down the regime").[26]

Overview[edit]

The series of protests and demonstrations across the Middle East and North Africa has become known as the "Arab Spring",[27][28][29] and sometimes as the "Arab Spring and Winter",[30] "Arab Awakening"[31][32][33] or "Arab Uprisings"[34][35] even though not all the participants in the protests are Arab. It was sparked by the first protests that occurred in Tunisia on 18 December 2010 following Mohamed Bouazizi's self-immolation in protest of police corruption and ill treatment.[36][37] With the success of the protests in Tunisia, a wave of unrest sparked by the Tunisian "Burning Man" struck Algeria, Jordan, Egypt, and Yemen,[38] then spread to other countries. The largest, most organised demonstrations have often occurred on a "day of rage", usually Friday after noon prayers.[39][40][41] The protests have also triggered similar unrest outside the region.

Template:As of, governments have been overthrown in three countries. Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia on 14 January 2011 following the Tunisian revolution protests. In Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak resigned on 11 February 2011 after 18 days of massive protests, ending his 30-year presidency. The Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown on 23 August 2011, after the National Transitional Council (NTC) took control of Bab al-Azizia. He was killed on 20 October 2011, in his hometown of Sirte after the NTC took control of the city.

During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intentions to step down at the end of their current terms. President Ali Abdullah Saleh of Yemen, signed the GCC deal in Riyadh on 23 November 2011 which allows him to transfer power within 30 days and formally step down by February 2012, in exchange for immunity from prosecution. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek re-election in 2015,[42] as did Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, whose term ends in 2014,[43] although there have been increasingly violent demonstrations demanding his immediate resignation.[44] Protests in Jordan have also caused the sacking of two successive governments[45][46] by King Abdullah.[47]

The geopolitical implications of the protests have drawn global attention,[48] including the suggestion that some protesters may be nominated for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize.[49] Tawakel Karman from Yemen was one of the three laureates of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize as a prominent leader in the Arab Spring. In December 2011, Time magazine named "The Protester" its "Person of the Year".[50]

Template:Annotated image

Summary of protests by country[edit]

Country Date started Status of protests Outcome Death toll Situation
Template:Flag 02010-12-1818 December 2010  • Government overthrow on 14 January 2011
 • Protests ended March 2011
 • Pressure on elected government continues
Overthrow of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali; Ben Ali flees into exile in Saudi Arabia

 • Resignation of Prime Minister Ghannouchi
 • Dissolution of the political police[51]
 • Dissolution of the RCD, the former ruling party of Tunisia and liquidation of its assets[52]
 • Release of political prisoners
 • Elections to a Constituent Assembly on 23 October 2011[53]

223[54][55] Government overthrown
Template:Flag 02010-12-2828 December 2010 Subdued since April 2011  • Lifting of the 19-year-old state of emergency[56][57] 8[58] Major protests
Template:Flag 02011-01-1212 January 2011 Limited  • A 40% increase in wages[59] 0 Protests and governmental changes
Template:Flag 02011-01-1414 January 2011 Ongoing  • King Abdullah II dismisses Prime Minister Rifai and his cabinet[60]

 • Months later, Abdullah dismisses Prime Minister Bakhit and his cabinet after complaints of slow progress on promised reforms[61]

4[62][63] Protests and governmental changes
Template:Flag 02011-01-1717 January 2011 Subdued since May 2011 1[64] Minor protests
Template:Flag 02011-01-1717 January 2011 Subdued since April 2011  • President Bashir announces he will not seek another term in 2015[65] 1[66] Minor protests
Template:Flag 02011-01-1717 January 2011 Ended May 2011  • Economic concessions by Sultan Qaboos[67][68]

 • Dismissal of ministers[69][70]
 • Granting of lawmaking powers to Oman's elected legislature[71]

2–6[72][73][74] Protests and governmental changes
Template:Flag 02011-01-2121 January 2011 Sustained small protests in Eastern Saudi Arabia  • Economic concessions by King Abdullah[75][76]

 • Male-only municipal elections held 29 September 2011[77][78]
 • King Abdullah announces women's approval to vote and be elected in 2015 municipal elections and to be nominated to the Shura Council[79]

8[80][81][82] Minor protests
Template:Flag 02011-01-2525 January 2011  • Government overthrown on 11 February 2011
 • Protests ongoing
Overthrow of Hosni Mubarak; Mubarak charged for killing protesters

 • Resignation of Prime Minister(s) Nazif and Shafik[83]
 • Assumption of power by the Armed Forces[84]
 • Suspension of the Constitution, dissolution of the Parliament[85]
 • Disbanding of State Security Investigations Service[86]
 • Dissolution of the NDP, the former ruling party of Egypt and transfer of its assets to the state[87]
 • Prosecution of Mubarak, his family and his former ministers[88][89][90]

846[91][92] Government overthrown
Template:Flag 02011-01-2727 January 2011  • President signs transition deal on 23 November 2011
 • Protests ongoing
 • Resignation of MPs from the ruling party[93]

 • On 4 June, President Ali Abdullah Saleh is injured in an attack on his compound in the Yemeni capital Sana'a. Saleh returned to Yemen on 23 September 2011[94]
 • On 23 November, Saleh signed a power-transfer agreement brokered by the Gulf Cooperation Council in Riyadh, ending his 33-year reign[95][96]

1,784-1,870[97] Sustained civil disorder and governmental changes
Template:Flag 02011-02-1010 February 2011 Subdued since August 2011  • Prime Minister Maliki announces that he will not run for a 3rd term;[98]

 • Resignation of provincial governors and local authorities[99]

35[100] Major protests
Template:Flag 02011-02-1414 February 2011 Ongoing  • Economic concessions by King Hamad[101]

 • Release of political prisoners[102]
 • Negotiations with Shia representatives[103]
 • GCC intervention at the request of the Government of Bahrain
 • Head of the National Security Apparatus removed from post[104]
 • Formation of a committee to implement BICI report recommendations[105]

55[106] Sustained civil disorder and governmental changes
Template:Flag 02011-02-1515 February 2011  • Government overthrown on 23 August 2011
 • War ended 23 October 2011
Overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi killed by NTC forces

 • UN-mandated military intervention ended with NATO withdrawal[107]
 • Opposition forces takes control of all Libyan cities
 • Assumption of interim control by National Transitional Council
 • International recognition of NTC as the sole governing authority for Libya
 • Beginning of sporadic low-level fighting and clashes[108]

25,000[109]–30,000[110] Government overthrown
Template:Flag 02011-02-1818 February 2011 Subdued since 31 March 2011, resumed in September and ended in November.[111]  • Resignation of Cabinet[112]

 • Resignation of the Government[113]

0[114] Protests and governmental changes
Template:Flag 02011-02-2020 February 2011 Ongoing  • Political concessions by King Mohammed VI;[115]

 • Referendum on constitutional reforms;
 • Respect to civil rights and an end to corruption[116]

1[117] Protests and governmental changes
Western Sahara 02011-02-2626 February 2011 Subdued since May 2011 0 Minor protests
Template:Flag 02011-03-1515 March 2011 - Ongoing  • Release of some political prisoners;[118][119]
 • End of Emergency Law;

 • Dismissal of Provincial Governors;[120][121]
 • Military action in Hama, Daraa, Homs and other areas;[122]
 • Resignations from Parliament;[123]
 • Resignation of the Government;[124]
 • Large defections from the Syrian army and clashes between soldiers and defectors;[125]
 • Formation of the Free Syrian Army
 • Formation of the Syrian National Council[126]
 • Syria suspended from the Arab League
 • International support for a new Syrian government in exile

5,000[127] Sustained civil disorder and government changes
Israeli border areas 02011-05-1515 May 2011 Ended 5 June 2011 30–40[128][129] Major protests
Total death toll: 32,000–37,800+ (International estimate, ongoing)

Background[edit]

Motivations[edit]

Numerous factors have led to the protests, including issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchy, human rights violations, government corruption (demonstrated by Wikileaks diplomatic cables),[130] economic decline, unemployment, extreme poverty, and a number of demographic structural factors,[131] such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the population.[132] Also, someTemplate:Who attribute the 2009 Iranian protests as one of the reasons behind the Arab Spring.[133] The catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulf countries have been the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats in power for decades, insufficient transparency of its redistribution, corruption, and especially the refusal of the youth to accept the status quo.[134] Increasing food prices and global famine rates have also been a significant factor, as they involve threats to food security worldwide and prices that approach levels of the 2007–2008 world food price crisis.[135] Amnesty International singled out Wikileaks' release of US diplomatic cables as a catalyst for the revolts.[136]

In recent decades rising living standards and literacy rates, as well as the increased availability of higher education, have resulted in an improved human development index in the affected countries. The tension between rising aspirations and a lack of government reform may have been a contributing factor in all of the protests.[134][137][138] Many of the Internet-savvy youth of these countries have, increasingly over the years, been viewing autocrats and absolute monarchies as anachronisms. A university professor of Oman, Al-Najma Zidjaly referred to this upheaval as youthquake.[134]

Tunisia and Egypt, the first to witness major uprisings, differ from other North African and Middle Eastern nations such as Algeria and Libya in that they lack significant oil revenue, and were thus unable to make concessions to calm the masses.[134]

Recent history[edit]

The current wave of protests is not an entirely new phenomenon, resulting in part from the activities of dissident activists as well as members of a variety of social and union organizations that have been active for years in Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, and other countries in the area, as well as in the territory of Western Sahara.[139]

Tunisia experienced a series of conflicts over the past three years, the most notable occurring in the mining area of Gafsa in 2008, where protests continued for many months. These protests included rallies, sit-ins, and strikes, during which there were two fatalities, an unspecified number of wounded, and dozens of arrests.[139][140] The Egyptian labor movement had been strong for years, with more than 3,000 labor actions since 2004.[141] One important demonstration was an attempted workers' strike on 6 April 2008 at the state-run textile factories of al-Mahalla al-Kubra, just outside Cairo. The idea for this type of demonstration spread throughout the country, promoted by computer-literate working class youths and their supporters among middle-class college students.[141] A Facebook page, set up to promote the strike, attracted tens of thousands of followers. The government mobilized to break the strike through infiltration and riot police, and while the regime was somewhat successful in forestalling a strike, dissidents formed the "6 April Committee" of youths and labor activists, which became one of the major forces calling for the anti-Mubarak demonstration on 25 January in Tahrir Square.[141]

In Algeria, discontent had been building for years over a number of issues. In February 2008, United States Ambassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria is 'unhappy' with long-standing political alienation; that social discontent persisted throughout the country, with food strikes occurring almost every week; that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the country; and that the Algerian government was corrupt and fragile.[142] Some have claimed that during 2010 there were as many as '9,700 riots and unrests' throughout the country.[143] Many protests focused on issues such as education and health care, while others cited rampant corruption.[144]

In Western Sahara, the Gdeim Izik protest camp was erected 12 km south-east of El Aaiún by a group of young Sahrawis on 9 October 2010. Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination, unemployment, looting of resources, and human rights abuses.[145] The camp contained between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants, but on 8 November 2010 it was destroyed and its inhabitants evicted by Moroccan security forces. The security forces faced strong opposition from some young Sahrawi civilians, and rioting soon spread to El Aaiún and other towns within the territory, resulting in an unknown number of injuries and deaths. Violence against Sahrawis in the aftermath of the protests was cited as a reason for renewed protests months later, after the start of the Arab Spring.[146]

The catalyst for the current escalation of protests was the self-immolation of Tunisian Mohamed Bouazizi. A college graduate, he was unable to find work and was selling fruit at a roadside stand until the police confiscated his wares. The next day, December 17, he doused himself with gasoline and set himself afire. His death on January 4[147] brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including many unemployed, political and human rights activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, and others to begin the Tunisian Revolution.[139]

Tunisian revolution[edit]

Protesters in downtown Tunis on 14 January 2011

Following the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi in Sidi Bouzid, a series of increasingly violent street demonstrations through December 2010 ultimately led to the ouster of longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali on 14 January 2011. The demonstrations were preceded by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption,[148] lack of freedom of speech and other forms of political freedom,[149] and poor living conditions. The protests constituted the most dramatic wave of social and political unrest in Tunisia in three decades,[150][151] and have resulted in scores of deaths and injuries, most of which were the result of action by police and security forces against demonstrators. Ben Ali fled into exile in Saudi Arabia, ending his 23 years in power.[152][153]

Following Ben Ali's departure, a state of emergency was declared and a caretaker coalition government was created, which included members of Ben Ali's party, the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD), as well as opposition figures from other ministries. However, the five newly appointed non-RCD ministers resigned almost immediately.[154][155] As a result of continued daily protests, on 27 January Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi reshuffled the government, removing all former RCD members other than himself, and on 6 February the former ruling party was suspended;[156] later, on 9 March, it was dissolved.[157] Following further public protests, Ghannouchi himself resigned on 27 February, and Beji Caid el Sebsi became Prime Minister.

On 23 October 2011, citizens voted in the first post-revolution election to elect representatives to a 217-member constituent assembly that would be responsible for the new constitution.[158]

Egyptian revolution[edit]

Celebrations in Tahrir Square after Omar Suleiman's statement concerning Hosni Mubarak's resignation

Following the uprising in Tunisia and prior to his entry as a central figure in Egyptian politics, potential presidential candidate Mohamed ElBaradei warned of a 'Tunisia-style explosion' in Egypt.[159]

Protests in Egypt began on 25 January and ran for 18 days. Beginning around midnight on 28 January, the Egyptian government attempted, somewhat successfully, to eliminate the nation's Internet access, in order to inhibit the protesters' ability to organize through social media.[160] Later that day, as tens of thousands protested on the streets of Egypt's major cities, President Mubarak dismissed his government, later appointing a new cabinet. Mubarak also appointed the first Vice President in almost 30 years.

On 10 February, Mubarak ceded all presidential power to Vice President Omar Suleiman, but soon thereafter announced that he would remain as President until the end of his term.[161] However, protests continued the next day, and Suleiman quickly announced that Mubarak had resigned from the presidency and transferred power to the Armed Forces of Egypt.[162] The military immediately dissolved the Egyptian Parliament, suspended the Constitution of Egypt, and promised to lift the nation's thirty-year "emergency laws". A civilian, Essam Sharaf, was appointed as Prime Minister of Egypt on 4 March to widespread approval among Egyptians in Tahrir Square.[163] Protests have continued through the end of 2011, however, in response to Sharaf and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces' perceived sluggishness in instituting reforms.[164]

Libyan civil war[edit]

Thousands of demonstrators gather in Bayda

After the success of the revolution in Tunisia, a protest on living conditions began on 14 January in Bayda, Libya, where protesters clashed with police and attacked government offices.[165] Anti-government protests began in Libya on 15 February 2011. By 18 February, the opposition controlled most of Benghazi, the country's second-largest city. The government dispatched elite troops and mercenaries in an attempt to recapture it, but they were repelled. By 20 February, protests had spread to the capital Tripoli, leading to a television address by Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, who warned the protestors that their country could descend into civil war. The rising death toll, numbering in the thousands, drew international condemnation and resulted in the resignation of several Libyan diplomats, along with calls for the regime's dismantlement.[166]

On 26 February 2011, amidst ongoing efforts by demonstrators and rebel forces to wrest control of Tripoli from the Jamahiriya, the opposition set up an interim government in Benghazi to oppose Colonel Muammar Gaddafi's rule.[167][168] However, despite initial opposition success, government forces subsequently took back much of the Mediterranean coast.

On 17 March, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 was adopted, authorising a no-fly zone over Libya, and "all necessary measures" to protect civilians. Two days later, France, the United States and the United Kingdom intervened in Libya with a bombing campaign against pro-Gaddafi forces. A coalition of 27 states from Europe and the Middle East soon joined the intervention. The forces were driven back from the outskirts of Benghazi, and the rebels mounted an offensive, capturing scores of towns across the coast of Libya. The offensive stalled however, and a counter-offensive by the government retook most of the towns, until a stalemate was formed between Brega and Ajdabiya, the former being held by the government and the latter in the hands of the rebels. Focus then shifted to the west of the country, where bitter fighting continued. After a three-month-long battle, a loyalist siege of rebel-held Misrata, the third largest city in Libya, was broken in large part due to coalition air strikes. The four major fronts of combat were generally considered to be the Nafusa Mountains, the Tripolitanian coast, the Gulf of Sidra,[169] and the southern Libyan Desert.[170]

In late August, anti-Gaddafi fighters captured Tripoli, scattering Gaddafi's government and marking the end of his 42 years of autocracy. Many institutions of the government, including Gaddafi and several top regime officials, regrouped in Sirte, which Gaddafi declared to be Libya's new capital.[171] Others fled to Sabha, Bani Walid, and remote reaches of the Libyan Desert, or to surrounding countries.[172][173] However, Sabha fell in late September,[174] Bani Walid was captured after a grueling siege weeks later,[175] and on 20 October, fighters under the aegis of the National Transitional Council seized Sirte, killing Gaddafi in the process.[176]

Yemeni uprising[edit]

Protests in Sana‘a

Protests occurred in many towns in both the north and south of Yemen starting in mid-January. Demonstrators initially protested against governmental proposals to modify the constitution of Yemen, unemployment and economic conditions,[177] and corruption,[178] but their demands soon included a call for the resignation of President Ali Abdullah Saleh,[178][179][180] who had been facing internal opposition from his closest advisors since 2009.[181] A major demonstration of over 16,000 protesters took place in Sana'a on 27 January,[182] and soon thereafter human rights activist and politician Tawakel Karman called for a "Day of Rage" on 3 February.[183] According to Xinhua News, organizers were calling for a million protesters.[184] In response to the planned protest, Ali Abdullah Saleh stated that he would not seek another presidential term in 2013.[185] On 3 February, 20,000 protesters demonstrated against the government in Sana'a,[186][187] others participated in a "Day of Rage" in Aden[188] that was called for by Tawakel Karman,[183] while soldiers, armed members of the General People's Congress, and many protestors held a pro-government rally in Sana'a.[189] Concurrent with the resignation of Egyptian president Mubarak, Yemenis again took to the streets protesting President Saleh on 11 February, in what has been dubbed a "Friday of Rage".[190] The protests continued in the days following despite clashes with government advocates.[191] In a "Friday of Anger" held on 18 February, tens of thousands of Yemenis took part in anti-government demonstrations in the major cities of Sana'a, Taiz, and Aden. In the capital, Sana'a, the crowd marched towards the Presidential Palace, chanting anti-government slogans, despite the attempts of riot police to stop them. Three people were killed in the demonstrations, one of whom was killed by a hand grenade in Taiz. There were also reports of gunfire in Aden during a rally, and as the riots continued overnight protesters set fire to a local government building. Security forces killed one demonstrator, and killed another demonstrator during protests the following day.[192] Protests continued over the following months, especially in the three major cities, and briefly intensified in late May into urban warfare between Hashid tribesmen and army defectors allied with the opposition on one side and security forces and militias loyal to Saleh on the other.[193]

After Saleh pretended to accept a Gulf Cooperation Council-brokered plan allowing him to cede power in exchange for immunity only to back away before signing three separate times,[194][195] an assassination attempt on 3 June left him and several other high-ranking Yemeni officials injured by a blast in the presidential compound's mosque.[196] Saleh was evacuated to Saudi Arabia for treatment, but he handed over power to Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi, who has largely continued his policies[197] and ordered the arrest of several Yemenis in connection with the attack on the presidential compound.[196] While in Saudi Arabia, Saleh kept hinting that he could return any time and continued to be present in the political sphere through television appearances from Riyadh starting with an address to the Yemeni people on 7 July.[198] On 12 September, Saleh issued a presidential decree while still receiving treatment in Riyadh authorizing Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi to negotiate a deal with the opposition and sign the GCC initiative.[199] On 23 September, three months since the assassination attempt, Saleh returned to Yemen abruptly, defying all earlier expectations.[200] Pressure on Saleh to sign the GCC initiative eventually led to his signing of it in Riyadh on 23 November, effectively ending his 33-year-old rule of Yemen and setting the stage for the transfer of power.[201] Tawakul Karman got 2011 Nobel Peace Prize for her role in supporting women rights and involvement in the Arab Spring.

Syrian uprising[edit]

A demonstration in the city of Baniyas

Protests in Syria started on 26 January, when one case of self-immolation was reported. Protesters have been calling for political reforms and the reinstatement of civil rights, as well as an end to the state of emergency, which has been in place since 1963.[202] A "day of rage" was set for 4–5 February, but it was uneventful.[203][204]

On 6 March, the Syrian security forces arrested about 15 children in Daraa in Southern Syria for writing slogans against the regime. Children were tortured brutally. Daraa is the first city to protest against the Baathist regime, which has been ruling Syria since 1963.

Thousands of protestors gathered in Damascus, Aleppo, al-Hasakah, Daraa, Deir ez-Zor, and Hama on 15 March,[205][206][207] with recently released politician Suhair Atassi becoming an unofficial spokesperson for the "Syrian revolution".[208] The next day there were reports of approximately 3000 arrests and a few martyrs, but there are no official figures on the number of deaths.[209] On 18 April 2011, approximately 100,000 protesters sat in the central Square of Homs calling for the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad. Protests continued through July 2011, the government responding with harsh security clampdowns and military operations in several districts, especially in the north.[210]

On 31 July, Syrian army tanks stormed several cities, including Hama, Deir Ez-Zour, Al-Bukamal, and Herak in Daraa. At least 136 people were killed in the most violent and bloody day since the uprising started.[211]

By late November - early December Baba Amr district of Homs falls under the armed Syrian opposition control, but is surrounded after a big military operation by the Syrian army.

Bahraini uprising[edit]

Protesters raising their fists towards Pearl Roundabout

The 2011 protests in Bahrain were initially aimed at achieving greater political freedom and respect for human rights, and were not intended to threaten the monarchy.[212] Lingering frustration among the Shiite majority with being ruled by the Sunni government was a major root cause, but the protests in Tunisia and Egypt are cited as the inspiration for the demonstrations.[213][214] The protests began in Bahrain on 14 February[212] and were largely peaceful, until a raid by police on the night of 17 February against protestors sleeping at the Pearl Roundabout in Manama, in which police killed three protestors.[215][216] Following the deadly raid, the protestors' aims expanded to a call for the end of the monarchy.[217] On 18 February, government forces opened fire on protesters, mourners, and news journalists,[218] prompting protesters to begin calling for the overthrow of the Bahraini monarchy and government.[219] On 19 February, protesters occupied Pearl Roundabout after the government ordered troops and police to withdraw.[220][221][222] On 22 February, an estimated one hundred thousand people, one fifth of the nation's population, marched. On 14 March, at the request of the Crown Prince, GCC Saudi Arabian troops entered the country,[223] and opened fire on the protesters, several of whom were killed.[224][225] Later thousands of Shia protesters arose in Iraq and Qatif in opposition to the Saudi-led intervention in Bahrain.[226][227][228]

King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa declared a three-month state of emergency on 15 March and asked the military to reassert its control as clashes spread across the country.[229] It was later lifted on 1 June 2011.[230] On 16 March 2011, the protesters' camp in the Pearl Roundabout was evacuated, bulldozed, and set on fire by the Bahraini Defense Force, riot police, and the Peninsula Shield Force, the military arm of the Gulf Cooperation Council, which intervened reportedly at King Hamad's behest.[231] Later on 18 March, the Pearl Roundabout monument was torn down as part of the crackdown on protesters.[232]

Since the lifting of emergency law on 1 June, several large rallies have been staged by the Shi'ite community demanding the release of detained protesters, greater political representation, and an end to sectarian discrimination. As of July 2011, medical personnel are being prosecuted for treating injured protesters, and several human rights groups and news organizations have alleged they have been deliberately targeted by the Bahraini government.[233]

Concurrent incidents[edit]

Concurrent with the events in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Syria and Bahrain, protests flared up in other parts of the region, some becoming violent, some facing strong suppression efforts, and some resulting in political changes.

Algeria[edit]

8 January 2011 protests in Algeria.

On 29 December, protests began in Algiers over the lack of housing, quickly escalating to violent confrontations with the police. At least 53 people were reported injured and another 29 arrested.[234] From 12–19 January, a wave of self-immolation attempts swept the country, beginning with Mohamed Aouichia, who set himself on fire in Bordj Menaiel in protest at his family's housing. On 13 January, Mohsen Bouterfif set himself on fire after a meeting with the mayor of Boukhadra in Tebessa, who had been unable to offer Bouterfif a job and a house. Bouterfif reportedly died a few days later, and about 100 youths protested his death, resulting in the mayor's dismissal by the provincial governor. At least ten other self-immolation attempts were reported that week.[235] On 22 January, the RCD party organised a demonstration for democracy in Algiers, and though illegal under the State of Emergency enacted in 1992, it was attended by about 300 people. The demonstration was suppressed by police, with 42 reported injuries. On 29 January, at least ten thousand people marched in the northeastern city of Béjaïa.[236]

In an apparent bid to stave off unrest, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika announced on 3 February that the 19-year state of emergency would be lifted,[237] a promise fulfilled on 22 February, when Algeria's cabinet adopted an order to lift the state of emergency.[238][239] Bouteflika said on 15 April that he would seek revisions to the country's constitution as part of a broad push for democratic reforms.[240]

In January of 2012, protests flared up again in the southern city of Laghouat, over housing and treatment of the elderly by police. The police used tear gas to disperse the protesters.[241][242]

Iraq[edit]

In an effort to prevent unrest, Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki announced that he would not run for a third term in 2014.[243] Nevertheless, hundreds of protesters gathered in several major urban areas (notably Baghdad and Karbala) on 12 February, demanding a more effective approach to national security, to the investigation of federal corruption cases, as well as increased government involvement in making public services fair and accessible.[244][245][246] In response, the government promised to subsidize electricity costs.[247]

Israel's Haaretz reported that a 31-year-old man in Mosul died from self-immolation, while protesting high unemployment. Haaretz also reported a planned 'Revolution of Iraqi Rage' to be held on 25 February near the Green Zone.[248]

On 16 February, up to 2,000 protesters took over a provincial council building in the city of Kut. The protesters demanded that the provincial governor resign because of the lack of basic services such as electricity and water. As many as three people were killed and 30 injured.[citation needed] On 24 February, Hawijah, Mosul, and Baghdad featured violent protests.[citation needed]

Israeli border areas[edit]

Free Palestine rally in Cairo

Palestinians used Facebook to call for mass protests throughout the region on 15 May 2011, the 63rd annual commemoration of the Palestinian exodus, locally known as Nakba Day.[249][250] A page calling for a "Third Palestinian Intifada" to begin on 15 May garnered more than 350,000 "likes" before being taken down by Facebook managers at the end of March after complaints from the Israeli government that the page encouraged violence.[251] Template:Verify credibility[252] The page called for mass marches to Palestine from Egypt, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan to commemorate the Nakba and demand the right of return for all Palestinian refugees.[253] Palestinians from Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank attempted to reach and cross the Israeli border. However, they were all stopped and 12 were killed in clashes with Israeli security forces. Lebanese security forces also made efforts, including the use of live fire according to some reports, to stop protesters from approaching the Israeli border. Almost 300 people were injured, including 13 Israeli soldiers. There were also clashes across east Jerusalem.[254]

On 5 June, 23 Syrian demonstrators were killed and over a hundred injured by Israeli troops after attempting to enter the Israeli-held part of the Golan Heights.[255][256][257] "Anyone who tries to cross the border will be killed," Israeli soldiers warned through megaphones as people waving Palestinian flags streamed towards the frontier. When protesters tried to cut the razor wire several meters short of the frontier fence, Israeli troops opened fire. Several people were seen being carried away on stretchers.[258] In the aftermath, thousands began a sit-in near the frontier,[259] Template:Verify credibility resulting in Syrian security forces creating a security buffer zone to prevent more demonstrators from approaching the border.[255] Lebanese President Michel Sleiman accused Israel of genocide over the incident,[260] UN High Commissioner on Human Rights Navanethem Pillay condemned the Israel Defense Forces' use of force against unarmed, civilian protesters,[261] and the Syrian Social Nationalist Party called for an international response to the incident, calling it a "massacre".[262] An Israeli military spokeswoman called the violence "an attempt to divert international attention from the bloodbath going on in Syria."[256] Michael Weiss, a spokesperson for Just Journalism, claimed that he had received leaked Syrian state documents showing that the Syrian government organized the Nakba Day protests to draw attention away from the uprising in Syria proper.[citation needed] US State Department spokesman Mark Toner said the U.S. believes President Bashar Assad's government was actively supporting the Palestinian protests near the Israeli border.[263]

Jordan[edit]

On 14 January, protests commenced in the capital Amman, as well as at Ma'an, Al Karak, Salt and Irbid, and others. The protests, led by trade unionists and leftist parties, occurred after Friday prayers, and called for the government of Prime Minister Samir Rifai to step down.[264] The Muslim Brotherhood and 14 trade unions said that they would hold a sit-down protest outside parliament the next day to "denounce government economic policies".[265] Following the protest, the government reversed a rise in fuel prices,[266] but 5,000 protested on 21 January in Amman despite this effort to alleviate Jordan's economic misery.[267]

On 1 February, the Royal Palace announced that King Abdullah had dismissed the government on account of the street protests, and had asked Marouf al-Bakhit, a former army general, to form a new Cabinet.[268] King Abdullah charged Bakhit to "take quick, concrete and practical steps to launch a genuine political reform process". The monarch added that the reforms should put Jordan on the path "to strengthen democracy", and provide Jordanians with the "dignified life they deserve".[269] This move did not end protests, however, which peaked with a rally of between 6,000 and 10,000 Jordanians on 25 February.[270] A protest camp led by students calling for democratic reforms was established on 24 March in Gamal Abdel Nasser Circle in downtown Amman,[271] but at least one person was killed and over 100 injured the next day after pro-government vigilantes clashed with the protesters in the camp, forcing police to intervene.[272] These clashes and belated police interventions have become a hallmark of the Jordanian protests, with a major rally in central Amman planned for 15 July being derailed by belligerent regime supporters.[273]

As of November 2011, protests are ongoing. Under pressure from street demonstrations, Parliament called for the ouster of the Bakhit government. King Abdullah duly sacked Bakhit and his cabinet and named Awn Shawkat Al-Khasawneh to head the new government on 17 October.[46]

Kuwait[edit]

Protests by stateless Bedouins began in January and February, concurrent with many protests in the region.[274][275] By June, protests grew in size from dozens to hundreds.[276]

Thousands protested in September,[277] and in October, oil workers went on strike.[278] Protests continued into October, with the largest demonstrations since the start of the unrest early in the year.[279][280] In response, Prime Minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah said the protests were "going too far" and threatened a security crackdown.[281]

Late on 16 November, protesters occupied the National Assembly of Kuwait for several minutes and rallied in nearby Al-Erada Square.[282] Emir Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah called the brief occupation "an unprecedented step on the path to anarchy and lawlessness".[283][284]

The largest political protest in Kuwaiti history was scheduled for 28 November to pressure the prime minister to resign, but he and his cabinet submitted their resignation to the emir hours ahead of it. Late November, the emir selected Defense Minister Sheik Jaber Al Hamad Al Sabah as the new prime minister, replacing the long-serving Sheik Nasser Al Mohammad Al Sabah, who had survived several no-confidence votes in parliament and was the target of opposition groups calling for his dismissal.[285]

Morocco[edit]

In early February 2011, protests were held in Rabat, Fez and Tangier in solidarity with the Egyptian revolution. Subsequently, a day of protest in favour of Moroccan constitutional reform and social justice was planned for 20 February and advertised on social networking sites.[286][287] Among the demands of the organisers was that the constitutional role of the king should be "reduced to its natural size".[288] The interior minister Taib Cherkaoui affirmed the right of the protests to take place. On 20 February, around 37,000 people participated in demonstrations across Morocco, according to government sources. Some protests were marred by violence and damage to property. In Al Hoceima, five people died after protesters set fire to a bank.[289] On 26 February, a further protest was held in Casablanca.[290]

On 9 March, in a live televised address, King Mohammed announced that he would begin a comprehensive constitutional reform aimed at improving democracy and the rule of law. He promised to form a commission to work on constitutional revisions, which would make proposals to him by June, after which a referendum would be held on the draft constitution.[291]

On 20 March, a further protest was held in Casablanca to mark the end of the first month since the original 20 February demonstrations and to maintain pressure for reform. Protesters, numbering 20,000, demanded the resignation of a number of senior politicians, including the prime minister, Abbas El Fassi, who they regarded as corrupt.[292] On the same day, around 6,000 people demonstrated in Rabat.[293]

In June, a referendum was held on changes to the constitution, which became law on 13 September. Some protesters felt that the reforms did not go far enough. On 18 September, 3,000 people demonstrated in Casablanca and 2,000 in Tangier, demanding an end to the king's roles as head of the army and of religious affairs.[294] In October, around 50 imams protested in Rabat against state control of their activities.[295]

Elections were held on the basis of the new constitution in November 2011, with electoral lists reserved for young and female candidates and with the post of prime minister, previously an appointment of the king, being decided by the outcome of the vote.[296]

Oman[edit]

Protesters set ablaze Lulu Hypermarket in Sohar, Oman on 28 February 2011

In the Gulf country of Oman, 200 protesters marched on 17 January 2011, demanding salary increases and a lower cost of living. The protest shocked some journalists, who generally view Oman as a 'politically stable and sleepy country'.[297] Renewed protests occurred on 18 February, with 350 protesters demanding an end to corruption and better distribution of oil revenue.[298] Some protesters also carried signs with slogans of support for the Sultan.[299]

On 26 February, protesters in Sohar called for more jobs.[300] On the following day, tensions escalated with protesters burning shops and cars.[301] The police responded using tear gas to contain and disperse the crowds of protesters.[302] Demonstrations also spread to the region of Salalah, where protesters had reportedly been camping outside the provincial governor's house since 25 February.[302][303] In Sohar, witnesses claimed that two protesters were killed when police fired rubber bullets to disperse the crowds.[72][73][74][304] Witnesses further reported that protesters burnt a police station as well as the Wali's house (where the representative of the Sultan to Sohar stays).[305] The Omani protesters insisted that they were not challenging the rule of Sultan Qaboos, who has been in power since 1970, but were merely calling for jobs and reform.[306] The protesters even apologized to the Sultan for allowing violence rattle the city of Sohar on 28 February 2011.[307]

The Sultan continued with his reform campaign by dissolving the Ministry of National Economy, setting up a state audit committee, granting student and unemployment benefits,[308] dismissing scores of ministers, and reshuffling his cabinet three times.[309] In addition, nearly 50,000 jobs are being created in the public sector, including 10,000 new jobs in the Royal Oman Police.[310]) The Omani Ministry of Manpower has furthermore directed various companies (both private and public) to formulate their own employment plans. The Royal Army of Oman has also initiated employment drives by publishing recruitment advertisements in newspapers, etc.[311] The government's efforts largely placated protesters, and Oman has not seen significant demonstrations since May 2011, when increasingly violent protests in Salalah were subdued.[312]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Poster for the Saudi Arabia's #women2drive Movement, artwork by Carlos Latuff

In Saudi Arabia hundreds of people protested against the poor infrastructure in Jeddah following flooding.[313][314] At the same time, an online campaign began calling for major political and economic changes. On 5 February, forty women demonstrated for the release of prisoners held without trial.[315] Several protests of a few hundred demonstrators each took place in late February, and also in early March in the north-east, mostly in Qatif[316] but also in Hofuf, in al-Awamiyah, as well as in Riyadh.[317] Security in the north-east was tightened on 5 March,[318] and a 'significant' police presence in Riyadh[319] and Jeddah[320] prevented protests from occurring on 11 March. A day earlier, three protesters were injured by police gunfire in Qatif.[316] Nonetheless, protests calling for the release of prisoners took place outside the Ministry of the Interior in Riyadh on 12 March.[321][322]

Following the crackdown during the 2011 Bahraini uprising, frequent demonstrations of a few hundred to a few thousand[323] people occurred in and around Qatif from 15[324] to 25[325][326] March, which demanded the release of prisoners and the withdrawal of the Peninsula Shield Force from Bahrain.[327][328] On 22–23 March, men-only municipal elections to elect half the members of local councils were announced for 22 September 2011.[77][78]

On 17 June, the anti-government movement "Women2Drive" has organized a drive-in to demand fairer treatment of women in the country. It was sparked by the arrest and imprisonment of Manal al-Sharif[329] for driving a vehicle with another woman. al-Sharif has been called a modern Rosa Parks.[330] Reports of desperation within the government surfaced as the rally is expected to highlight one of the worst gender rights' regimes in the world.[331] On 9 June, several women were arrested north of Riyadh for practicing in a parking lot.[332][333][334] On 15 June, female drivers in the United States have organized a protest in solidarity with Saudi women, planning to encircle the Saudi embassy in Foggy Bottom.[335] During the month three females from Minnesota, supported by an advocacy group, announced a gender discrimination complaint against the kingdom's livery services in Rochester to coincide with the "Women2Drive" campaign.[336][337]

Others[edit]

"The Laique pride" rally in Beirut Central District, Lebanon

 • Template:Flagicon In Lebanon, hundreds or protesters rallied in Beirut on 27 February in a march referred to as "The Laique pride", calling for reform of the country's confessional political system. At the same time, a peaceful sit-in took place in Saida.[338] On 13 March, tens of thousands of supporters of the March 14 Alliance called for the disarmament of Hezbollah in Beirut, rejecting the supremacy of Hezbollah's weapons over political life. They also showed support for the U.N.-backed Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) after the fall of the Hariri government and the creation of the Mikati government.[339] The Syrian Uprising also has leaked over the border[340]

 • Template:Flagicon In Mauritania, Yacoub Ould Dahoud, a protester, burned himself near the Presidential Palace on 17 January, in opposition to the policies of Mauritanian president Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz[341] The following week, hundreds of people took to the streets of the capital Nouakchott. The mayor of the city of Aoujeft, Mohamed El Moctar Ould Ehmeyen Amar, resigned from the ruling party to politically support what he called "the just cause of youngsters".[342] In addition to the capital Noukchott, cities such as Atar, Zouerate, and Aleg also organised sporadic protests.[343] Despite minor economic concessions by the authorities, on 25 April protesters again took to the streets to call for the resignation of the prime-minister, Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf.[344]

 • Template:Flagicon In Sudan, protests took place on 30 January and 1 February, when hundreds called for Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir to step down. On 21 February, President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek to run in the next presidential election (in 2015).[345]

 • Template:Flagicon In the United Arab Emirates, a group of intellectuals petitioned their ruler for comprehensive reform of the Federal National Council, including demands for universal suffrage. About 160 people signed the petition, many of whom were academics and former members of the FNC.[346] On 12 April, Ahmed Mansoor, a prominent blogger and pro-democracy activist, was charged with possession of alcohol. According to his lawyer, two other men, a blogger and a political commentator, were detained a few days earlier, a charge denied by the police.[347] In May, the government started expanding its network of surveillance cameras, as a preventive measure against revolts.[348] In June, Mansoor and four other reform activists, including an economics professor, Nasser bin Gaith,[349] pleaded not guilty to insulting the ruling family, endangering national security and inciting people to protest, after being charged.[350] On 13 November they began a hunger strike,[351] while on 27 November they were sentenced, Ahmed Mansoor receiving three years in prison, while the others being sentenced to two-year jail terms, only to be pardoned the following day.[349]

 • Template:Flagicon In the Palestinian Territories, the Palestinian Authority prevented demonstrations in support of protesters in Tunisia and Egypt. On 3 February, Palestinian police dispersed an anti-Mubarak demonstration in downtown Ramallah, detaining four people, confiscating a cameraman's footage, and reportedly beating protesters. A smaller pro-Mubarak demonstration was permitted to take place in the same area and was guarded by police.[352] On 15 October, an anti-Assad protest expressing solidarity with Palestinian refugees in Syria affected by the unrest there took place in the Gaza Strip, and was attended by 150 people. Hamas police forces dispersed the demonstration, claiming that it was held without a permit.[353]

On 1 February, the Palestinian Authority announced that it would hold municipal elections in July. The Israeli newspaper Haaretz reported that this announcement was a reaction to the anti-government protests in Egypt. The elections were postponed to 22 October, then suspended indefinitely due to an internal division within the Palestinian Authority over candidates for many of the municipalities and councils, and fears that Hamas supporters would back Palestinian Authority opponents.[354] On 14 February, amid pan-Arab calls for reform, Palestinian Authority Prime Minister Salam Fayyad submitted his resignation along with that of his cabinet to President Mahmoud Abbas.[355] After consultations with other factions, institutions, and civil society groups, Abbas asked him to form a new government.[356] The reshuffle had long been demanded by Fayyad as well as members of Abbas's Fatah faction.[356]

 • Template:Flagicon In Western Sahara, young Sahrawis held a series of minor demonstrations to protest labour discrimination, lack of jobs, looting of resources, and human rights abuses.[145] Although protests from February 2011 onward were related to a series of Sahrawi demonstrations outside El Aaiun that originated in October 2010 and died down the following month, protesters cited inspiration from the events in other parts of the region. Noam Chomsky, viewed the October protests as the starting point from which 'the current wave of protests actually began'.[357]

Analysis[edit]

Ethnic scope[edit]

Many analysts, journalists, and involved parties have focused on the protests as being a uniquely Arab phenomenon, and indeed, protests and uprisings have been strongest and most wide-reaching in majority-Arabic-speaking countries, giving rise to the popular moniker of Arab Spring—a play on the so-called 1968 Prague Spring, a democratic awakening in what was then communist Czechoslovakia—to refer to protests, uprisings, and revolutions in those states.[358][359][360] However, the international media has also noted the role of minority groups in many of these majority-Arab countries in the revolts. In addition, this series of revolutions has been marked by the absence of Arab Nationalist banners and rhetoric among the masses in favor of principles of human rights, freedom, democracy and cultural diversity, even in absolute majority-Arab countries.

In Tunisia, the country's small Jewish minority was initially divided by protests against Ben Ali and the government, but eventually came to identify with the protesters in opposition to the regime, according to the group's president, who described Jewish Tunisians as "part of the revolution".[361][362] While many in the Coptic minority in Egypt had criticized the Mubarak government for its failure to suppress Islamic extremists who attack the Coptic community, the prospect of these extremist groups taking over after its fall caused most Copts to avoid the protests, with Pope Shenouda III of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria calling for them to end.[363] The international media pointed to a few Copts who joined the protests.[364][365]

Owing to the fact that the uprisings and revolutions erupted first in North Africa before spreading to Asian Arab countries, and that the Berbers of Libya[366] participated massively in the protests and fightings under Berber identity banners, some Berbers in Libya often see the revolutions of North Africa, west of Egypt, as a reincarnated Berber Spring.[367][368][369] In Morocco, through a constitutional reform, passed in a national referendum on 1 July, among other things, Amazigh—a standardized version of the 3 Berber languages of Morocco was made official alongside Arabic.[370] During the civil war in Libya, one major theater of combat has been the western Nafusa Mountains, where the indigenous Berbers have taken up arms against the regime while supporting an interim government based in the majority-Arab eastern half of the country.[371][372]

In northern Sudan hundreds of non-Arab Darfuris have joined anti-government protests,[373] while in Iraq and Syria, the ethnic Kurdish minority has been involved in protests against the government,[374][375] including the Kurdistan Regional Government in the former's Kurdish-majority north, where at least one attempted self-immolation was reported.[376][377][378]

Impact of the Arab Spring[edit]

The regional unrest has not been limited to countries of the Arab world. The early success of uprisings in North Africa was inspired by the uprisings of disenchanted people in the Middle Eastern states of Iran[379][380] and Turkey[381] to take to the streets and agitate for reforms. These protests, especially those in Iran,[382] are considered by many commentators to be part of the same wave that began in Iran and later Tunisia and has gripped the broader Middle Eastern and North African regions.

In the countries of the neighboring South Caucasus—namely Armenia,[383] Azerbaijan,[384] and Georgia[385]—as well as some countries in Europe, including Albania,[386] Croatia,[387] and Spain;[388] countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Burkina Faso,[389] Djibouti,[390] and Uganda;[391][392] and countries in other parts of Asia, including the Maldives[393] and the People's Republic of China,[394] demonstrators and opposition figures claiming inspiration from the examples of Tunisia and Egypt have staged their own popular protests.

The bid for statehood by Palestine at the UN on 23 September 2011 is also regarded as drawing inspiration from the Arab Spring after years of failed peace negotiations with Israel. In the West Bank, schools and government offices were shut to allow demonstrations backing the UN membership bid in Ramallah, Bethlehem, Nablus and Hebron; echoing similar peaceful protests from other Arab countries.[395]

The 15 October 2011 global protests and the Occupy Wall Street movement, which started in the United States and has since spread to Asia and Europe, drew direct inspiration from the Arab Spring, with organizers asking U.S. citizens "Are you ready for a Tahrir moment?"[396] The protesters have committed to using the "revolutionary Arab Spring tactic" to achieve their goals of curbing corporate power and control in Western governments.[397]

Also, the Occupy Nigeria protests beginning the day after Goodluck Jonathan announced the scrap of the fuel subsidy in oil-rich Nigeria on 1 January 2012, were motivated by the Arab people. [398]

International reactions[edit]

Protests in many countries affected by the Arab Spring have attracted widespread support from the international community, while harsh government responses have generally met condemnation.[399][400][401][402] In the case of the Bahraini, Moroccan, and Syrian protests, the international response has been considerably more nuanced.[403][404][405][406]

Some critics have accused Western governments, including those of France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, of hypocrisy in the way they have reacted to the Arab Spring.[407] Noam Chomsky accused the Obama administration of endeavoring to muffle the revolutionary wave and stifle popular democratization efforts in the Middle East.[408]

The International Monetary Fund said oil prices were likely to be higher than originally forecast due to unrest in the Middle East and North Africa, major regions of oil production.[409]

Kenan Engin, a German-Turkish political scientist, identified the new uprising in Arab and Islamic countries as the "fifth wave of democracy" because of evident features qualitatively similar to the "third wave of democracy" in Latin America that took place in the 1970s and 1980s.[410][411]

References[edit]

  1. "Arab Awakening". Toronto Star. http://arabawakenings.thestar.com/. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  2. "Middle East In Revolt". Tropic Post. 11 February 2011. http://www.tropicpost.com/middle-east-in-revolt/. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  3. Peterson, Scott (11 February 2011). "Egypt's revolution redefines what's possible in the Arab world". Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2011/0211/Egypt-s-revolution-redefines-what-s-possible-in-the-Arab-world. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  4. Spencer, Richard (23 February 2011). "Libya: civil war breaks out as Gaddafi mounts rearguard fight". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8344034/Libya-civil-war-breaks-out-as-Gaddafi-mounts-rearguard-fight.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  5. McLean, Jesse (16 February 2011). "Death turns ‘harmless man’ into Bahrain uprising’s martyr". The Star. http://www.thestar.com/news/world/article/939631--death-turns-harmless-man-into-bahrain-uprising-s-martyr. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  6. "'It Will Not Stop': Syrian Uprising Continues Despite Crackdown". Der Spiegel. 28 March 2011. http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,753517,00.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  7. Bakri, Nada; Goodman, J. David (28 January 2011). "Thousands in Yemen Protest Against the Government". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/28/world/middleeast/28yemen.html. 
  8. "Algeria protest draws thousands". CBC News. 12 February 2011. http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2011/02/12/algeria.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  9. McCrummen, Stephanie (25 February 2011). "13 killed in Iraq's 'Day of Rage' protests". The Washington Post (Baghdad). http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/24/AR2011022403117.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  10. "Thousands protest in Jordan". Al Jazeera English. 28 January 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/01/2011128125157509196.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  11. "Kuwaiti stateless protest for third day". Middle East Online. 20 February 2011. http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=44476. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  12. "Morocco King on holiday as people consider revolt". Afrol. 30 January 2011. http://www.afrol.com/articles/37175. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  13. Vaidya, Sunil (27 February 2011). "One dead, dozen injured as Oman protest turns ugly". Gulf News. http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/oman/one-dead-dozen-injured-as-oman-protest-turns-ugly-1.768789. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  14. "Lebanon: Protests against Sectarian Political System". Reuters Africa. Reuters. 27 February 2011. http://af.reuters.com/article/egyptNews/idAFLDE71Q08L20110227. Retrieved 8 March 2011. 
  15. "Man dies after setting himself on fire in Saudi Arabia". BBC News. 23 January 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12260465. Retrieved 29 January 2011. 
  16. "Sudan opposition leader arrested". Press TV. 19 January 2011. http://www.presstv.ir/detail/160998.html. Retrieved 29 January 2011. 
  17. "New clashes in occupied Western Sahara". Afrol. 27 February 2011. http://www.afrol.com/articles/37450. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  18. "Syria Blocks New Border Protest as Death Toll Rises to 23". Fox News. Associated Press (Majdal Shams). 6 June 2011. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2011/06/06/syria-blocks-new-border-protest-as-death-toll-rises-to-23/. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  19. "The Arab Uprising's Cascading Effects". Miller-mccune.com. 23 February 2011. http://www.miller-mccune.com/politics/the-cascading-effects-of-the-arab-spring-28575/. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  20. "Many wounded as Moroccan police beat protestors". Reuters UK. Reuters. 23 May 2011. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2011/05/22/uk-morocco-protests-idUKTRE74L2YU20110522. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  21. "Syria's crackdown". The Irish Times. 31 May 2011. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. https://archive.is/WYB6. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  22. "Bahrain troops lay siege to protesters' camp". CBS News. 16 March 2011. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/03/16/501364/main20043683.shtml. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  23. "Syria clampdown on protests mirrors Egypt's as thugs join attcks". Ahram Online. 19 April 2011. http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/2/0/10315/World/0/Syria-clampdown-on-protests-mirrors-Egypts-as-thug.aspx. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  24. Almasmari, Hakim (16 March 2011). "Yemeni government supporters attack protesters, injuring hundreds". The Washington Post (Sanaa). http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/yemeni-government-supporters-attack-protesters-injuring-hundreds/2011/03/16/AB56R9g_story.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  25. Parks, Cara (24 February 2011). "Libya Protests: Gaddafi Militia Opens Fire On Demonstrators". The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/24/libya-protests-gaddafi-fo_n_827568.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  26. Uriel Abulof (10 March 2011). "What Is the Arab Third Estate?". The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/uriel-abulof/what-is-the-arab-third-es_b_832628.html. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 
  27. Hardy, Roger (2 February 2011). "Egypt protests: an Arab spring as old order crumbles". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12339521. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  28. Ashley, Jackie (6 March 2011). "The Arab spring requires a defiantly European reply". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/mar/06/arab-spring-european-reply-labour. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  29. "Arab Spring – Who lost Egypt?". The Economist. 1 March 2011. http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2011/03/arab_spring. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  30. Miller, Aaron. "What Is Israel’s Next Move In The New Middle East?". Moment Magazine. Moment Magazine. http://www.momentmag.com/moment/issues/2011/06/IsraelsNextMove.html. Retrieved 5/6/2011. 
  31. . http://english.aljazeera.net/indepth/spotlight/2011/02/2011222121213770475.html. 
  32. . http://www.americanthinker.com/2011/05/arab_awakening.html. 
  33. "The Arab awakening reaches Syria". The Economist. http://www.economist.com/blogs/newsbook/2011/03/protests_middle_east. 
  34. . http://www.thenation.com/blog/158670/arab-uprisings-what-february-20-protests-tell-us-about-morocco. 
  35. "Democracy's hard spring". The Economist. 10 March 2011. http://www.economist.com/node/18332630. 
  36. Fahim, Kareem (22 January 2011). "Slap to a Man's Pride Set Off Tumult in Tunisia". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/22/world/africa/22sidi.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1&src=twrhp. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  37. Noueihed, Lin (19 January 2011). "Peddler's martyrdom launched Tunisia's revolution". Reuters UK. Reuters. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2011/01/19/uk-tunisia-protests-bouazizi-idUKTRE70I7TV20110119. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  38. Raghavan, Sudarsan (27 January 2011). "Inspired by Tunisia and Egypt, Yemenis join in anti-government protests". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/01/27/AR2011012702081.html. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  39. "Yemenis square off in rival 'Day of Rage' protests". Arab News. 3 February 2011. http://arabnews.com/middleeast/article250370.ece. Retrieved 6 February 2011. 
  40. "Police in south Yemen disperse 'day of rage' protests". Google News. Agence Presse-France (Aden, Yemen). 11 February 2011. Archived from the original on 23 December 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20111223070701/http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5gXNO9M4Mutdc9jI1glhjbs3lX5eg. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  41. White, Gregory (13 February 2011). "Bahrain Now Bracing For Its Own Day Of Rage After Giving Every Family $2,660 Fails". Business Insider. http://www.businessinsider.com/bahrain-day-of-rage-2011-2. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  42. "Party: Bashir is not standing for re-election". Gulf Times. 22 February 2011. http://www.gulf-times.com/site/topics/article.asp?cu_no=2&item_no=417637&version=1&template_id=37&parent_id=17. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  43. "Iraq PM plans no re-election". Voice of Russia. 5 February 2011. http://english.ruvr.ru/2011/02/05/43000042.html. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  44. "Iraq angered protesters call for Maliki resignation". Al Sumaria. 26 February 2011. http://www.alsumaria.tv/en/Iraq-News/1-60907-.html. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  45. "Jordanians stage anti-gov't sit-in in Amman". Xinhua. 30 January 2011. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/world/2011-01/30/c_13712927.htm. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  46. a b "Jordan's king 'appoints new prime minister'". Al Jazeera. 17 October 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/10/20111017113326931126.html. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  47. "Jordan king appoints new PM, government quits". Reuters. 1 February 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/01/jordan-government-idUSLDE7101C620110201. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  48. Mounassar, Hammoud (27 January 2011). "Thousands of Yemenis call on president to quit". ABS-CBN News. Agence France-Presse (Sanaa). http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/global-filipino/world/01/27/11/thousands-yemenis-call-president-quit. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  49. "Arab protests attract Nobel interest". News24. Oslo. 31 January 2011. http://www.news24.com/World/News/Arab-protests-attract-Nobel-interest-20110131. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  50. "Person Of The Year 2011". Time. http://www.time.com/time/person-of-the-year/2011/. 
  51. "Tunisia forms national unity government amid unrest". BBC News. 17 January 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12209621. 
  52. "Tunisia dissolves Ben Ali party". Al-Jazeera English. 9 March 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/03/20113985941974579.html. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  53. "Tunisia election delayed until October 23". Reuters. 8 June 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/06/08/us-tunisia-election-idUSTRE7571R020110608. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  54. "Tunisia protests against Ben Ali left 300 dead, says UN". BBC News. 1 February 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12335692. 
  55. "4 dead in Tunisia after renewed violence". CTV News. 27 February 2011. http://www.ctv.ca/CTVNews/World/20110226/tunisia-protests-110226/. 
  56. "Algeria's state of emergency is officially lifted". Bloomberg L.P.. 24 February 2011. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-24/algeria-s-state-of-emergency-is-officially-lifted.html. Retrieved 25 February 2011. 
  57. "Algeria repeals emergency law – Middle East". Al Jazeera English. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/02/2011223686267301.html. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  58. Krause, Flavia (27 January 2011). "Obama Poised to Step Up Criticism of Mubarak If Crackdown Is Intensified". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-01-25/egyptian-policeman-two-people-killed-in-cairo-protest-inspired-by-tunisia.html. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  59. "Lebanon News – GLC Suspends Strike, Refuses Cabinet Decision". Lebanonews.net. http://www.lebanonews.net/mainhl.asp?hlid=8161. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  60. Blomfield, Adrian (1 February 2011). "King Abdullah II of Jordan sacks government amid street protests". London: The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/jordan/8296589/King-Abdullah-II-of-Jordan-sacks-government-amid-street-protests.html. 
  61. Derhally, Massoud A. (17 October 2011). "Jordan’s King Appoints PM After Cabinet Resigns". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-10-17/jordan-s-king-appoints-pm-after-cabinet-resigns.html. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  62. "خبرني :|نبض الشارع : توقيف 21 شخصا على خلفية احداث الداخلية". Khaberni.com. http://khaberni.com/more.asp?ThisID=52120&ThisCat=1. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  63. "Jordan protest turns violent – Middle East". Al Jazeera English. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/02/201121821116689870.html. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  64. "Mauritania's Bouazizi died today". Dekhnstan.wordpress.com. 23 January 2011. http://dekhnstan.wordpress.com/2011/01/23/mauritanias-bouazizi-died-today/. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  65. "Sudan's Bashir will not stand in next election: party official". BBC News. Agence France-Press. 21 February 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12521427. 
  66. McDoom, Opheera (31 January 2011). "Sudanese student dies after protests-activists". Reuters UK. Reuters. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2011/01/31/uk-sudan-protests-idUKTRE70U21620110131. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  67. "Oman takes measures to address public grievances". Khaleej Times. 27 February 2011. http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle08.asp?xfile=data/middleeast/2011/February/middleeast_February780.xml&section=middleeast. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  68. "Oman boosts student benefits". Google News. Archived from the original on 22 December 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20111222221336/http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5ie73NUpvWHkuIAFKwLnqmyl0paLw?docId=CNG.29a2ebdaf178435a5e82e857cf4725de.ac1. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  69. "Oman shuffles cabinet amid protests". Al Jazeera English. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/02/201122620711831600.html. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  70. "Oman's ruler dismisses ministers". Al Jazeera. 5 March 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/video/middleeast/2011/03/20113565533194678.html. Retrieved 5 March 2011. 
  71. "Oman's Sultan Granting Lawmaking Powers to Councils". Voice of America. 13 March 2011. http://www.voanews.com/english/news/middle-east/Omans-Sultan-Shifts-Lawmaking-Powers-Amid-Unrest--117895309.html. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  72. a b Surk, Barbara. "Police in Oman fire tear gas, rubber bullets at protesters seeking political reform; 1 killed". Google News. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303135336/http://www.google.com/hostednews/canadianpress/article/ALeqM5gh9egWT30AUKwD6gzNoIxvkoqFMg?docId=6083540. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  73. a b "Deaths in Oman protests". Al Jazeera. 27 February 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/02/2011227112850852905.html. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  74. a b "Oman clashes: Two killed during protests in Gulf state". BBC News. 8 February 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12590588. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  75. "Saudi King Boosts Spending, Returns to Country". Voice of America. 23 February 2011. http://www.voanews.com/english/news/middle-east/Saudi-King-Boosts-Spending-Returns-to-Country-116739074.html. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  76. "King's order to benefit 180,000 temporary employees". Arab News. 28 February 2011. http://arabnews.com/saudiarabia/article289334.ece. Retrieved 28 February 2011. 
  77. a b al-Suhaimy, Abeed (23 March 2011). "Saudi Arabia announces municipal elections". Asharq al-Awsat. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xePFpuTH. Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  78. a b Abu-Nasr, Donna (28 March 2011). "Saudi Women Inspired by Fall of Mubarak Step Up Equality Demand". Bloomberg L.P.. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xeO2w5aG. Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  79. "Saudis vote in municipal elections, results on Sunday". Oman Observer. Agence France-Presse. 30 September 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-12-14. http://www.webcitation.org/63xUk7Xwe. Retrieved 14 December 2011. 
  80. "Report: Saudi Facebook activist planning protest shot dead". Monsters and Critics. Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 2 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5wtRzehxX. Retrieved 2 March 2011. 
  81. "Man dies after setting himself on fire in Saudi Arabia". BBC News. 23 January 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12260465. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  82. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-16543013
  83. "Egypt's prime minsiter quits, new govt soon-army". Forexyard.com. http://www.forexyard.com/en/news/Egypts-prime-minsiter-quits-new-govt-soon-army-2011-03-03T093300Z. Retrieved 5 March 2011. 
  84. Egypt's Mubarak Steps Down; Military Takes Over, The Wall Street Journal, 11 February 2011.
  85. "Egypt's military moves to dissolve parliament, suspend constitution". Haaretz. Reuters. 13 February 2011. Archived from the original on 15 February 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110215000033/http://www.haaretz.com/news/international/egypt-s-military-moves-to-dissolve-parliament-suspend-constitution-1.343140. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 
  86. "Egyptian state security disbanded". Al Jazeera. 15 March 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/03/20113151885983516.html. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  87. Egypt dissolves former ruling party http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/04/2011416125051889315.html
  88. "Al-Ahram Weekly | Egypt | How the mighty have fallen". Ahram. 2 February 2011. http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2011/1036/eg31.htm. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  89. Kirkpatrick, David D.; Stack, Liam (13 March 2011). "Prosecutors Order Mubarak and Sons Held". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/14/world/middleeast/14egypt.html?_r=1. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  90. "Mubarak to be tried for murder of protesters". Reuters. 24 May 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/05/24/us-egypt-mubarak-idUSTRE74N3LG20110524. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  91. "846 killed in Egypt uprising". 20 April 2011. Archived from the original on 20 April 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110420102838/http://www.haaretz.com/news/international/government-fact-finding-mission-shows-846-killed-in-egypt-uprising-1.356885. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  92. Troops storm Tahrir Square
  93. Yemen MPs resign over violence, Al Jazeera, 23 February 2011.
  94. "Yemenis rejoice as Saleh leaves but fighting continues". BBC News. 5 June 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13658445. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  95. Yemen's Saleh signs deal to quit power
  96. Yemen leader signs power-transfer deal
  97. 1,480 civilians and soldiers killed (3 February-25 September),[1] 300-386 militants killed in the Battle of Zinjibar and 4 militants killed in Lahj (16–17 June),[2] total of 1,784-1,870 reported killed
  98. "Iraqi prime minister won't run for third term". MSNBC. 5 February 2001. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/41437551/ns/world_news-mideastn_africa/. 
  99. "Governor of third Iraqi province quits over protests". The Gulf Today. 27 February 2011. http://gulftoday.ae/portal/0633bc9e-f175-4ccb-9aa8-5d1bd1a0e316.aspx. 
  100. McCrummen, Stephanie (26 February 2011). "Iraq 'Day of Rage' protests followed by detentions, beatings". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/26/AR2011022601854.html. 
  101. "Bahrain's king gives out cash ahead of protests". Reuters. 11 February 2011. http://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews/idAFLDE71A24Z20110211. 
  102. Bahrain's king to free political prisoners as protests continue, Monsters and Critics, 22 February 2011.
  103. Bahrain sacks ministers amid protests, Press TV, 26 February 2011.
  104. Staff writer (3 December 2011). "Still rich but no longer so calm". The Economist. http://www.economist.com/node/21541075. Retrieved 1 January 2012. 
  105. Staff writer (27 November 2011). "Bahrain creates panel to study unrest report". Al Jazeera English. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/11/201111275269122803.html. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  106. 44 protestors killed, [3] 4 policemen killed, [4][5] 1 Saudi soldier killed, [6] total of 49 people reported killed
  107. "NATO Withdrawal from Libya". New Europe. 31 October 2011. http://www.neurope.eu/article/nato-announces-withdrawal-all-troops-libya. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  108. "Fighters clash again near Tripoli, several dead". Reuters. 12 November 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/11/12/us-libya-clashes-idUSTRE7AB0HU20111112. 
  109. "Residents flee Gaddafi hometown". Sydney Morning Herald. 3 October 2011. http://news.smh.com.au/breaking-news-world/residents-flee-gaddafi-hometown-20111003-1l49x.html. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  110. Karin Laub (8 September 2011). "Libyan estimate: At least 30,000 died in the war". San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2011/09/08/international/i004907D85.DTL. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  111. "Kuwait protesters in Porsches shake democracy pioneer – Politics & Economics". ArabianBusiness.com. http://www.arabianbusiness.com/kuwait-protesters-in-porsches-shake-democracy-pioneer-424655.html?page=0. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  112. "Kuwait ministers resign, news agency says". CNN. 31 March 2011. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-03-31/world/kuwait.government_1_cabinet-minister-security-forces-kuwait-news-agency?_s=PM:WORLD. 
  113. "Kuwait Government resigns". Business Week. 28 November 2011. http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-11-28/kuwait-government-resigns-amid-growing-opposition-protests.html. 
  114. "30 wounded in Kuwait protests on Friday". MSN. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/41676934/ns/world_news-mideast/n_africa. 
  115. Moroccan king to make reforms with constitutional body, Middle East Online, 22 February 2011;
  116. Karam, Souhail (20 March 2011). "Thousands in Morocco march for rights". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/thousands-in-morocco-march-for-rights-2247511.html. 
  117. Miller, David (7 June 2011). "Demonstrator's death energizes Moroccan protesters". The Jerusalem Post. http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=224033. Retrieved 11 June 2011. 
  118. "Syrian activist Haitham al-Maleh freed under amnesty". BBC News. 8 March 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12679902. Retrieved 8 March 2011. 
  119. "Syria frees 80-year-old former judge in amnesty". Reuters. 8 March 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/08/us-syria-rights-idUSTRE7274LC20110308. Retrieved 8 March 2011. 
  120. "Unrest continues in Syria". Al Bawaba. 23 March 2011. http://www1.albawaba.com/main-headlines/unrest-continues-syria. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  121. "Assad attempts to appease minority Kurds". Al Jazeera. 8 April 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/04/20114711251531744.html. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  122. "Syrian army 'attacks protest city of Deraa'". BBC. 25 April 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13185185. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  123. "2011 Syrian protests: Security forces shoot at mourners". BBC News. 23 April 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13175677. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  124. "Syrian cabinet resigns amid unrest". 29 March 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/03/201132975114399138.html. 
  125. "Syrian army units 'clash over crackdown'". Al Jazeera. 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/04/2011428182333234775.html. Retrieved 28 April 2011. 
  126. Yezdani, Ipek (23 August 2011). "Syrian dissidents form national council". World Wires (Miami Herald Media). http://www.miamiherald.com/2011/08/23/2372099/syrian-dissidents-form-national.html. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  127. As Syrian death toll tops 5,000, UN human rights chief warns about key city
  128. "Syria says 23 dead as Israel opens fire on Golan". France 24. 6 June 2011. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110607234227/http://www.france24.com/en/20110606-syria-says-23-dead-israel-opens-fire-golan#. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  129. "UN's Pillay condemns Israeli 'Naksa' killings". Al Jazeera English. 8 June 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/06/201167143318466482.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  130. Alexander Cockburn (18–20 February 2011). "The Tweet and Revolution". http://www.counterpunch.org/cockburn02182011.html. 
  131. Korotayev A, Zinkina J (2011). "Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis". Entelequia. Revista Interdisciplinar 13: 139–165. http://cliodynamics.ru/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=276&Itemid=70. 
  132. "Demographics of the Arab League, computed by Wolfram Alpha". http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=arab+league+demographics. 
  133. "Ahmadinejad row with Khamenei intensifies". Al Jazeera. 6 May 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/05/201156113955925329.html. 
  134. a b c d Reverchon, Adrien; de Tricornot (13 April 2011). "La rente pétrolière ne garantit plus la paix sociale". http://www.lemonde.fr/economie/article/2011/03/14/la-rente-petroliere-ne-garantit-plus-la-paix-sociale_1492609_3234.html. 
  135. Javid, Salman Ansari (27 January 2011). "Arab dictatorships inundated by food price protests". Tehran Times. http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=234768. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  136. Peter Walker Amnesty International hails WikiLeaks and Guardian as Arab spring 'catalysts', in The Guardian, Friday 13 May 2011
  137. Maleki, Ammar (9 February 2011). "Uprisings in the Region and Ignored Indicators". http://www.payvand.com/news/11/feb/1080.html. 
  138. franchon, Alain (18 February 2011). "Révolte de la place Tahrir et "consensus de Pékin"". http://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2011/02/17/revolte-de-la-place-tahrir-et-consensus-de-pekin_1481531_3232.html. 
  139. a b c Tunisia: the protests continue, http://www.marxist.com/tunisia-protests-continue.htm, 11 January 2011
  140. "Tunisian government faces growing dissent in mining region". NewsLibrary.com. 4 August 2008. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=NewsLibrary&p_multi=BBAB&d_place=BBAB&p_theme=newslibrary2&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=122601958BA022A0&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  141. a b c "Labor movement drives Egypt, Tunisia protests". The Detroit News. 10 February 2011. http://detnews.com/article/20110210/OPINION01/102100341/Labor-movement-drives-Egypt--Tunisia-protests#ixzz1GDjIpaeg. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  142. Ford, Robert (19 December 2007). An ailing and fragile Algerian regime drifts into 2008. WikiLeaks. Template:Cablegate. Archived from the original on 5 January 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5vWKgd8OS. Retrieved 4 January 2011. 
  143. Chikhi, Lamine (21 January 2011). "Algeria army should quit politics: opposition". Reuters Africa. Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 January 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5vuh49u62. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  144. Belhimer, Mahmoud (17 March 2010). "Political Crises but Few Alternatives in Algeria". Arab Reform Bulletin (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace). http://carnegieendowment.org/arb/?fa=show&article=40363. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  145. a b "Mass exodus" from Western Sahara cities. Afrol News, 21 October 2010.
  146. "Saharawi protests, violence and blackmail Moroccan". On the News. 20 May 2011. http://onthenews.org/saharawi-protests-violence-and-blackmail-moroccan/. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 
  147. "Tunisia suicide protester Mohammed Bouazizi dies". BBC News. 5 January 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12120228. 
  148. Spencer, Richard (13 January 2011). "Tunisia riots: Reform or be overthrown, US tells Arab states amid fresh riots". London: Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/tunisia/8258077/Tunisia-riots-US-warns-Middle-East-to-reform-or-be-overthrown.html. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 
  149. Ryan, Yasmine. "Tunisia's bitter cyberwar". Al Jazeera English. http://english.aljazeera.net/indepth/features/2011/01/20111614145839362.html. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 
  150. "Tunisia's Protest Wave: Where It Comes From and What It Means for Ben Ali". Foreign Policy. 3 January 2011. http://mideast.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2011/01/02/tunisia_s_protest_wave_where_it_comes_from_and_what_it_means_for_ben_ali. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 
  151. Borger, Julian (29 December 2010). "Tunisian president vows to punish rioters after worst unrest in a decade". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/dec/29/tunisian-president-vows-punish-rioters. Retrieved 29 December 2010. 
  152. Wyre Davies (15 December 2010). "Tunisia: President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali forced out". BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12195025. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 
  153. "Uprising in Tunisia: People Power topples Ben Ali regime". Indybay. 16 January 2011. http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2011/01/16/18669320.php. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  154. "Tunisia announces withdrawal of 3 ministers from unity gov't: TV". People's Daily Online. 18 January 2011. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5vrgMnytL. Retrieved 20 January 2011. 
  155. "Protests hit Tunisia amid mourning". Al Jazeera. 21 January 2011. Archived from the original on 21 January 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5vuUSjc1C. Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  156. "Tunisian minister suspends ex-ruling party". Google News. Associated Press. http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5jnj3WjlEykmF6gcKD1M335EfPhLg?Id=6fd3d1660cf2420cb7cc0e7c579061fd. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  157. "Tunisia disbands party of ousted president". USA Today. 9 March 2011. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2011-03-09-Tunisia_N.htm. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  158. Cunningham, Erin. "Tunisia elections seen as litmus test for Arab Spring". Global Post. http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/middle-east/111021/tunisia-vote-tunisia-election-campaign-arab-spring-test. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  159. Jack Shenker (20 January 2011). "Warning Egypt could follow Tunisia". The Age (Australia). http://www.theage.com.au/world/warning-egypt-could-follow-tunisia-20110119-19wly.html. 
  160. "Egypt: AP Confirms Government has Disrupted Internet Service". pomed.org. http://pomed.org/blog/2011/01/egypt-ap-confirms-government-has-disrupted-internet-service.html/. Retrieved 28 January 2011. 
  161. "Egypt's Mubarak refuses to quit, hands VP powers". MyWay. http://apnews.myway.com//article/20110211/D9LA9H180.html. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  162. Bly, Laura (11 February 2011). "Sharm el-Sheikh resort in world spotlight as Egypt's Mubarak flees Cairo". USA Today. http://travel.usatoday.com/destinations/dispatches/post/2011/02/sharm-el-sheikh-resort--in-world-spotlight-as-egypts-mubarak-flees-cairo/142665/1. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  163. Wan, William; Walker, Portia (4 March 2011). "In Egypt, crowd cheers newly appointed prime minister Essam Sharaf". The Washington Post (Cairo). http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/04/AR2011030406364.html. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  164. "EGYPT: Protests continue but activists divided over goals". The Los Angeles Times. 15 July 2011. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/babylonbeyond/2011/07/egypt-tahrir-protests-continue-despite-differences-in-demands.html. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  165. ElBaradei, Mohamed; Weaver, Matthew (16 January 2011). "Muammar Gaddafi condemns Tunisia uprising". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jan/16/muammar-gaddafi-condemns-tunisia-uprising. 
  166. "HIGHLIGHTS - Libyan TV address by Saif al-Islam Gaddafi". Reuters India. Reuters (Rabat). 21 February 2011. http://in.reuters.com/article/2011/02/21/idINIndia-55032320110221. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  167. "Ex Libyan minister forms interim govt-report". LSE. 26 February 2011. http://www.lse.co.uk/FinanceNews.asp?ArticleCode=77c8l0riig2uluz&ArticleHeadline=Ex_Libyan_minister_forms_interim_govtreport. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  168. Hazelton, Liz (24 February 2011). "Exodus Tripoli: Libyan rebels seize control of third major city as thousands of foreigners battle to flee 'hell'". The Daily Mail. London. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1359954/Libya-rebels-seize-Tripoli-thousands-foreigners-battle-flee-hell.html?ito=feeds-newsxml. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  169. Blomfield, Adrian (6 July 2011). "Rebels wage a secret night-time war on the streets of Tripoli". The Vancouver Sun. http://www.vancouversun.com/story_print.html?id=5061000&sponsor=. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  170. Levinson, Charles (20 July 2011). "Rebels Move Toward Gadhafi Stronghold". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424053111904233404576458154035344420.html. Retrieved 12 August 2011. 
  171. "From voice said to be Gadhafi, a defiant message to his foes". CNN. 1 September 2011. http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/africa/09/01/libya.war/index.html?hpt=hp_t2. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  172. "Gaddafi loyalists flee Sebha to Niger". News24. 22 September 2011. http://www.news24.com/Africa/News/Gaddafi-loyalists-flee-Sebha-to-Niger-20110922. Retrieved 24 September 2011. 
  173. "Rebels to seek return of Gaddafi family from Algeria". 29 August 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/29/us-libya-algeria-gaddafis-idUSTRE77S47020110829. 
  174. "NTC ‘captured’ Sabha as loyalists flee to Niger". Hurriyet Daily News. 22 September 2011. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/n.php?n=ntc-8216captured8217-sabha-as-loyalists-flee-to-niger-2011-09-22. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  175. "Libya conflict: NTC forces claim Bani Walid victory". BBC News. 17 October 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15330551. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  176. "Qaddafi dead after Sirte battle, PM confirms". CBS News. 20 October 2011. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/10/20/501364/main20123114.shtml. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  177. "Protests erupt in Yemen, president offers reform". Reuters Africa. Reuters. 11 January 2011. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5vt1YRykA. Retrieved 20 January 2011. 
  178. a b "Yemen protests: 'People are fed up with corruption'". BBC News. 27 January 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12298019. 
  179. Bakri, Nada (27 January 2011). "Thousands in Yemen Protest Against the Government". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/28/world/middleeast/28yemen.html. 
  180. Bryan, Angie (28 December 2009). Yemeni tribal leader: for Saleh, Saudi involvement in Sa'ada comes not a moment too soon. WikiLeaks. Template:WikiLeaks cable. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5w8OrQ284. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  181. "Yemenis urge leader's exit". Al Jazeera. 23 January 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/01/201112314714887766.html. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  182. "Yemenis in anti-president protest". The Irish Times. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. https://archive.is/zGN6. 
  183. a b "New protests erupt in Yemen". Al Jazeera. 29 January 2011. Archived from the original on 30 January 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5w8S9MZ1r. Retrieved 30 January 2011. 
  184. "Yemen reinforces forces around capital amid fear of protest escalation". Xinhua News. 2 February 2011. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/world/2011-02/02/c_13716611.htm. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  185. Sudam, Mohamed (2 February 2011). "Yemeni president signals he won't stay beyond 2013". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/02/us-yemen-president-idUSTRE7111WC20110202. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  186. Daragahi, Borzou (3 February 2011). "Yemen, Middle East: Tens of thousands stage rival rallies in Yemen". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. https://archive.is/LZ0f. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  187. Sinjab, Lina (29 January 2011). "Yemen protests: 20,000 call for President Saleh to go". BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12353479. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  188. "Opposing protesters rally in Yemen – Middle East". Al Jazeera English. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/02/201123105140512715.html. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  189. "Saleh partisans take over Yemen protest site – Oneindia News". News.oneindia.in. http://news.oneindia.in/2011/02/03/salehpartisans-take-over-yemen-protestsite-aid0126.html. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  190. Lubin, Gus (11 February 2011). "YEMEN: Protests revived in 'Friday of Rage'". Los Angeles Times. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/babylonbeyond/2011/02/yemen-protests-revived-in-friday-of-rage.html. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  191. Lubin, Gus (15 February 2011). "Protests rage in Yemen, Bahrain; Iran hard-liners want foes executed". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-arab-protests-20110216,0,1700622.story. Retrieved 16 February 2011. 
  192. "Yemen's 'days of rage' – Inside Story". Al Jazeera English. 20 February 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/programmes/insidestory/2011/02/20112209231603539.html. Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  193. Johnston, Cynthia (26 May 2011). "Analysis: Yemen civil war likely without swift Saleh exit". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/05/26/us-yemen-war-idUSTRE74P4LC20110526. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  194. Hatem, Mohammed (23 April 2011). "Yemen's Saleh Agrees to Step Down in Exchange for Immunity, Official Says". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-04-23/yemen-s-saleh-agrees-to-step-down-in-exchange-for-immunity-official-says.html. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  195. "Yemeni Peace Process Collapses". The Australian. 2 May 2011. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/yemeni-peace-process-collapses/story-e6frg6so-1226047954704. Retrieved 2 May 2011. 
  196. a b "Several Arrested in Yemen for Alleged Role in an Assassination Attempt on Saleh". Fox News. 13 June 2011. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2011/06/13/several-arrested-in-yemen-for-alleged-role-in-assassination-attempt-on-saleh/. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  197. Leyne, Jon (5 June 2011). "Yemen crisis: One-way ticket for Saleh?". BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13661373. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  198. Al Qadhi, Mohammed (8 July 2011). "Saleh appears on Yemen TV, bandaged and burnt". The National. http://www.thenational.ae/news/worldwide/middle-east/saleh-appears-on-yemen-tv-bandaged-and-burnt. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  199. "Yemen president authorizes deputy to negotiate power transfer". CNN World. 12 September 2011. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-09-12/world/yemen.saleh.power.transfer_1_mohammed-qahtan-saleh-opposition-parties?_s=PM:WORLD. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
  200. "Yemen President Ali Abdullah Saleh returns to Sanaa". BBC News. 23 September 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-15030899. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
  201. "Yemeni President Saleh signs deal on ceding power". BBC News. 23 November 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-15865253. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
  202. <Please add first missing authors to populate metadata.> (9 February 2011). Q&A: Syrian activist Suhair Atassi. Al Jazeera English. http://english.aljazeera.net/indepth/2011/02/201129135657367367.html. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  203. "'Day of rage' protest urged in Syria – World news – Mideast/N. Africa – msnbc.com". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/41400687/ns/world_news-mideastn_africa/. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  204. ""Day of Rage" planned for Syria; protests scheduled for Feb 4–5 – aysor.am – Hot news from Armenia". aysor.am. http://www.aysor.am/en/news/2011/02/03/syrian-facebook-twitter/. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  205. "Fresh Protests Erupt in Syria". Epoch Times. http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/content/view/53074/. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  206. "ردّدوا هتافات تدعو لمحاربة الفساد وفتح باب الحريات". Al Arabiya. http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/03/15/141661.html. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  207. "الاف السوريين يثورون في قلب دمشق و المحافظات مطالبين بالحرية". Sawt Beirut. http://www.sawtbeirut.com/news-in-arabic/world-now/16474-syria-revolution-2011-march-15.html. Retrieved 16 March 2011. 
  208. "مظاهرة احتجاج في دمشق تطالب بالحريات". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/arabic/middleeast/2011/03/110315_syria_protest.shtml. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  209. "معلومات عن سقوط شهداء في تظاهرات الثلاثاء في سوريا". Sawt Beirut. http://sawtbeirut.com/news-in-arabic/world-now/16483-2011-03-16-18-33-05.html. Retrieved 16 March 2011. 
  210. Amos, Deborah (15 July 2011). "In Syria, Opposition Stages Massive Protests". National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/2011/07/15/138168604/in-syria-opposition-stages-massive-protests. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  211. Wemple, Erik (2 August 2011). "Syria's Ramadan massacre". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/syrias-ramadan-massacre/2011/08/01/gIQAZHCKoI_story.html. 
  212. a b "Clashes mark Bahrain 'Day of Rage'". Al-Jazeera English. 14 February 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/02/2011214925802473.html. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  213. Bronner, Ethan (15 March 2011). "wo Protesters Dead as Bahrain Declares State of Emergency". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/16/world/middleeast/16bahrain.html?scp=43&sq=bahrain%20majority&st=cse. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  214. Bronner, Ethan (16 March 2011). "Bahrain Troops Oust Protesters From Square". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/17/world/middleeast/17bahrain.html?scp=1&sq=bahrain%20majority&st=cse. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  215. "Clashes rock Bahraini capital". Al Jazeera English. 17 February 2011. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5wZPVZfFG. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  216. "Bahrain protests: Police break up Pearl Roundabout crowd". BBC News. 17 February 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12490286. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  217. "Bahrain mourners call for end to monarchy". The Guardian. Associated Press (London). 18 February 2011. Archived from the original on 18 February 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5waOzlomm. Retrieved 18 February 2011. 
  218. Slackman, Michael; Audi, Nadim (18 February 2011). "Security Forces in Bahrain Open Fire on Protesters". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/19/world/middleeast/19bahrain.html?src=tptw. 
  219. "Protesters dig in after Bahrain's army opens fire". Charlotte Observer. 18 February 2011. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110708140707/http://www.charlotteobserver.com/2011/02/18/2071426/protesters-dig-in-after-bahrains.html. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 
  220. Kevin Connolly (20 February 2011). "Bahrain unrest: Protesters reoccupy Pearl Roundabout". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12514849. Retrieved 20 February 2011. 
  221. "Day of transformation in Bahrain's 'sacred square'". BBC News. 19 February 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12515906. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 
  222. "Protesters Retake Pearl Roundabout in Bahrain". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/video/protesters-retake-pearl-square-in-bahrain/891AE263-8831-4E00-AC4A-6A49EC09691F.html?mod=WSJ_Article_Videocarousel_3. 
  223. "Saudi sends troops, Bahrain Shi'ites call it "war"". Reuters. 14 March 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/14/us-bahrain-protests-forces-idUSLDE72D0KH20110314. 
  224. "Bahrain troops open fire on protestors; 2 killed – Rediff.com India News". Rediff.com. 16 March 2011. http://www.rediff.com/news/report/baharain-troops-open-fire-kill-two/20110316.htm. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  225. "Three killed as troops open fire in Bahrain". The Australian. 17 March 2011. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/three-killed-as-troops-open-fire-in-bahrain/story-e6frg6so-1226022758401. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  226. al-Ansary, Khalid (16 March 2011). "Iraq's Sadr Followers March Against Bahrain Crackdown". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/16/us-bahrain-iraq-idUSTRE72F4U220110316. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 
  227. "Crackdown in Bahrain Enflames Iraq's Shiites". Google News. Associated Press. 2 April 2011. http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5igs1wV4hAVspBksbBZq7St89ViQQ?docId=0c4b1a5364514628baec418f05c59a7f. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 
  228. Arango, Tim (2 April 2011). "Shiites in Iraq Support Bahrain's Protesters". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/02/world/middleeast/02iraq.html. 
  229. "Bahrain Declares State of Emergency". FT. 15 March 2011. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/ebff6924-4efb-11e0-9c25-00144feab49a.html#axzz1GiqjspDm. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  230. Chulov, Martin (1 June 2011). "Bahrain sees new clashes as martial law lifted". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jun/01/bahrain-protests-martial-law. Retrieved 3 June 2011. 
  231. "'Business-Friendly Bahrain' Disappears; Ex-Pats Exit". CNBC. http://www.cnbc.com/id/42124501/. 
  232. Farmer, Ben (18 March 2011). "Bahrain authorities destroy Pearl Roundabout". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/bahrain/8390773/Bahrain-authorities-destroy-Pearl-Roundabout.html. 
  233. "Report: Doctors targeted in Bahrain". Al Jazeera English. 18 July 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/07/2011718674562571.html. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  234. "Scores hurt in Algeria protests". Al Jazeera. 30 December 2010. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2010/12/2010123012345588575.html. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  235. Höges, Clemens; Zand, Bernhard; Zuber, Helene (25 January 2011). "Arab Rulers Fear Spread of Democracy Fever". Der Spiegel. http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,741545-2,00.html. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  236. "Thousands in Algeria protest march: organisers". Google News. Archived from the original on 30 January 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110130022354/http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5iZS5LUIm9s22lV2sYXu1rKSYWhzQ?docId=CNG.4f79fd54def547db7a5c9f08426c8b87.d51. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  237. "Algeria to lift emergency powers". http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/02/20112315364175524.html. 
  238. Ersan, Inal (22 February 2011). "Algeria Government Approves Lifting of State of Emergency". Bloomberg L.P.. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-22/algeria-government-approves-lifting-of-state-of-emergency-1-.html. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  239. "Algeria repeals emergency law". Al-Jazeera English. 23 February 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/02/2011223686267301.html. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  240. Faucon, Benoît (16 April 2011). "Algeria Leader Vows to 'Reinforce' Democracy". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703327404576194363244985344.html?mod=googlenews_wsj. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 
  241. "10 injured, several arrested in Algeria protests". Agent France Press. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012. http://web.archive.org/web/20120525115056/http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5ic2rj6WFjN-Y4BuxjoEoECmPaBRg?docId=CNG.4e49b326c0b56a603281add8e86b2b2d.631. Retrieved 13 January 2012. 
  242. "Anger at squalid housing unleashes Algeria protest". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/01/12/us-algeria-housing-protests-idUSTRE80B12A20120112. Retrieved 13. 
  243. "Eye on unrest, Iraq PM says he won't seek 3rd term". MyWay. http://apnews.myway.com//article/20110205/D9L6OJH80.html. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  244. Sly, Liz (13 February 2011). "Egyptian revolution sparks protest movement in democratic Iraq". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/12/AR2011021202100.html. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  245. "Protesters In Iraqi Cities Demand Better Social Services, Corruption Probes". http://www.rferl.org/content/iraq_protests/2305822.html. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  246. "Iraqis anger spelled out in street protests". http://www.alsumaria.tv/en/Iraq-News/1-60223-Iraqis-anger-spelled-out-in-street-protests.html. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  247. "Iraq subsidises power after protests over services". Reuters Africa. Reuters. 12 February 2011. http://af.reuters.com/article/energyOilNews/idAFRAS22447520110212. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  248. "Iraq man dies of self-immolation to protest rising unemployment". Archived from the original on 15 February 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110215000114/http://www.haaretz.com/news/international/iraq-man-dies-of-self-immolation-to-protest-rising-unemployment-1.343162. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  249. "Persistence will pay off for Palestinians". A Times. 18 May 2011. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/ME18Ak03.html. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  250. "Syrian infiltrator recounts journey to TA". Ynetnews.com. 18 May 2011. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4069686,00.html. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  251. "Israeli Troops Clash with Palestinian Protesters". Thirdage.com. 15 May 2011. http://www.thirdage.com/news/israeli-troops-clash-with-palestinian-protesters_05-15-2011?page=2. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  252. "Facebook page supporting Palestinian intifada pulled down". CNN. 29 March 2011. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-03-29/world/palestinian.facebook_1_facebook-page-social-media-website-incites-violence?_s=PM:WORLD. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  253. "Egyptians to mark Nakba with a march to the Palestinian territories". Ahram. http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/11737/Egypt/Politics-/Egyptians-call-for-a-march-to-Palestine-on-Nakba-d.aspx. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  254. Guez, Jack (14 May 2011). "Bloodshed along Israel borders kills 12 on Nakba Day". Google News. Agence France-Presse (Majdal Shams). Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110518144347/http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5gWLjqfZSgSgzuHcdLnAJNk-hadZw?docId=CNG.421c21ab9ad021fabff976d31e605a35.471. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  255. a b "Syria blocks new protest at Israeli border". Boston Herald. 6 June 2011. http://www.bostonherald.com/news/international/middle_east/view/20110606syria_blocks_new_border_protest_toll_rises_to_23/srvc=home&position=recent. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 
  256. a b "'Israeli Forces Kill 23 Protesters' On Border". Sky News. 6 June 2011. http://news.sky.com/home/world-news/article/16005791. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  257. "Golan Heights death toll disputed". RTÉ News. 7 June 2011. http://www.rte.ie/news/2011/0606/mideast.html. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  258. Stewart, Catrina (6 June 2011). "Israeli troops kill 14, including 12-year-old boy, as protesters bid for border". Belfast Telegraph. http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/world-news/israeli-troops-kill-14-including-12yearold-boy-as-protesters-bid-for-border-16008341.html. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 
  259. "Press Digest". Lebanon Daily Star. 6 June 2011. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Politics/2011/Jun-06/Lebanons-Arabic-press-digest---June-6-2011.ashx#axzz1OWuqz6Ct. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 
  260. "Israel committed genocide: Sleiman". Saudi Telegraph. 6 June 2011. http://www.sauditelegraph.com/news/newsfull.php?newid=511474. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  261. "Condemning killing of Golan Heights protesters, UN rights chief calls for inquiries". United Nations News Centre. 7 June 2011. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=38642&Cr=syria&Cr1=. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  262. "SSNP condemns Israeli 'massacre' in Golan". NOW Lebanon. 5 June 2011. http://www.nowlebanon.com/NewsArticleDetails.aspx?ID=278659. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 
  263. Template:FullHuffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/social/misaacm/syria-government-israeli-border_n_872745_92484551.html. 
  264. "Jordanians march against inflation". Al Jazeera. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/01/20111141219337111.html. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  265. Johnny McDevitt (15 January 2011). "Jordanians protest against soaring food prices". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jan/15/jordanians-protest-over-food-prices. 
  266. Andoni, Lamis (16 January 2011). "To the tyrants of the Arab world ...". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 18 January 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5vq7RMfnR. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  267. al-Khalidi, Suleiman (21 January 2011). "Thousands of Jordanians protest economic conditions". Reuters. http://af.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idAFTRE70K4NN20110121. Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  268. "Jordan's Royal Palace says king sacks government in wake of street protests". Associated Press. 1 February 2011. http://www.680news.com/news/world/article/177327--jordan-s-royal-palace-says-king-sacks-government-in-wake-of-street-protests. Retrieved 11 March 2011. 
  269. Derhally, Massoud A (1 February 2011). "Jordan's King Abdullah Replaces Prime Minister". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-01/jordan-s-prime-minister-rifai-resigns-king-asks-bakhit-to-form-government.html. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  270. "Middle East protests: Jordan sees biggest reform rally". BBC News. 25 February 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12582869. 
  271. "Protest camp set up in Jordan capital". Al-Jazeera English. 24 March 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/03/201132414304102344.html. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  272. "Clashes break out at Jordan anti-government protest". BBC News. 25 March 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12857360. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  273. "Pro-Reform Protesters Attacked in Jordan's Capital". ABC News. Associated Press (Amman). 15 July 2011. http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=14079315#.TxIOx3HWScs. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  274. The Wall Street Journal. 19 February 2011. http://online.wsj.com/video/stateless-arabs-demonstrate-in-kuwait/CAE0DC2D-AFEA-4036-BD8E-FCE980F21B9B.html?mod=WSJ_Article_Videocarousel_1. 
  275. "Clashes in Bahrain before planned protest rally". Fox News. 14 February 2011. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2011/02/14/clashes-bahrain-planned-protest-rally/?test=latestnews. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 
  276. "Kuwaitis protest, demand prime minister resign". Reuters Africa. Reuters. 3 June 2011. http://af.reuters.com/article/egyptNews/idAFLAE36903720110603. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 
  277. "Kuwait Protesters in Porsches Say Gulf Can’t Spend Way Out of Arab Spring- Bloomberg". Bloomberg. 6 October 2011. http://mobile.bloomberg.com/news/2011-10-05/kuwait-protesters-in-porsches-shake-gulf-s-democracy-pioneer?category=%2Fnews%2Fmostread%2F. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  278. "Kuwait warns strikers; vows disruption-free oil exports". Arab News. Associated Press (Kuwait City). 11 October 2011. http://arabnews.com/economy/article516256.ece. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  279. "Kuwait Holds Biggest Protest Demanding Premier’s Ouster". Businessweek. 20 October 2011. http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-10-20/kuwait-holds-biggest-protest-demanding-premier-s-ouster.html. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  280. "Opposition calls for ouster of PM, dissolution of parliament". The Times. UK. 7 April 2007. http://www.arabtimesonline.com/NewsDetails/tabid/96/smid/414/ArticleID/175198/reftab/73/t/Opposition-calls-for-ouster-of-PM-dissolution-of-parliament/Default.aspx. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  281. "From Kuwait Times: Protests, strikes cannot be tolerated, warns PM". Al Arabiya. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/10/26/173752.html. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  282. Baker, Aryn (17 November 2011). "Storming Kuwait's Parliament: What's Behind the Latest Arab Revolt?". Time. http://globalspin.blogs.time.com/2011/11/17/storming-kuwaits-parliament-whats-behind-the-latest-arab-revolt/. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  283. Gladstone, Rick (17 November 2011). "Kuwait Tightens Security After Protest in Parliament". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/18/world/middleeast/kuwait-tightens-security-after-parliament-protest.html. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  284. "Kuwait slams parliament protests as 'unprecedented' step to 'anarchy'". CNN. 17 November 2011. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-11-17/middleeast/world_meast_kuwait-protest_1_kuwaiti-opposition-protesters-parliament?_s=PM:MIDDLEEAST. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  285. "Kuwait's prime minister resigns after protests". BBC News. 28 November 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-15931526. Retrieved 28 November 2011. 
  286. Karam, Souhail (3 February 2011). "Morocco government plays down call for protests". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/03/idINIndia-54646220110203. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  287. "Moroccan government fears outbreak of mass protests". Wsws.org. 3 February 2011. http://wsws.org/articles/2011/feb2011/moro-f03.shtml. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  288. Tremlett, Giles (19 February 2011). "Morocco: King's Power in Spotlight as Desperate Youth Prepare to Test Morocco's Claims to Liberalism: Mohammed VI is Outwardly Revered but Rage Against his Cronies' Greed is Growing". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/feb/18/morocco-demonstrations-test-regime?INTCMP=SRCH. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  289. "Le bilan des manifestations au Maroc s'élève à cinq morts et 128 blessés". Jeuneafrique.com. 9 February 2011. http://www.jeuneafrique.com/Article/ARTJAWEB20110221162602/maroc-violences-mohammed-vi-reformele-bilan-des-manifestations-au-maroc-s-eleve-a-cinq-morts-et-128-blesses.html. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  290. "Casablanca catches protest fever". Herald Sun (Melbourne, Australia). 27 February 2011. http://www.heraldsun.com.au/ipad/at-reform-rally-in-morocco/story-fn6s850w-1226012647707. Retrieved 1 March 2011. 
  291. "Moroccan monarch pledges reform". Al-Jazeera English. 9 March 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/03/201139204839521962.html. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  292. "Au Maroc, des milliers de manifestants réclament démocratie et justice sociale" (in French). RFI. 20 March 2011. http://www.rfi.fr/afrique/20110320-maroc-milliers-manifestant-reclamer-davantage-democratie-justice-sociale. 
  293. "Thousands rally in call for Morocco reforms". Google. 20 March 2011. Archived from the original on 23 March 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110323101653/http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5iu2GgwAB5vFQmq-iZrp2ZsSD4W3Q?docId=CNG.30929bbed886ca3041584a88b0537905.d81. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  294. "Thousands Revive Protests in Morocco". The New York Times. 18 September 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/19/world/africa/thousands-revive-protests-in-morocco.html. 
  295. Schemm, Paul (10 October 2011). "Moroccan imams protest government control". The Denver Post. Associated Press. http://www.denverpost.com/iraq/ci_19080194. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  296. "Q&A on Morocco's reform". BBC News. 29 June 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13964550. Retrieved 28 November 2011. 
  297. "Oman protestors call for fight against corruption – Culture & Society". ArabianBusiness.com. http://www.arabianbusiness.com/oman-protestors-call-for-fight-against-corruption--374524.html. Retrieved 29 January 2011. 
  298. Spinner, Jackie (18 February 2011). "Middle East protests: Oman's peaceful anti-corruption march". Slate Magazine. http://www.slate.com/id/2285656/. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 
  299. "Oman protests peaceful so far". United Press International. http://www.upi.com/Top_News/World-News/2011/02/19/Oman-protests-peaceful-so-far/UPI-96551298131400/. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 
  300. "Oman reshuffles cabinet as protesters block mall | Middle East". world.bdnews24.com. http://world.bdnews24.com/details.php?id=188404&cid=4. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  301. "2 dead as protesters, police clash in Oman, witnesses say". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/meast/02/27/oman.protests/. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  302. a b "Oman police clash with stone-throwing protesters". Reuters. 27 February 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/27/oman-protests-idUSLDE71Q04I20110227. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  303. "Oman: Tear Gas For Stone-Throwing Protestors". 27 February 2011. http://www.agi.it/english-version/world/elenco-notizie/201102271122-cro-ren1031-oman_tear_gas_for_stone_throwing_protestors. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  304. "Witnesses claim 2 killed during Oman police clash with protesters – Israel News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 20 June 1995. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4034914,00.html. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  305. "Police station, state office burning in Oman town". Reuters. 27 February 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/27/oman-fires-idUSLDE71Q09S20110227. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  306. "Oman forces disperse protesters peacefully". News.asiaone.com. 1 March 2011. http://news.asiaone.com/News/AsiaOne%2BNews/World/Story/A1Story20110301-265967.html. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  307. "Oman protesters apologise to ruler". Gulfnews. 1 March 2011. http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/oman/oman-protesters-apologise-to-ruler-1.769812. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  308. 2011 Oman protests
  309. "Oman: Sultan Qaboos Restructures Cabinet Ministers". Global Arab Network. 7 March 2011. http://www.english.globalarabnetwork.com/2011030710133/Oman-Politics/oman-sultan-qaboos-restructures-council-of-ministers.html. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  310. "Royal Oman Police to recruit 10,000 Omanis". Gulfnews. 4 March 2011. http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/oman/royal-oman-police-to-recruit-10-000-omanis-1.771669. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  311. "Thousands apply for jobs in Oman". Khaleejtimes.com. 8 March 2011. http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle08.asp?xfile=data/middleeast/2011/March/middleeast_March136.xml&section=middleeast. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  312. "Operation Salalah: Omani Army arrests Salalah protesters". Muscat Daily. Accessed on 17 May 2011. http://www.muscatdaily.com/Archive/Stories-Files/Operation-Salalah-army-arrests-protesters/%28language%29/eng-GB. 
  313. "Flood sparks rare action". Montreal Gazette. 29 January 2011. http://www.montrealgazette.com/news/Flood+sparks+rare+action/4189873/story.html. Retrieved 29 January 2011. 
  314. "Dozens detained in Saudi over flood protests". The Peninsula (Qatar)/Thomson-Reuters. 29 January 2011. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5w9qUZeyR. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  315. Laessing, Ulf; Asma Alsharif (5 February 2011). Swiss Info/Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 February 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5wYAoCCPC. Retrieved 16 February 2011. 
  316. a b "Saudi police wound 3 Shiite protesters: witness". France 24. Agence France-Presse. 10 March 2011. Archived from the original on 10 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5x5VXfe7K. Retrieved 10 March 2011. 
  317. Laessing, Ulf; Matthew Jones (2011-03-xx). "Saudi Arabia says won't tolerate protests". Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5wxo8kIog. Retrieved 3 March 2011. 
  318. Fisk, Robert (5 March 2011). "Saudis mobilise thousands of troops to quell growing revolt". The Independent (UK). Archived from the original on 5 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5wxaC4jgz. Retrieved 3 March 2011. 
  319. Banerjee, Neela (11 March 2011). "Saudi Arabia 'day of rage' protest fizzles". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 11 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5x76tP4d2. Retrieved 11 March 2011. 
  320. Hasan, Omar (12 March 2011). "Massive Saudi show of force silences dissent". The Age. Agence France-Presse (Australia). Archived from the original on 11 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5x75hcl2M. Retrieved 11 March 2011. 
  321. "Saudis protest outside Interior Ministry". The News Tribune. Associated Press. 13 March 2011. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xG836rzV. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  322. Tisdall, Simon (14 March 2011). "Saudi Arabia polices the region as trouble stirs at home". The Guardian (UK). Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xG83Z0lN. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  323. "Kuwait Navy set for Bahrain – Saudi Shias Rally". Arab Times. 18 March 2011. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xIz3sxxL. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  324. Abu Nasr, Donna (16 March 2011). "Saudi Arabia Demonstrators Hold Rallies in al-Qatif, Awwamiya". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 18 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xHj2ny3J. Retrieved 18 March 2011. 
  325. "Shi'ites protest peacefully in eastern Saudi Arabia". Jerusalem Post/Thomson Reuters. 18 March 2011. Archived from the original on 18 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xHk9zw1s. Retrieved 18 March 2011. 
  326. Benham, Jason (25 March 2011). "Hundreds of Saudi Shi'ites protest in east". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 25 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xSLWasoJ. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  327. "Saudi Shi'ites protest, support Bahrain brethren". Thomson Reuters. 16 March 2011. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xGAhIzV4. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  328. Benham, Jason (17 March 2011). "Saudi Shi'ites call for Bahrain troop withdrawal". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xGBKJvGP. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  329. "Saudi women: Driven to succeed", Isabelle Eshraghi. The National. 10 June 2011. Accessed 10 June 2011
  330. "Freedom Riders in Riyadh", Wall Street Journal. 6 June 2011. Accessed 6 June 2011
  331. "Could Women's Rights Finally Improve in Saudi Arabia?", Max Fisher. The Atlantic. 7 June 2011. Accessed 9 June 2011
  332. "Five Saudi women arrested for driving", Sydney Morning Herald. 10 June 2011. Accessed 9 June 2011.
  333. "Saudi women take to their cars hoping for change", Asma Alsharif. Jason Benham. 9 June 2011. Accessed 9 June 2011
  334. "Saudi arrests 6 women for driving in Riyadh", Montreal Gazette. Jason Benham. 9 June 2011. Accessed 9 June 2011
  335. "Protest: Women drivers to circle Saudi embassy", Washington Examiner. 15 June 2011. Accessed 15 June 2011
  336. "Rochester women: We were fired from jobs as drivers for Saudis", Elizabeth Dunbar. Minnesota Public Radio. 16 June 2011. Accessed 17 June 2011
  337. "3 Minnesota Women Fired For Being Female", CBS Minnesota. 16 June 2011. Accessed 17 June 2011
  338. "Lebanese protest against sectarian political system". Reuters Africa. Reuters. 27 February 2011. http://af.reuters.com/article/egyptNews/idAFLDE71Q08L20110227. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  339. Dakroub, Hussein (14 March 2011). "The second Cedar Revolution". The Daily Star (Lebanon). http://www.dailystar.com.lb/article.asp?edition_ID=1&article_ID=125963&categ_id=2. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  340. "Middle East | Huge Beirut protest backs Syria". BBC News. 8 March 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/4329201.stm. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  341. "Mauritanie: mécontent du régime, un homme s'immole par le feu à Nouakchott" (in French). Le Parisien. France. 17 January 2011. http://www.leparisien.fr/flash-actualite-monde/mauritanie-mecontent-du-regime-un-homme-s-immole-par-le-feu-a-nouakchott-17-01-2011-1231257.php. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  342. "Mauritania police crush protest – docters announce strike". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. 9 March 2011. http://www.rnw.nl/africa/article/mauritania-police-crush-protest-docters-announce-strike. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  343. "Mauritania protesters want better salaries, lower food prices". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. 12 March 2011. http://www.rnw.nl/africa/article/mauritania-protesters-want-better-salaries-lower-food-prices. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  344. "Protests stun Mauritania". Al Arabiya. 25 April 2011. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/04/25/146709.html. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  345. "BBC News – Sudan's Omar al-Bashir 'will not seek re-election'". BBC. 7 February 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12521427. Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  346. "Thousands stage rally in Bahrain". Al-Jazeera English. 9 March 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/03/20113917595654981.html. Retrieved 10 March 2011. 
  347. Solomon, Erika (12 April 2011). "Arrested UAE blogger accused of possessing alcohol". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/04/12/us-emirates-activists-idUSTRE73B2EP20110412. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 
  348. "Autocrats Gain Ground in Middle East – Part 3: Preventative Measures". Spiegel. 18 May 2011. http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,762861-3,00.html. 
  349. a b "UAE pardons jailed activists". Al-Jazeera English. 28 November 2011. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/11/20111128135953601809.html. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  350. "UAE tries five regime critics", Kuwait Times. 15 June 2011. Accessed 15 June 2011
  351. "Jailed UAE activists begin hunger strike". Al-Jazeera English. 13 November 2011. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/11/2011111310513045209.html. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  352. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4023635,00.html
  353. http://www.haaretz.com/news/middle-east/hamas-disperses-anti-assad-protest-in-gaza-1.379129
  354. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3903431,00.html
  355. "Unrest in the Middle East and North Africa – country by country". CNN. 18 February 2011. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/meast/02/15/arab.region.unrest/index.html. 
  356. a b "Palestinian cabinet resigns". Al Jazeera English. 14 February 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/02/201121484520923682.html. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 
  357. Noam Chomsky and Marwan Bishara (21 February 2011). "The genie is out of the bottle". Al Jazeera. http://english.aljazeera.net/programmes/empire/2011/02/20112211027266463.html. 
  358. Derakhshi, Reza (11 April 2011). "Hardship blunts Iranian interest in Arab protests". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/04/11/us-iran-region-unrest-idUSTRE73A42Q20110411. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  359. Bryant, Lisa (8 February 2011). "Europe Watches Arab Protests for Lessons". Voice of America. http://www.voanews.com/english/news/Europe-Watches-Arab-Protests-for-Lessons-115572254.html. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  360. Kessler, Oren (11 March 2011). "Surge in Arab protests expected in Gulf states". The Jerusalem Post. http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=211703. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  361. Dahmani, Frida (19 January 2011). "La justice tunisienne en marche contre Ben Ali, Trabelsi and Co.". Jeune Afrique. http://www.jeuneafrique.com/Article/ARTJAWEB20110119181842/france-enquete-gouvernement-justicela-justice-tunisienne-en-marche-contre-ben-ali-trabelsi-and-co.html. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  362. Shefler, Gil (8 March 2011). "Tunisian Jews feel safe under new government". The Jerusalem Post. http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=211296. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  363. Sanders, Edmund (3 February 2011). "Egypt's Coptic Christians fear life without Mubarak". The Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/feb/03/world/la-fg-egypt-coptics-20110204. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  364. Vu, Michelle (11 February 2011). "Expert: Egypt's Mubarak Resignation Good for Coptic Christians". Christian Post. http://www.christianpost.com/news/expert-egypts-mubarak-resignation-good-for-coptic-christians-48944/. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  365. Dehghanpisheh, Babak (6 February 2011). "Christians' Painful Split Over Egypt Protests". The Daily Beast. http://www.thedailybeast.com/blogs-and-stories/2011-02-06/egypt-protests-coptic-christians-painful-split/. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  366. Abdul-Ahad, Ghaith (28 February 2011). "Libya's Berbers join the revolution in fight to reclaim ancient identity". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/feb/28/libya-amazigh-identity-tribes-gaddafi. Retrieved 23 August 2011. 
  367. "Amazigh culture reborn in Libya revolution". english.libya.tv. http://english.libya.tv/2011/07/11/amazigh-culture-reborn-in-libya-revolution/. Retrieved 23 August 2011. 
  368. "Springtime for them too?". The Economist. 13 August 2011. http://www.economist.com/node/21525925. Retrieved 23 August 2011. 
  369. "North Africa: Berber Renaissance Gains Momentum". mideastposts.com. http://mideastposts.com/2011/08/18/north-africa-berber-renaissance-gains-momentum/. Retrieved 23 August 2011. 
  370. "Moroccan Constitutional Reform: Berbers Say the Battle’s Just Begun". 6 July 2011. http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/175560/20110706/morocco-constitution-morocco-constitutional-reform-berber-activists.htm. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  371. "Berbers in the Western Mountains battle Gaddafi's forces". Euronews. 26 April 2011. http://www.euronews.net/2011/04/26/berbers-in-the-western-mountains-battle-gaddafi-s-forces/. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  372. "Libya: Gaddafi Rails Against 'No Fly' Attacks and Berbers". allAfrica.com. 20 March 2011. http://allafrica.com/stories/201103200010.html. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  373. McDoom, Opheera (20 April 2011). "Darfuris hold anti-government protests in Sudan's north". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/04/20/us-sudan-protests-idUSTRE73J7R520110420. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  374. Therolf, Garrett; Sandels, Alexandra (8 April 2011). "Minority Syria Kurds join protest, get concessions". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2011/04/07/MNF11ISBCD.DTL. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  375. "Syrian Kurds to protest despite granting of citizenship". Monsters & Critics. 7 April 2011. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. https://archive.is/8v1o. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  376. "Iraq Kurds protest against government in Nawroz celebrations". Alsumaria Iraqi Satellite TV Network. 21 March 2011. http://www.alsumaria.tv/en/Iraq-News/1-61856-Iraq-Kurds-protest-against-government-in-Nawroz-celebrations.html. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  377. Mawloud, Saman Mahmoud (11 March 2011). "Iraq Kurds protest, man tries to set himself ablaze". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/11/us-iraq-protests-idUSTRE72A3FS20110311. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  378. Tawfeeq, Mohammed (18 April 2011). "99 injured in protests in Iraq's Kurdish region". CNN. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-04-18/world/iraq.unrest_1_riot-police-angry-protesters-peaceful-protest?_s=PM:WORLD. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  379. Karon, Tony (15 February 2011). "Iran, Egypt Caught in the Churning of a Mideast Democracy Wave". Time. TIME. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2049323,00.html. 
  380. Khorrami Assl, Nima (8 April 2011). "Arab Spring: Syrian Episode". Foreign Policy Journal. http://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2011/04/08/arab-spring-syrian-episode/. Retrieved 28 April 2011. 
  381. Thomas, Landon (23 April 2011). "Kurds Renew Their Movement for Rights and Respect in Turkey". Maars News. http://news.maars.net/blog/2011/04/23/kurds-renew-their-movement-for-rights-and-respect-in-turkey/. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  382. Black, Ian (14 February 2011). "Arrests and deaths as Egypt protest spreads across Middle East". The Guardian. London. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/feb/14/middle-east-iran-bahrain-yemen. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  383. "Opposition protest against Armenia's government draws 12,000 people in capital". Winnipeg Free Press. 8 April 2011. http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/world/breakingnews/opposition-protest-against-armenias-government-draws-12000-people-in-capital-119488289.html. Retrieved 21 April 2011. 
  384. "AZERBAIJAN: More than 200 anti-government protesters arrested". The Los Angeles Times. 2 April 2011. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/babylonbeyond/2011/04/azerbaijan-more-than-200-anti-government-protesters-are-arrested.html. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  385. "Georgia opposition protests enter third day". Al Jazeera English. 23 May 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/europe/2011/05/2011523143259918583.html. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  386. "Albania opposition vows protests". Al Jazeera. 22 January 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/europe/2011/01/2011122134433502716.html. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  387. "Internetom kruži poziv na prosvjed za rušenje Vlade: U utorak u 13 sati na Markovom trgu" (in Croatian). Jutarnji List. 20 February 2011. http://www.jutarnji.hr/internetom-kruzi-poziv-na-prosvjed-za-rusenje-vlade--u-utorak-na-markovom-trgu/926826/. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  (English translation)
  388. "BBC News – Spanish youth rally in Madrid echoes Egypt protests". BBC. 18 May 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/go/em/fr/-/news/world-europe-13437819. Retrieved 22 May 2011. 
  389. "Capital’s residents remain fearful after soldiers' mutiny". France24. 20 April 2011. http://www.france24.com/en/20110420-burkina-faso-soldier-police-mutiny-fear-ouagadougou-compaore-arab-spring. Retrieved 30 April 2011. 
  390. Manson, Katrina (20 February 2011). "Pro-democracy protests reach Djibouti". Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/001f94f6-3d18-11e0-bbff-00144feabdc0.html. Retrieved 1 June 2011. 
  391. "Why Uganda's Besigye failed to deliver Egypt-style protests after election defeat". CSMonitor.com. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Africa/Africa-Monitor/2011/0222/Why-Uganda-s-Besigye-failed-to-deliver-Egypt-style-protests-after-election-defeat. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 
  392. Smith, David (29 April 2011). "Uganda riots reach capital as anger against President Museveni grows". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/apr/29/uganda-riots-kampala-museveni. Retrieved 29 April 2011. 
  393. "Maldives rocked by protests against President Nasheed". BBC News. 1 May 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-13252906. 
  394. Tremlett, Giles (20 February 2011). "Anger on the streets: unrest in Iran, Algeria, Yemen, Morocco and China". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/feb/20/unrest-morocco-iran-algeria-yemen-china. 
  395. Jeremy Bowen (22 September 2011). "Barack Obama 'will veto' Palestinian UN bid". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-15014037. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  396. "#OCCUPYWALLSTREET". adbusters.org/. 13 July 2011. http://www.adbusters.org/blogs/adbusters-blog/occupywallstreet.html. Retrieved 16 Octgober 2011. 
  397. "About Us". "OccupyWallStreet.org". http://occupywallst.org/about/. 
  398. "Nigerians protest at removal of fuel subsidy". BBC. 3 January 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-16390183. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  399. "Poland rallies E Europe's support for 'Arab Spring'". Kuwait Times. 28 May 2011. http://www.kuwaittimes.net/read_news.php?newsid=NDU0MTU1MjQw. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  400. "Syria protests: US and UN condemn armed crackdown". BBC News. 26 March 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12869552. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  401. "Botswana condemns Libya". Mmegi Online. 22 February 2011. http://www.mmegi.bw/index.php?sid=1&aid=1138&dir=2011/February/Tuesday22. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  402. "Iran backs anti-Mubarak protests in Egypt – foreign minister". Ria Novosti. 1 February 2011. http://en.rian.ru/world/20110201/162402844.html. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  403. "Iran and Bahrain exchange threats of embassy closure while Kuwait confirms expulsion of Iranian diplomats". Payvand Iran News. 21 April 2011. http://www.payvand.com/news/11/apr/1201.html. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  404. "The View From Iran Of Syria's Protests". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 29 March 2011. http://www.rferl.org/content/view_syria_protests/3540271.html. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  405. "Qatar, other Gulf states deploy troops to Bahrain". World Tribune. 21 March 2011. http://www.worldtribune.com/worldtribune/WTARC/2011/me_military0315_03_21.asp. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  406. "Sec. Clinton Calls Morocco "Well-Positioned to Lead" on Democratic Reforms; Affirms U.S. Support for Moroccan Autonomy Plan as "Serious, Realistic, and Credible" Approach to Resolve Western Sahara Crisis". Reuters. 24 March 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/24/idUS251054+24-Mar-2011+PRN20110324. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  407. Cockburn, Patrick (17 April 2011). "So the Arab landscape shifts – and confusion reigns". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/commentators/patrick-cockburn-so-the-arab-landscape-shifts-ndash-and-confusion-reigns-2269022.html. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  408. Chomsky, Noam (11 May 2011). "The U.S. and Its Allies Will Do Anything to Prevent Democracy in the Arab World". Democracy Now. http://www.democracynow.org/seo/2011/5/11/noam_chomsky_the_us_and_its. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  409. "Oil price rising to dangerous levels for economy". money.canoe.ca/. 18 February 2011. http://money.canoe.ca/money/business/canada/archives/2011/02/20110217-151716.html. Retrieved 18 February 2011. 
  410. Kenan Engin. "The Arab Spring: The 5.0 Democracy Wave". Hurriyet Daily News. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/n.php?n=the-arab-spring-the-5.0-democracy-wave-2011-08-19. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  411. "Die fünfte Welle der Demokratisierung im islamisch-arabischen Raum? [The fifth wave of democratization in the Muslim-Arab world?]" (in German). Migrapolis. 27 April 2011. http://www.migrapolis-deutschland.de/index.php?id=1994. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Live blogs
Ongoing coverage
Other