ICT in Education/Notes

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 ICT in Education 

PrefaceIntroductionDefinition of TermsThe Promise of ICTs in EducationThe Uses of ICTs in EducationIssues in the Use of ICTs in EducationKey Challenges in Integrating ICTs in EducationFor Further ReadingNotesAbout the Author


1 US Department of Labor (1999), Futurework—Trends and Challenges for Work in the 21st Century. Quoted in EnGauge,“21st Century Skills,” North Central Regional Educational Laboratory; available from http://www.ncrel.org/engauge/skills/21skills.htm; accessed 31 May 2002.

2 For a convincing argument for the need to transform notions of “schooling” in light of technology-driven social change see Thornburg,David (2000),“Technology in K-12 Education:Envisioning a New Future”; available from http://www.air-dc.org/forum/abthornburg.htm; accessed 3 July 2002.

3 International Labour Organization,“Learning and Training for Work in the Knowledge Society;” available from http://www.Ilo.org/public/English/employment/skills/recomm/report; accessed 31 May 2002, p. 5.

4 Blurton,C.,“New Directions of ICT-Use in Education”.Available online http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/lwf/dl/edict.pdf;accessed 7 August 2002.

5 See for example Cuban, L. (1986), Teachers and Machines: The Classroom Use of Technology Since 1920 (New York: Teachers College Press).

6 Potashnik,M.and J.Capper,“Distance Education:Growth and Diversity;”available from http://www.worldbank.org/fandd/english/pdfs/0398/0110398.pdf; accessed 14 August 2002.

7 See Taghioff,Daniel (April 2001),“Seeds of Consensus—The Potential Role for Information and Communication Technologies in Development: Empowerment, Appropriateness and Measuring if Needs Really Get Met;” available from http://www.btinternet.com/~daniel.taghioff/index.html;accessed 14 August 2002.

8 http://www.open.ac.uk

9 http://www.ignou.ac.in

10 The Commonwelath of Learning,“An Introduction to Open and Distance Learning”; available from http://www.col.org/ODLIntro/introODL.htm; accessed 14 August 2002.

11 Quoted in Founts,Jeffrey T.(February 2000),“Research on Computers and Education:Past,Present and Future”; available from http://www.gatesfoundation.org/nr/dpwnloads/ed/evaluation/Computer_Research_Summary.pdf; accessed 30 October 2002, p. 11.

12 World Bank (1998), The World Development Report 1998/99. Quoted in Blurton, C., New Directions of ICT-Use in Education.

13 EnGauge. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory; available from http://www.ncrel.org/engauge/skills/21skills.htm; accessed 31 May 2002.

14 Haddad,Wadi D.and Jurich,Sonia (2002),“ICT for Education:Potential and Potency”,in Haddad,W.& Drexler, A. (eds), Technologies for Education: Potentials, Parameters, and Prospects (Washington DC: Academy for Educational Development and Paris: UNESCO), pp. 34-37.

15 Jung, I.,“Issues and Challenges of Providing Onloine Inservice Teacher Training: Korea’s Experience”; available from http://www.irrodl.org/content/v2.1/jung.pdf; accessed 4 August 2002.

16 Carnoy,Martin,et al.(June 2,2001),“Distance Education in China:A Discussion of the History, Challenges and Implications for China in the 21st Century”; available from http://ldt.stanford.edu/~yokonaga/portfolio/ed236x/China.jjy.htm;accessed 4 August 2002.

17 http://www.ignou.ac.in. See also Asian Development Bank (1997), Distance Education for Primary School Teachers: Papers and Proceedings of the Regional Seminar on Distance Education (Manila: Asian Development Bank).

18 International Center for Distance Learning,“Universitas Terbuka/Indonesian Open Learning University”; available from http://www-icdl.open.ac.uk/instResult.ihtml?inst_id=5777&p=1; accessed 14 August 2002.

19 See for example Bransford, J. (ed.) (1999), How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (Washington, DC: National Research Council).

20 Haddad,Wadi D.& Alexandra Drexler (2002),“The Dynamics of Technologies for Education”,in Haddad, W. & Drexler, A. (eds.) Technologies for Education: Potentials, Parameters, and Prospects (Washington DC: Academy for Educational Development and Paris: UNESCO), p. 9.

21 Perraton, H. and C. Creed,“Applying New Technologies and Cost-Effective Delivery Systems in Basic Education”; available from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/ 0012/001234/12348 2e.pdf; accessed 31 May 2002. Perraton and Creed use the term “general children’s programming” to refer to the broad target audience of basic education. Although their discussion is limited to this level of education, the broadcasting approaches they identify may also be applied to other educational levels.

22 Ibid, p. 13.

23 TechnKnowLogia,“Are You Talkin’to Me?:Interactive Radio Instruction”;available from http://www.techknowlogia.org/TKL_active_pages2/CurrentArticles/main.asp?IssueNumber=2&FileType=PDF&ArticleID=46; accessed 29 May 2002.

24 Bosch, A.,“Interactive Radio Instruction for Mathematics: Applications and Adaptations from Around the World”; available from http://www.techknowlogia.org/TKL_active_pages2/CurrentArticles/main.asp?FileType=HTML&ArticleID=255; accessed 15 August 2002, p. 45.

25 Ibid,pp. 46-49.

26 Perraton, H. and C. Creed,“Applying New Technologies…”

27 UNESCO,“Telesecundaria, Mexico”; available from http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/lwf/protfolio/abstract8.htm; accessed 15 August 2002, p. 2.

28 Perraton, H. and C. Creed,“Applying New Technologies…”

29 Iwanaga,M.,“The Present and the Future of Multimedia in Japan’s Open Learning”;available from http://www.ouhk.edu.hk/cridal/gdenet/Technology/technology.html; accessed 11 January 2002.

30 Nwaerondu,N.G.and G.Thompson,“The Use of Educational Radio in Developing Countries: Lessons from the Past” ; available from http://www.clrec.org/nwaeronduthompson; accessed 3 May 2002, pp. 2-3.

31 Rao,V.Rama,“Audio Teleconferencing—A Technological Prescription for Interactive Learing”;available from http://www.clrec.org/rama; accessed 14 August 2002.

32 Edwards, N.“Development and Integration of Web-based Technology in Distance Education for Nurses in China: A Pilot Study”; available from http://www.clerc.org/edwardsn; accessed 9 June 2002.

33 Richmond, Ron. Integration of Technology in the Classroom: An Instructional Perspective. SSTA Research Centre Report #97-02; available from http://www.ssta.sk.ca/research/technology/97-02.htm#BIBLIOGRAPHY; accessed 30 October 2002.

34 Ibid.

35 Ibid.

36 Dirr,R.,“The Development of New Organizational Arrangements in Virtual Learning”,in The Changing Faces of Virtual Education;available from http://www.col.org/virtualed/virtual2pdfs/Virtual2_complete.pdf; accessed 7 August 2002.

37 Moe,M.and H.Blodget,“The Knowledge Web”.Cited in A.Bates,“The Continuing Evolution of ICT Capacity: Implications for Education”,in Glen M. Farrell (ed.), The Changing Faces of Virtual Education; available from http://www.col.org/virtualed/virtual2pdfs/Virtual2_complete.pdf; accessed 7 August 2002.

38 Bates,A.“The Continuing Evolution of ICT Capacity:Implications for Education”,in Glen M.Farrell (ed.), The Changing Faces of Virtual Education;available from http://www.col.org/virtualed/virtual2pdfs/Virtual2_complete.pdf; accessed 7 August 2002.

39 Web-based Education Commission,“The Power of the Internet for Learning”; available from http://www.ed.gov/offices/AC/WBEC/FinalReport/WBECReport.pdf; accessed 12 April 2002.

40 Ibid.

41 Harris, Judi,“First Steps in Telecollaboration”; available from http://ccwf.cc.utexas.edu/~jbharris/Virtual-Architecture/Articles/First-Steps.pdf; accessed 6 March 2002, p. 1.

42 http://www.unicef.org/voy

43 http://www.telementor.org

44 http://www.globe.org

45 Perraton, H. and C. Creed,“Applying New Technologies…”,p. 38-39.

46 Potashnik, M. and J. Capper. (1998).”Distance Education…”,p. 42, 44.

47 Hannafin, R.D., & Savenye, S. (1993). Technology in the classroom…

48 Perraton, H. and C. Creed,“Applying New Technologies…”,p. 38-39.

49 Russel, T.L (1999). The no significant difference phenomenon (5th ed.). Raleigh NC: North Carolina State University.

50 Merisotis, Jamie P. and Ronald A. Phipps (1999, May/June), What’s the Difference? Outcomes of Distance vs. Traditional Classroom-Based Learning, in Change,pp. 13-17.

51 Fouts, J. (February 2002). Research on Computers and Education: Past, Present and Future; available from http://www.gatesfoundation.org/nr/downloads/ed/evaluation/Computer_Research_Summary.pdf; accessed 30 October 2002.

52 Ibid.

53 Blurton, C.,“New Directions of ICT-Use in Education”,p. 21.

54 See for example, Blurton,C.,“New Directions of ICT-Use in Education”and Perraton,H.and C.Creed, “Applying New Technologies…”

55 Blurton, C.,“New Directions of ICT-Use in Education”,p. 20.

56 Ibid., p. 24.

57 Consortium for School Networking,“Taking TCO to the Classroom:A School Administrator’s Guide to Planning for the Total Cost of New Technology”; available from http://ctap.fcoe.k12.ca.us/ctap/dhs3.4/tco2class.pdf; accessed 3 February 2002, p. 10.

58 Adkins,D.(1999),“Cost and Finance,”in Dock,A.and Helwig,J.(eds.), Interactive Radio Instruction: Impact, Sustainability, and Future Directions (Washington DC: World Bank Human Development Network Education Group, Education and Technology Team/USAID Advancing Basic Education and Literacy Project,Education Development Center). Cited in Perraton,H.and C.Creed,“Applying New Technologies…,” p. 40.

59 Potashnik,M.and J.Capper.(1998).“Distance Education…”,p.44.

60 Perraton,H.and C.Creed,“Applying New Technologies…,”pp.40-41.

61 Orivel,F.(2000),“Finance,Costs and Economics”,in J.Bradley and C.Yates (eds.), Basic Education at a Distance: World Review of Distance Education and Learning, Vol. 2 (London: Routledge).

62 Ibid, p. 41.

63 Hernes, G. (2002),“Emerging Trends in ICT and Challenges to Educational Planning,” in Haddad, W. and A. Drexler (eds.), Technologies for Education: Potentials, Parameters, and Prospects (Washington DC: Academy for Educational Development and Paris: UNESCO), p. 25.

64 Tandon,N.(November 1998),“Distance Education in the Commonwealth Countries of Asia,” Appendix to Commonwealth of Learning, Barriers to Information and Communication Technologies Encountered by Women: Summary Report;available from http://www.col.org/wdd/BarriersICT_Asia_Report.pdf;accessed 14 September 2002, p. 44.

65 Mark,J.“Beyond Equal Access:Gender Equity in Learning with Computers”;available from http://www.edc.org/WomensEquity/pubs/digests/digest-beyond.html; accessed 23 October 2002.

66 AAUW Education Foundation (14 October 1998),“Technology Gender Gap Develops While Gaps in Math and Science Narrow, AAUW Foundation Report Shows” [Press Release]; available from http://www.auuw.org/2000/ggpr.html. Quoted in Blurton, C.,“New Directions of ICT-Use in Education”,p.44.

67 http://www.world-links.org

68 Gadio,C.M.(November 2001),“Exploring the Gender Impact of the World Links Program:Summary of the Findings of an Independent Study Conducted in Four African Countries”; available from http://www.world-links.org/english/assets/gender_study_summary.pdf;accessed 6 December 2002, p. 1.

69 Ibid., p. 2.

70 Haddad,W.and S.Jurich (2002).“ICT for Education:Potential and Potency”,p.52.

71 http://www.enlacequiche.org.gt/english/vision.htm

72 “The Gobi Women’s Project of Mongolia: Portfolio”; available from http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/lwf/doc/portfolio/case1.htm; accessed 16 January 2003.

73 S.Cisler,“Planning for Sustainability:How to Keep Your ICT Project Running”;available from http://www2.ctcnet.org/ctc/Cisler/sustain.doc; accessed 4 August 2002.

74 Hawkins, R.,“Ten Lessons for ICT and Education in the Developing World”; available from http://www.cid.harvard.edu/cr/pdf/gitrr2002_ch04.pdf; accessed 7 August 2002, p. 40.

75 Perraton, H. and C. Creed,“Applying New Technologies…”,p. 41.

76 MacDougall,A.and D.Squires (1997),“A framework for reviewing teacher professional development programmes in information technology”.Cited in Blurton,C.,“New Directions of ICT-Use in Education”,p.29.

77 World Links for Development. Phase II: Telecollaborative Learning Projects. Training Manual, June 2001,

78 Ibid.

79 Hannafin,R.D.,and S.Savenye.(1993),“Technology in the Classroom:The Teacher’s New Role and Resistance to It, in Educational Technology, 33 (6), 26-31.

80 Tinio,V.(2002),“Survey of ICT Utilization in Philippine Public High Schools:Preliminary Findings” [Unpublished Manuscript].

81 Anzalone, Stephen,“ICTs to Support Learning in Classrooms in SEAMEO Countries: At What Costs?”. Paper prepared for SEAMEO conf. In Bangkok, March 26-9, 2001.

82 Salomon,K.,“A Primer on Distance Learning and Intellectual Property Issues”;available from http://www.teletrain.com/copyrigh.htm#3.student%20Waivers; accessed 4 August 2002, p.5.

83 Blurton, C.,“New Directions of ICT-Use in Education”,p. 35.

84 Whyte,A.,“Assessing CommunityTelecentres.Guidelines for Researchers”.cited in S.Cisler, “Planning for Sustainability…”

85 Thornburg,D.,“Technology in K-12 Education…”,p.1.