IB Music/Music History/Baroque Period
Characteristics== for a clearer more accurate guide see http://www.salem.k12.va.us/shs/band/IBIIStudyGuide.pdf ==
Other sites http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/eras/baroque.html http://www.grolsons.com/ibmusic/ibln.html & some baroque flashcards http://www.flashcardexchange.com/flashcards/list/526330 There is also this online tutor that covers all eras http://www.wwnorton.com/college/music/enj9/chronological/index.htm
Unity of mood
- Theory of affections - Johann Mattheson is credited with the coinage of this blazement.
- Specific rhythms, melodies associated with moods
- Continuity of rhythm
- Forward motion
- Opening melody repeated in varied form
- Elaborate, ornamental, hard to sing or remember
- Dynamic expansion, not balance or symmetry
- Continuity of dynamics: stays same for long periods
- Terraced: any shifts are sudden
- Organ and harpsichord encouraged continuity of volume
- Mainly polyphonic
- Imitation between voices
- Homophony for contrast
Chords and the basso continuo
- Chords more important, not just product of melodic lines
- Bass part important as foundation of chords
- Basso continuo
- Keyboard player plays bass part with left hand
- Improvises chords from bass part with right hand
- Right hand part called a figured bass
Words and music
- Standardized descriptive musical language
- Words emphasized by many rapid notes per syllable
- Performance group based on members of violin family
- Basso continuo plus upper strings
- Woodwind, brass, percussion optional
- Trumpet given high, rapid complex lines
- Same part played by different instruments
- Contrasting movements
- A B A, A B, or undivided
The concerto grosso and ritornello form
- Concerto grosso
- Small group of soloists pitted against tutti
- 3 contrasting movements
- Ritornello form
- First and last movements of concerto grosso in this form
- Opens with theme played by tutti
- Alternation between solo and tutti
- Polyphonic composition based on one main theme called subject
- Different voices imitate the subject
- Variation after each voice presents subject
- Countersubject, if present, always with subject
- Episodes occur between presentation of the subject
- Stretto: imitation before subject completed
- Varied by:
- Inversion (upside down)
- Retrograde (backwards)
- Augmentation (time values lengthened)
- Diminution (time values shortened)
- Drama sung to orchestral accompaniment
- Text = libretto; always overly dramatic
- Can be serio or , pitches of speechof Greek drama
- Created rise of virtuoso singers—castrati among others
- One of the most important early baroque composers
- Wrote Orfeo, first great opera
- Music director at San Marco
is generally considered to be one of England's greatest composers. He has often been called England's finest native composer. Purcell incorporated Italian and French stylistic elements but devised a peculiarly English style of Baroque music.
The Baroque sonata
By the time of Arcangelo Corelli, two polyphonic types of sonata were established: the sonata da chiesa (church sonata) and the sonata da camera ("ordinary" sonata, literally chamber sonata).
The sonata da chiesa, generally for one or more violins and bass, consisted normally of a slow introduction, a loosely fugued allegro, a cantabile slow movement, and a lively finale in some binary form suggesting affinity with the dance-tunes of the suite. This scheme, however, was not very clearly defined, until the works of Johann Sebastian Bach and George Friderich Handel, when it became the essential sonata and persists as a tradition of Italian violin music – even into the early 19th century, in the works of Boccherini.
The sonata da camera had consisted almost entirely of idealized dance-tunes, but by the time of Bach and Handel such a composition drew apart from the sonata, and came to be called a suite, a partita, an ordre, or, when it had a prelude in the form of a French opera-overture, an overture. On the other hand, the features of sonata da chiesa and sonata da camera then tended to be freely intermixed. Bach, however, while not using the titles themselves, nevertheless keeps the two types so distinct that they can be recognized by style and form. Thus, in his six solo violin sonatas, Nos. 1, 3, and 5 are recognizably sonate de chiesa; and Nos. 2, 4, and 6 are explicitly called partitas, but are admissible among the sonatas as being sonate da camera. Bach is also cited as being among the first composers to have the keyboard and solo instrument share a melodic line, whereas previously most sonatas for keyboard and instrument had kept the melody exclusively in the solo instrument.
The term sonata is also applied to the series of over 500 works for harpsichord solo, or sometimes for other keyboard instruments, by Domenico Scarlatti, originally published under the name Essercizi per il gravicembalo (Exercises for the Harpsichord). Most of these pieces are in one binary-form movement only, with two parts that are in the same tempo and use the same thematic material, though occasionally there will be changes in tempo within the sections. Many of the sonatas were composed in pairs, one being in the major and the other in the parallel minor. They are frequently virtuosic, and use more distant harmonic transitions and modulations than were common for other works of their time. They are admired for their great variety and invention.
The genre – particularly for solo instruments with just the continuo or ripieno – eventually influenced the solo movements of suites or concerti that occurred between movements with the full orchestra playing, for example in the Brandenburg Concerti of Bach. The trio sonatas of Vivaldi, too, show parallels with the concerti he was writing at the same time.
The sonatas of Domenico Paradies are mild and elongated works of this type, with a graceful and melodious little second movement included. The manuscript on which Longo bases his edition of Scarlatti frequently shows a similar juxtaposition of movements, though without any definite indication of their connection. The style is still traceable in the sonatas of the later classics, whenever a first movement is in a uniform rush of rapid motion, as in Mozart's violin sonata in F (K. 377), and in several of Clementi's best works.
influential Italian violinist and composer of Baroque music. His compositions are distinguished by a beautiful flow of melody and by a mannerly treatment of the accompanying parts, which he is justly said to have liberated from the strict rules of counterpoint.
Johann Sebastian Bach
The Baroque Suite
The Baroque Suite is a group of dances usually in the same key. Each piece is usually in binary form (A-A-B-B) or ternary form (A-B-A). The standard dances in the suite are the allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue.
The Chorale and Church Cantata
Chorales tend to have simple and singable tunes, because they were originally intended to be sung by the congregation rather than a professional choir. They generally have rhyming words and are in a strophic form (with the same melody being used for different verses). Within a verse, most chorales follow the AAB pattern of melody that is known as the German Bar form. (Lutheran)