History of Islamic Civilization/The Formative Period of Islam

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to: navigation, search

History of Islamic Civilization

Abu Bakr[edit]

EARLY LIFE

Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu's) real name was Abdullah, and he was given the title of "As Siddique" or"Testifier to the Truth." His father, 'Uthman, was known as Abu Quhafah and his mother, Salma, was known as Ummul Khair. He was two and a half years younger than Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). He was the first among the Sahaba to accept Islam.When he told that one to his family his son Sayyiduna Abdur Rahman (radi Allahu anhu) not accept him later on he oppose him and seperate away from him but Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu's)not leave his faith.Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) was the first person who used to call people openly toward faith so all the Quraysh people hate them because of that he lose his business and became poor.When Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu's) own clan people hates him and tortured by them he went to Ethiopia.There he meet Ibn al Dhugna by his help he came back to Mecca later on Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) married Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu's) daughter Aiysha siddiqua (radi Allahu anha). Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) accompanied Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) during the Hijrah to Madinatul Munawwarah. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) was a merchant. He freed many slaves, including Sayyiduna Bilal (radi Allahu anhu) and Sayyiduna Umayyah bin Qahaf (radi Allahu anhu). He participated in all the battles in which Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had to fight the Kuffar.

Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) loved his faith more than anything else. At the Battle of Badr, his son, Sayyiduna Abdur Rahman (radi Allahu anhu), was fighting on the side of the Kuffar. After accepting Islam, Sayyiduna Abdur Rahman (radi Allahu anhu) said to his father, "O Father, at Badr, you were twice under my sword, but my love for you held my hand back." To this, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) replied, "Son, if I had you only once under my sword, you would have been no more." He was so uncompromising in his faith.

At the time of the Battle of Tabuk, he donated all his wealth to the war effort, and when Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) asked him, "What have you left for your family,?" he replied, "Allah and His Rasool (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)."



AS A CALIPH

It is very strange that the successors of all the Prophets were selected by almighty Allah but in case of the last Prophet Sayyiduna Rasulullah(sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) it was elected by a bunch of aristocrat Arabians[when all the other faithful followers were busy in the tadfeen (burial) of Rasulalla(sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)].....during a secret meeting at a thatched hut in Suqaifa.....and subsequently since sayyiduna Abu Bakr(radi Allahu anhu), was the oldest among all others who attended that clandestine meeting,he was elected as the Caliph.

After his election as the Caliph, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) addressed the Muslims with these words: "O People! I have been chosen by you as your leader, although I am no better than any of you. If I do any wrong, set me right. Listen, truth is honesty and untruth is dishonesty. The weak among you are the powerful in my eyes, as long as I do not give them their dues. The powerful among you are weak in my eyes, as long as I do not take away from them what is due to others.

"Listen carefully, if people give up striving for the Cause of Almighty Allah, He will send down disgrace upon them. If people become evil-doers, Almighty Allah will send down calamities upon them.

"Obey me as long as I obey Allah and His Rasul (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). If I disobey Allah and His Rasul (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), you are free to disobey me."

Such was the first Caliph of Islam. Indeed, the world would be a better place to live in, if we had leaders like Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu).

Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) now sent Sayyiduna Usamah (radi Allahu anhu) on the expedition to Syria to fight the Romans, even though he had to attend to all the internal problems of the Islamic State.

The news that Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had passed away, made some new Muslims think that the Islamic State would crumble and they refused to pay the Zakaah. These new Muslims could not yet get used to their faith and its requirements until then. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) declared, "By Allah! Even if a single thread is due from a man, he must give it. If he refuses, I will declare war against him."



RENEGADES AND IMPOSTERS

Some others became imposters and renegades. Tulaiha, Musailimah, Maalik bin Nuwairah, Aswad Ansi and a woman named Sajah claimed that they were prophets and caused a great deal of confusion. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) was quick to take action against these imposters. Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu) was sent to deal with Tulaiha who fled to Syria and later became a Muslim. Maalik bin Nuwarah was killed. Sayyiduna Ikramah (radi Allahu anhu) and Sayyiduna Surahbil (radi Allahu anhu) were sent to take action against Musailimah, but they were defeated. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) sent Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu) to tackle the notorious Musailamah who married Sajah. In the fight that followed, Sayyiduna Wahshi (radi Allahu anhu) killed Musailamah. Musailamah and Aswad Ansi also claimed to be prophets while Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was alive. Aswad was killed by the Muslims of Yemen.

Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu's) swift and bold steps saved the Islamic State from the serious danger of chaos and confusion. He could now attend to other urgent problems.



ERA OF CONQUESTS

During his Khilaafat, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) had to take action against the Iranian Empire. The Emperor of Iran, Khusrou Parvez, was killed by his son, Shirooya, and the whole empire fell into chaos and disorder. Hurmuz, the Persian governor of Iraq, was very hostile to the Arabs and he was also cruel to the Muslims living in that area. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) sent Sayyiduna Muthamia (radi Allahu anhu) to take action against the Iranians in Iraq. His forces were not enough and Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu) was then sent with reinforcements. The Muslim army captured vast areas of the Iranian Empire in several battles.

Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) then turned his attention to the Romans who were causing trouble in the North-West frontier. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) sent 4 separate armies under Sayyiduna Ubaidah bin Jarrah, Sayyiduna Amr Ibnul As, Sayyiduna Yazid bin Abu Sufyaan and Sayyiduna Surahbil bin Hasnal (radi Allahu anhumul ajma'in) to deal with the Roman power.

The four armies joined into one unit to face the Romans more effectively. The Romans had amassed 150 000 soldiers, but the total Muslim army was only 24 000. Reinforcements were requested. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) asked Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu) to take charge of the Iraqi front and Sayyiduna Muthanna (radi Allahu anhu) to rush to the Syrian front to help fight the huge Roman army. The armies met in Yarmuk after Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) passed away. In this battle, the Romans were totally defeated.



PASSES AWAY

Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) fell ill at this time and passed away on the 21st of Jamadi-ul-Aakhir 13 A.H. (22 August 634). His rule lasted 2 years and 3 months. He was 63 years old. One of the many contributions of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) was the collection and compilation of the Holy Quran.



PERSONAL LIFE

He lived a very simple, pious and upright life. He was a true servant of Almighty Allah and a meticulous follower of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). He wore ordinary clothes and his meals were very simple. He attended to house-hold work and would go out at night and seek the poor and destitute. Humility and modesty were the keynotes of his character. He felt embarrassed when people showered praises on him or showed him immense respect. He often fasted during the day and spent the whole night in Salaah and meditation. He was a great orator and a master of genealogy (one who can trace a person's family line). In personal life, he was a Saint. He used all his powers to promote the interest of Islam and the good of people.

Umar[edit]

Hazrat Umar Farooq (Radi Allah Unho)




ELECTION

Before he passed away, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) consulted the senior Sahaba and elected Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) as the second Caliph of the Muslims. His election was partially democratic....contrary to the selection process,as it was with the prophets and their successors....the prophets and their successors were selected by almighty Allah but Umar's, Bakr's and uthmam's caliphate were bi-partisan election by a bunch of Arabian aristocrats.


EARLY LIFE

He was the son of Khattab and is famous in Islamic history as "Al Farooq" or "One who Distinguishes between Right and Wrong." His acceptance of Islam is also very famous.


AS A CALIPH

Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) was a very brave and straight-forward person. He was tough and uncompromising in Islamic principles. He was a great and talented ruler. During his Khilaafat, vast areas of the Roman and Persian empires and the whole of Egypt were brought under Islamic rule. He was also a gifted orator. He was very concerned for the welfare of the Muslims. He left a honourable legacy for Muslims after him. The Holy Quran was given to him by Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) for safe-keeping.


APPOINTS NEW COMMANDER

Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anu) was a strong disciplinarian. He noticed the tremendous popularity of Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu). He felt that people will lose trust in Almighty Allah and put all their trust in Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu). He feared that the people may think too highly of him, thereby possibly increasing the self-esteem of Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu) which would also breed arrogance, so he removed Sayyiduna Khalid (radi Allahu anhu) and appointed Sayyiduna Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah (radi Allahu anhu) as the Commander in Chief of the Muslim army. Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu) happily accepted the orders of Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) and then served as an ordinary soldier. This is an example of the Islamic teachings of obedience to leadership!



DEFEAT OF THE PERSIANS

Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu) had left Sayyiduna Muthanna (radi Allahu anhu) in command of the Muslim forces on the Iraqi front when he rushed to Yarmuk. Sayyiduna Muthanna (radi Allahu anhu) was finding it difficult to counter the enemy and went personally to Madinatul Munawwarah to ask Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) for re-enforcements. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) had by that time passed away. Sayyiduna Muthanna (radi Allahu anhu's) absence from the Iraqi front made things worse there. The Iranians regrouped under the command of Rustam and recaptured the lands taken by the Muslims. Rustam sent 2 columns of his army, one to Hirah and the other to Kaskar.

Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) sent Sayyiduna Abu Ubaidah (radi Allahu anhu), as Commander, to deal with the situation. Both the Persian columns were defeated. Rustam sent an even larger army and defeated the Muslims.

Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) raised another army and defeated the Persians. But the Persian court sent yet another larger army, and forced Sayyiduna Muthanna (radi Allahu anhu) to withdraw. The report of the new situation was sent to Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) and reinforcements under the command of Sayyiduna Saad bin Abi Waqqas (radi Allahu anhu) were sent.

The Persian and Muslim army met at Qadisiyah. After a long battle on several fronts, the outnumbered Muslim army defeated the 120 000 Persian soldiers and recaptured Hirah and their areas in the year 14 A.H. (636 C.E).



DEFEAT OF THE ROMANS

Muslims laid siege to Damascus during Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu's) rule as Caliph. It continued, after he passed away, and lasted 70 days during the rule of Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu). After the long siege, Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu) took the Romans by surprise and entered the city. The Governor surrendered and a peace treaty was signed.


CONQUEST OF JERUSALEM

Meanwhile, Sayyiduna Amr ibn As (radi Allahu anhu) was laying siege to Jerusalem. Sayyiduna Khalid, Sayyiduna Abu Ubaidah and other Sahaba (radi Allahu anhumul ajma'in) also joined him. The Christians had little hope and decided to give in. They also suggested that the keys of Jerusalem be given to Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) himself personally. Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) went to Jerusalem. An agreement was signed that guaranteed the safety of the city and the safety of the Christians.


ASSASSINATION

A Persian non-Muslim, named Firoz and nicknamed "Abu Lulu," complained to Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) about his master, Sayyiduna Mughirah bin Shuba (radi Allahu anhu), who imposed tax on him. Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) told Firoz that the tax was reasonable. This made Firoz angry. The next day, during the Fajr Salaah, he stabbed Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) 6 times in the back, severely wounding the Caliph. Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) passed away 3 days later in 23 A.H. He was 63 years old. He ruled the Islamic State for 10 years, 6 months and 4 days.



REFORMS

In a short space of 10 years, Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) had been well-known for his outstanding achievements and reforms in Islam. Some of these reforms were:- He established the "Baitul Maal" (People's treasury for the state and public).

Judicial courts of Justice were set in the country. Judges and Magistrates handled all cases.

Establishment of an army headquarters for the defence of the country.

Construction of roads and canals.

Schools were established. Salaries for Imams, Mu'azzins and Ustaads were organized.

Masjids were improved and built in Makkatul Mukarramah and Madinatul Munawwarah. This included facilities for the Haajis.

Police Stations and prisons were built.

Establishment of the first Islamic Lunar calendar beginning from the Hijrah.

Proper weights and measures introduced.

Population census established.

Built orphanages and welfare homes.

Established proper punishment system and banned slavery.


PERSONAL LIFE

Simplicity and devotion were the main characters of Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu). He used to wear clothes that had many patches and yet received Governors, convoys and diplomats. He took just enough allowance from the State to have a simple meal and wear simple clothes. At times he was very poor. He used to visit the old people and sick and even do their house work. He used to visit the houses of the soldiers and inquire about their families. He stayed awake at night in Salaah and often kept Fast. He always supported and upheld the cause of Islam, with his wisdom, energy, dynamism, bravery and little wealth.