Hindi Lessons/Lesson 3

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Lesson 3: Pronouns.

First, a basic table of the Hindi personal pronouns, then some explanation.

Personal pronouns
SINGULAR PLURAL
(हिंदी) Hindi English (हिंदी) Hindi English
मैं (main, mai~) I हम (hum) We
तु (tu) You (intimate) आप (aap) You
तुम (tum) You वे (ve) They/These
वह / यह (voh/vah) (yeh) He/She/It/That ये (ye) They/Those

तु (tu) is used only for very close person, e.g. one's girlfriend/boyfriend. तुम (tum) is probably the most used word for "you" (singular) in Hindi. It can be used with everybody, unless one wants to be polite, in which case one says "aap" (आप). NB. When using "aap" (आप) or "tum" (तुम) conjugate the verb for plural. Well, you don't know how to conjugate at this point, but do remember this rule! When meeting someone for the first time, politeness is appropriate, so it is better to use "aap" for "you."

Next, the demonstrative pronouns:

  • यह = This ( yeh / yah )
  • वह = That ( woh / wah )
  • ये = These ( ye )
  • वे = Those ( ve )

And, the possesive pronouns:

possesive pronouns
SINGULAR PLURAL
(हिंदी) Hindi English (हिंदी) Hindi English
मेरा (mera) My हमारा (hamara) Our
तेरा (tera - /tu/) Your आपका (aapka) Your
तुम्हारा (tumhara - /tum/) Your उनका (unka) Their
उसका (uska) His/Hers

So, let's build a Hindi sentence.

  • है = is ( hai /hae/ )
  • मेरा नाम Peter है = My name is Peter. (Mera naam Peter hai. नाम (naam) means "name").

NB: The verb in Hindi is always placed at the end of the sentence, a feature which many Asian languages share. (Hindi is SOV, i.e Subject-Object-Verb, language). Thus, for "My name is Peter" we say, "My name Peter is." More examples:

  • उसका नाम Peter है. = His name is Peter. (Uska naam Peter hai.)
  • यह पानी है. = This is water. (Yah pani hai.)
  • यह घर है. = This is a house. (Yeh ghar hai.)

That's enough material for this lesson I think. The next lesson will address genders and verbs.