Healthy eating habits/Quick Snack Ideas for Sport Performance in Adolescents
- 1 Why is nutrition important for sports performance?
- 2 So why are snacks important?
- 3 Nutrition and snack ideas before exercise
- 4 Nutrition and snack ideas for post-exercise recovery
- 5 Preparation of snacks
- 6 Further Reading
- 7 References
Why is nutrition important for sports performance?
Good nutrition is important for sports performance as it can assist with energy levels and recovery. A common issue experienced in athletes is that energy requirements are not met by food .
It is important to fuel your body with energy from food (kilojoules) to meet the demands of exercise and help with recovery after physical activity. This is due to exercise increasing energy requirements, which varies depending on the type, duration and intensity of the exercise  . The higher intensity and longer duration the exercise, the higher the energy requirements from food  . The three main nutrients that supply the body with energy are:
Carbohydrates are an important source of energy, and are broken down into smaller sugars such as glucose. The body uses glucose as the main form of energy for our cells .
- When there is more glucose than the body needs to use for energy, it converts it into glycogen (which is made up of many connected glucose molecules) and is stored in the liver or muscles .
- Glycogen is the major source of energy for exercising muscle
- When there are low glycogen levels (usually after 60 - 90 minutes) the body switches to using fat as energy, which can result in fatigue, tiredness and is commonly referred to as athletes 'hitting the wall' .
- Important to eat foods high in carbohydrates to replenish glycogen stores after exercise to improve recovery .
- Foods rich in carbohydrates include cereals, breads, pasta, rice, fruit, vegetables, milk and yoghurt .
Protein is important to help your muscles recover, repair and rebuild after exercise and can be used as an energy source, when carbohydrate reserves are very low . Protein rich foods include chicken, red meat such as beef, pork, fish, eggs, dairy foods and nuts .
- It is recommended to include moderate amounts of ‘healthy’ fats in your diet i.e. nuts, seeds, fish, reduced-fat dairy foods, lean meat and avocados 
- Foods high in ‘unhealthy’ fat should be limited and include foods such as chocolate, pastries, chips and deep fried foods 
So why are snacks important?
Snacking in addition to regular planned meals, is essential to help meet energy and nutrient requirements (such as carbohydrate, protein and fats) to improve performance. An athlete's diet should typically consist of high carbohydrate, moderate protein and low fat foods .
Nutrition and snack ideas before exercise
Foods eaten before exercise need to be digested and absorbed to maximise the energy available from the foods during physical activity. Foods typically high in fat, protein take longer to digest, and may result in stomach discomfort during exercise . Therefore snacks should be eaten at least 1 to 2 hours prior to exercise, that are high in carbohydrates, low in fat, to help with digestion and avoid stomach ache or upset. Above all, it is important to try and test snacks as results will vary for each individual .
Table 1.0 - Examples of easy snacks to eat and prepare before exercise, training or a tournament
|Examples of high carbohydrate snacks before exercise|
|Cereal bars |
|Banana and honey sandwich |
|Fruit scone with jam |
|English muffin with thick spread of topping |
Too nervous to eat?
If you are too nervous to eat before exercise, experiment with a routine that works and with foods that are safe and familiar. These could include snacks that are easier to eat and that are appetizing i.e. chocolate milk, cereal bars and some sports drinks . Studies have shown that performance is improved when you are well-fueled and hydrated before exercise .
Nutrition and snack ideas for post-exercise recovery
Why are snacks important to have after exercise?
Therefore, recovery meals and snacks should contain carbohydrates and some protein and should be eaten 30 minutes after finishing training or a tournament .
Table 2.0 - Examples of quick and easy snacks to eat and prepare after training,exercise or a tournament
|High carbohydrate, high protein snacks after exercise|
|Vegemite and cheese sandwich |
|Salad sandwich with meat/chicken/tuna/cheese |
|Soup in a cup + bread roll + slice of cheese |
|Chocolate milk |
Preparation of snacks
Organisation and preparation of snacks is important to maintain good nutrition before and after exercise, so reliance on a sporting venue is minimal . Preparing meals and snacks the night before is often a good idea, as sporting venues often have snacks and meals that are usually not ideal such as pies, hot chips, chocolates etc. These foods should only be eaten sometimes, and are not ideal foods for before or after exercise .
- Rodriguez, N. R., DiMarco, N. M., & Langley, S. (2009). Nutrition and athletic performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 41(3), 709-731
- Sports Dietitians Australia [SDA], (2009). Eating and Drinking before Sport - Fact Sheet. Available at: http://www.sportsdietitians.com.au/resources/upload/Eating_Drinking_Before_Sport.pdf, Accessed: October, 2013
- Gollnick, P. D., & Matoba, H. (1984). Role of carbohydrate in exercise. Clinics in sports medicine, 3(3), 583-593
- Australian Sports Commission (2009) Eating before exercise - Australian Institute of Sport. Retrieved: http://www.ausport.gov.au/ais/nutrition/factsheets/competition_and_training/eating_before_exercise, Accessed on: October, 2013
- Dairy Australia (2009) Sports Nutrition - Good Health Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.dairyaustralia.com.au/~/media/Documents/Health%20and%20Nutrition/Good-Health-Fact-sheets/Current/Good%20Health%20Fact%20Sheet%20-%20Sports%20Nutrition%202010.pdf. October, 2013
- Sports Dietitians Australia [SDA]. Food for your sport - Basketball. Available at: http://www.sportsdietitians.com.au/resources/upload/Basketball.pdf, Accessed: October, 2013