Handbook of Management Scales/Statistical process control
Statistical process control (alpha > 0.7; composite reliability = 0.86; average variance extracted = 0.60) 
The research takes a step toward clarifying the concept of lean production and develops and validates a multi-dimensional measure of lean production. The 10 distinct dimensions of a lean system are continuous flow, customer involvement, employee involvement, JIT delivery by suppliers, pull, set up time reduction, statistical process control, supplier development, supplier feedback, and total productive/preventive maintenance.
Lean production is an integrated socio-technical system whose main objective is to eliminate waste by concurrently reducing or minimizing supplier, customer, and internal variability. This dimension of lean production is about ensuring each process will supply defect free units to subsequent process.
Please indicate the extent of implementation of each of the following practices in your plant. (1) no implementation; (2) little implementation; (3) some implementation; (4) extensive implementation; (5) complete implementation.
- Large number of equipment/processes on shop floor are currently under SPC
- Extensive use of statistical techniques to reduce process variance
- Charts showing defect rates are used as tools on the shop-floor
- We use fishbone type diagrams to identify causes of quality problems
- We conduct process capability studies before product launch
- Shah/Ward (2007): Deﬁning and developing measures of lean production. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 785-805.
Some items (especially 3 and 4) appear to be formative rather than reflective.