Handbook of Management Scales/Innovativeness

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Innovativeness (alpha = ???)[edit]

Description[edit]

The study presents a foreign language version of a popular scale for measuring entrepreneurship and tests the instrument's utility in cross-cultural settings as a means of validating it for use abroad. The dimensions "innovativeness" and "proactiveness" combine to indicate the extent to which a given organization is entrepreneurial.

Definition[edit]

Entrepreneurship refers to the pursuit of creative or novel solutions to challenges confronting the firm, including the development or enhancement of products and services, as well as new administrative techniques and technologies for performing organizational functions.

The innovation dimension of entrepreneurship refers to the pursuit of creative or novel solutions to challenges confronting the firm, including the development or enhancement of products and services, as well as new administrative techniques and technologies for performing organizational functions (e.g. production, marketing, sales, and distribution).

Items[edit]

How many new lines of products or services has your firm marketed since 1989?

  • No new lines of products or services. -- Very many new lines of products or services.
  • Changes in product or service lines have been mostly of a minor nature. -- Changes in product or service lines have usually been quite dramatic.

In general, top managers in my firm favor ...

  • A strong emphasis on the marketing of tried and true products or services. -- A strong emphasis on R&D, technological leadership, and innovations.

A seven-point scale was used for the three items.

Source[edit]

  • Knight (1997): Cross-cultural reliability and validity of a scale to measure firm entrepreneurial orientation. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 213-225.

Related Scales[edit]