Gujarati/Alphabet

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Gujarati
Gujarati

Gujarati has its own writing system, distinct but related to several other Indian languages' writing systems, such as the one used to write Hindi. Strictly speaking, the Gujarati writing system is what is called an abugida (and not an alphabet), because the consonant characters all contain an inherent vowel, and other vowels are written as accents added on to the consonant characters. There are also symbols for stand-alone vowels.

Combinations: consonants and vowels[edit]

As an example, the following are the possible combinations of the consonant (ka) with the vowel symbols. The dash seen under the first ક of each example (the difference between ક and ક્) marks the ક as not having the inherent vowel (અ a), but this is not used in normal writing (and the presence of the inherent vowel is left ambiguous).

ક્ k + a = ka
ક્ k + aa = કા kaa

Example: all possible combinations for ક k[edit]

ક્ + =
ક્ + = કા
ક્ + = કિ
ક્ + = કી
ક્ + = કુ
ક્ + = કૂ
ક્ + = કૃ
ક્ + = કે
ક્ + = કૈ
ક્ + = કો
ક્ + = કૌ

Special cases[edit]

When the consonant ર r is followed by the vowels ઉ u or ઊ uu, the combined character looks different than the normal pattern:

ર્ + = રુ
ર્ + = રૂ

Alphabet[edit]

Here is the Gujarati writing system in the "alphabetic" order. The vowels come first, followed by consonants. Unless otherwise stated, the pronunciation is roughly the same as in English.

Character Transcription Pronunciation notes
Vowels
a (short) uh, spoken (American); critter (British)
aa (long) father, broad (American); far, carpet (British)
i (short) rid
ii (long) reed
u (short) to
uu (long) too
ri
e
ai
o
au Blended combination of a and u.
aa (long, inside a word)
િ i (short, inside a word)
ii (long, inside a word)
u (short, inside a word)
uu (long, inside a word)
ri (inside a word)
o (short, open, inside a word)
e (inside a word)
ai (inside a word)
o (long, open, inside a word)
o (closed, inside a word)
au (inside a word)
(anusvaara, nasalize the preceding vowel)
(chandrabindu, nasalize the preceding vowel)
ah (inside a word, only the two dots are used)

Consonants
k
kh
g
gh
ch
chh
j jeans
jh
gn (only when combined with च छ ज झ)
ţ
ţh
ḑh
ņ
t
th
d
dh
n
p
ph, f
b
bh
m
y yack
r
l lake
ļ
v, w Between English v and w.
sh
ş
s
h
(suppresses the inherent vowel)
. (period; marks end of a sentence) Nowadays, the Western period ( . ) is used instead.
(marks the end of a line of poetry)




English/Hindi/Gujarati Alphabets

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

................................................

A B bh C ch chh D dh E F G gh H I J K kh L M N O

अ ब भ क च छ ड/द ध/ढ़ इ फ ग घ ह ई ज क ख ल म न/ण ऑ

અ બ ભ ક ચ છ ડ/દ ધ /ઢ ઇ ફ ગ ઘ હ ઈ જ ક ખ લ મ ન/ણ ઓ

................................................

P ph Q R S sh T th U V W X Y Z

प फ क्यू र स श ट/त ठ/थ उ व व क्ष य झ

પ ફ ક ર સ શ ટ/ત ઠ/થ ઉ વ વ ક્ષ ય ઝ

.................................................

Which Indian script is easier to learn? Hindi or Gujarati?

Hindi can easily be written without horizontal lines in Gujarati Script.

.......................................

English/Hindi/Gujarati Vowels:

a aa i ee u oo e ai o au am ah

अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ऐ ऐ ओ औ अं अह

અ આ ઇ ઈ ઉ ઊ એ ઐ ઓ ઔ અં અઃ

........................................


k ka ki kee ku koo ke kai ko kau kam kh

क का कि की कु कू के कै को कौ कं क्ह

ક કા કિ કી કુ કૂ કે કૈ કો કૌ કં કઃ

........................................

English/Hindi/Gujarati Numbers:


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

१ २ ३ ४ ५ ६ ७ ८ ९ १०

૧ ૨ ૩ ૪ ૫ ૬ ૭ ૮ ૯ ૧૦