# Guide to Unix/Commands/X11

General: Introduction | Explanations | Why Unix-like
Platforms: Linux | BSD
Quick Reference: Commands | Environment Variables | Files | License

### C

"CD" cd changes the directory.

### L

"LS" lists the files in the directory.

### R

"read" reads a selected file in the current directory. Example: cd Documents -> cd Homework -> ls (posts a list of all homework files in 'Homework': example Speech.pdf) -> read Speech.pdf

### X

X is normally a symbolic link to the X server for your computer, such as XFree86 or Xorg. The normal way to start X is not directly, but by using xinit , xdm or startx.

You can invoke the X server with

```\$ X -quiet -query remotemachineaddress
```

to get a graphical login screen for the remote machine. See xdm.

### xbiff

```\$ xbiff
```

### xcalc

xcalc draws a window with a scientific calculator. The easiest way to operate the calculator is to click the buttons. The calculator understands order of operations (multiply before add) and provides common functions such as sine, square root, and the values of e and pi. The calculator normally displays eight digits and supports scientific notation.

### xdm

An X display manager used to manage graphical sessions of multiple users. It is usually started automatically as a system service to present the user with a GUI login screen instead of the console login prompt. Modern systems usually use GDM (the GNOME Display Manager) and KDM (the KDE Display Manager) instead.

Not a command

### xinit

$6+0$