Genes, Technology and Policy/References

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 Genes, Technology and Policy 

PrefaceIntroductionThe ScienceApplications in MedicineApplications in AgricultureOwnership Of and Access to BiotechnologyReferencesNotesAbout the AuthorContributorsAcknowledgements


Abdulla, S. “Drought Stress” Nature: Science Update. Home page online. Available from; Internet.

Asian Development Bank. 2001. Agricultural Biotechnology, Poverty Reduction and Food Security. Manila: Asian Development Bank.

Bains, W. 1987. Genetic Engineering For Almost Everybody: What Does It Do? What Will It Do? London: Penguin Books.

Bruce, D. and A. Bruce. 1999. Engineering Genesis: The Ethics of Genetic Engineering. London: Earthscan Publications.

Bucchini, L. and L.R. Goldman. 2002. “A Snapshot of Federal Research on Food Allergy: Implications for Genetically Modified Food”. Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology. Available from

Cameron, D. “Stop the Cloning”. Technology Review. 23 May 2002.

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, finalized and opened for signature on January 29, 2000. Available from; Internet.

Centre for International Economic Studies. 2000. “GMOs, Trade Policy and Welfare in Rich and Poor Countries,” University of Adelaide Online. Home page online. Available from; Internet.

Chassy, B.M. 2002. “Food Safety Evaluation of Crops Produced Through Biotechnology”, Journal of the American College of Nutrition 21: 3.

Commission of the European Communities. 2002. Life Sciences and Biotechnology, COM(2002) 27.

Danish Protection Agency. 2002. “The Precautionary Principle”. DPA Online. Home page online. Available from; Internet

Doyle, JJ. and G.J. Persley, eds. 1996. Enabling the Safe Use of Biotechnology: Principles and Practices. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

Eastham, K. and J. Sweet. 2002. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs): The Significance of Gene Flow Through Pollen Transfer. Copenhagen: European Environment Agency.

Falconi, C.A. 1999. “Agricultural Biotechnology Research Capacity in Four Developing Countries”, ISNAR Briefing Paper No. 42, December 1999.

Feldbaum, C. “Some History Should Be Repeated”, 295 Science, 8 February 2002, 975.

Food and Agriculture Organization. “Evaluation of Allergenicity of Genetically Modified Foods: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Allergenicity of Foods Derived from Biotechnology, 22-25 January 2001.” FAO Online. Home page online. Available from; Internet.

Fresco, L.O. “Genetically Modified Crops”, FAO Magazine (November 2001), FAO Online. Home page online. Available from; Internet.

Gianessi, L.P., C.S. Silvers, S. Sankula and J.E. Carpenter. 2002. Plant Biotechnology: Current and Potential Impact for Improving Pest management in US Agriculture, An Analysis of 40 Case Studies. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy.

Griffiths, A.G.F., J.H. Miller, D.T. Suzuki, R.C. Lewontin, and W.M. Gelbart. 1996. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.

Halos, S. 2001. “Current Concerns and Emerging Issues on Environmental Biosafety” (manuscript).

James, C. 2002. “Global Review of Commercialized Transgenic Crops: 2001”, ISAAA Brief No. 27-2002.

Juma, C. 2000. “Biotechnology and Sustainable Agriculture: Developing Country Perspectives”, 21 January 2000 (manuscript).

Krattiger, A.F. 2000. An Overview of ISAAA from 1992 to 2000, ISAAA Brief No. 19-2000.

Kryder, R.D., S. Kowalski,and A.F. Krattiger. 2000. “The Intellectual and Technical Property Components of pro-Vitamin A Rice (GoldenRice™: A Preliminary Freedom-to-Operate Review”, ISAAA Briefs No. 20-2000.

Langridge, W.H.R. “Edible Vaccines”, Scientific American, September 2000.

Maredia, M.K. 2002. “The Economics of Biosafety: Implications for Biotechnology in Developing Countries”, Biosafety Journal 3, no. 1.

Martineau, B. 2001. First Fruit: The Creation of the Flavr Savr Tomato and the Birth of Biotech Food. New York: McGraw-Hill.

McLean, M.A. et al. 2002. “A Conceptual Framework for Implementing Biosafety: Linking Policy, Capacity and Regulation”, International Service for National Agricultural Research Briefing Paper No. 47, March 2002.

Miyagishima, K. 2001. “International Standard Setting in Biotechnology: Role of Codex Alimentarius Commission”. (manuscript).

National Academy of Sciences. 2001. Transgenic Plants and World Agriculture Washington: National Academy Press.

National Cancer Institute. “Cancer Facts”, National Cancer Institute Online. Home page online. Available from; Internet.

National Council for Science and the Environment. 1999. “Science Behind the Regulation of Food Safety: Risk Assessment and the Precautionary Principle”. NCSE Online. Home page online. Available from; Internet.

Nussbaum, M.C. and C.R. Sunstein. 1998. Clones And Clones: Facts And Fantasies About Human Cloning. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

Paarlberg, R.L. 2001. The Politics of Precaution. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology. “Three Years Later: Genetically Engineered Corn and the Monarch Butterfly Controversy”. Pew Initiative Online. Home page online. Available from; Internet.

Pinstrup-Andersen, P. and E. Schioler. 2000. Seeds of Contention. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Plazinski, J. “Implications of International Agreements on Agricultural Biotechnology Products for Trading Nations” (manuscript).

SEARCA. “Frequently Asked Questions on Biotechnology”, SEARCA Online. Home page online. Available from; Internet.

Science and Government, No. 1, June 2002, 3.

Society of Toxicology. “The Safety of Foods Produced Through Biotechnology”, US Society of Toxicology Online. Home page online. Available from; Internet.

The Royal Society. 2002. “Genetically Modified Plants for Food Use and Human Health – An Update, Policy Document 4/02”, The Royal Society Online. Home page online. Available from; Internet.

Union of Concerned Scientists. “Genetic Engineering Techniques” (11 September 2002), UCS Online. Home page online. Available from http:/; Internet.

U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program. 2001. “Genomics and Its Impact on Medicine and Society: A 2001 Primer”, US Department of Energy Online. Home page online. Available from; Internet.

U.S. Department of State International Information Programs. “Frequently Asked Questions About Biotechnology”, USIS Online. Homepage online. Available from; Internet.

Victor, D.G. and Ford Runge, C. 2002. Farming the Genetic Frontier, 81 FOREIGN AFFAIRS No. 3.

Vogelstein, B., B. Alberts, and K. Shine, “Please Don’t Call It Cloning!”, Science. 15 February 2002.

Weiss, R. “Gene Therapy Successes Reported for 2 Children”, International Herald Tribune, 29-30 June 2002.