GCSE Science/Metals

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There are several main points within the metals topic, which are: Alkali and Transition Metals, The Reactivity Series, Displacement Reactions, Metal Extraction from their Ores, The pH Scale Indicators and Neutralisation, and Salts.


Alkali and Transition Metals[edit]

The alkali metals are Group one of the periodic table, except for Hydrogen, which is not an alkali metal. They are the most reactive metals on the periodic table, and they get more reactive as the periodic table goes down. This is because the number of electron shells increases, meaning that the forces of attraction between the outermost electron and the atoms neuclei are weakened, since the shells in between the neucleus and the furthest shell have a shielding effect on the forces of attraction. (This is to do with Covalent Bonding).

The Reactivity Series[edit]

Displacement Reactions[edit]

Metal Extraction from their Ores[edit]

The pH Scale Indicatiors and Neutralisation[edit]

The pH Scale goes from 0 to 14.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 13

 ACIDS     NEUTRAL      ALKALIS 

An indicator is just a dye that changes colour depending on the level of the pH of the solution. For example, if the solution is a weak acid than the indicator would change to a orange colour (4 on the pH scale).

The strongest acid has a pH of 0 and the strongest alkali has the pH 14. A neutral substance has the pH 7 (e.g. pure water).

Salts[edit]