Flora of New York/Gentianales

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Ericales
Flora of New York: Gentianales
Solanales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The order Gentianales.

Family Rubiaceae[edit]

The Rubiaceae (coffee or madder family).[F 1]

Subfamily Cinchonoideae[edit]

Tribe Naucleeae[edit]

Rubiaceae – subfam. Cinchonoideae – tribe Naucleeae
Cephalanthus Buttonbush N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.
Common buttonbush,
Button willow,
Honey bells
Native,
Secure
Cephalanthus occidentalis 2.JPG
Cephalanthus occidentalis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN

ARS 

Images

Subfamily Rubioideae[edit]

Tribe Morindeae[edit]

Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Morindeae
Mitchella Mitchella N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Mitchella repens  L.
1862. Perdicesca repens  (L.) Prov.
Partridgeberry,
Partridge-berry,
Two-eyed berry,
Squaw vine

Pain-de-perdrix
Native,
Secure
Mitchella repens 2004.JPG
Mitchella repens nymap.svg
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS
Trop.
Images

Tribe Spermacoceae[edit]

Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Spermacoceae
Diodia Buttonweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Walter
var. teres

 (=) Diodella teres (Walter) Small 
Poorjoe,
Buttonweed
Native,
Secure
Diodia teres.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngDiodia teres BB-1913.png
Diodia teres var teres NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
NRCS-N0



Images
Houstonia Bluet N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 L.
Azure bluet Native,
Secure
Bluets (Houstonia caerulea) Hedyotis caerulea.jpg
NYFA-5

ITIS

Images
 Gaertn.
Longleaf bluet,
Longleaf summer bluet,
Houstonie à longues feuilles
Native,
Secure
Houstonia longifolia BB-1913-1.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngHoustonia longifolia BB-1913-2.png
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN

ITIS

Images
 L.
var. calycosa A.Gray

 (=) Hedyotis purpurea var. calycosa 
 (=) Houstonia calycosa 
Purple bluet,
Venus' pride
Native,
Endangered
Houstonia purpurea - Venus Pride.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngHoustonia purpurea L. Venus' pride.tiff
NYFA-Z1
NRCS-N0

ITIS

Images
 L.
var. purpurea

 (=) Hedyotis purpurea 
Purple bluet Native,
Endangered
Hedyotis purpurea montana.jpg
NYFA-Z



Images
Oldenlandia Oldenlandia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.
Clustered bluets,
Clustered mille graines
Native,
Endangered
Oldenlandia uniflora BB-1913.png
Oldenlandia uniflora NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-1
NRCS-N0



Images

Tribe Rubieae[edit]

Genus Asperula[edit]
Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Asperula
Asperula Woodruff N.Y. Status Images Distribution n
Blue woodruff Introduced
Asperula arvensis0.jpg
NYFA-X



Images
Genus Cruciata[edit]
Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Cruciata
Cruciata Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution n
 (=) Galium cruciata  
Smooth bedstraw Introduced
Andělské schody (23).jpg
NYFA-X



Images
 (=) Galium pedemontanum  
 (=) Vaillantia pedemontana 
Piedmont bedstraw,
Yellow bedstraw,
Piedmont Crosswort
Introduced
NYFA-X
NRCS-
WW



Images
Genus Galium[edit]

Galium....[1] [2]

Galium sect. Platygalium[edit]
Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galium – sect. Platygalium
Galium sect. Platygalium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.
 (=) Galium hyssopifolium  
 (=) Galium septentrionale 
 (=) Galium strictum 
Northern bedstraw Native,
Secure
Galium-boreale-foliage.jpg
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN



Images
Torr.

. G. circaezans var. lanceolatum
Lanceleaf wild licorice,
Torrey's wild licorice
Native,
Secure
Galium lanceolatum BB-1913.png
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN



Images
var. circaezans
 (=) G. bermudense  
 (=) G. circaeoides 
 (=) G. rotundifolium
   
var. circaezans 
Licorice bedstraw,
Wild licorice
Native,
Secure
Galium circaezans var circaezans drawing.png
NYFA-5
NRCS-
IWF



Images
var. hypomalacum
Licorice bedstraw,
Forest bedstraw,
Wild licorice
Native,
Vulnerable
Galium circaezans drawing.png
NYFA-3
NRCS-



Images
 Aiton
Hairy bedstraw Native,
Likely secure
Galium pilosum BB-1913.png
NYFA-4
NRCS-NN
NEW 


Images
Steller ex Schult. & Schult.f
Boreal bedstraw Native,
Endangered
Galium kamtschaticum BB-1913.png
NYFA-1
NRCS-NN
NEW 


Images
Torrey & A.Gray
Shining bedstraw Native,
Endangered
Galium concinnum BB-1913.png
NYFA-1
NRCS-NN



Images
Galium sect. Aparinoides[edit]
Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galium – sect. Aparinoides
Galium sect. Aparinoides Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 Michx.
Rough bedstraw,
Kidney-vine,
Pointed cleavers
Native,
Secure
Galium asprellum.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngGalium asprellum drawing.png
Galium asprellum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN
NEW 


Images
 L.
Common marsh bedstraw,
Marsh bedstraw
Native,
Secure
Galium.palustre.-.lindsey.jpg
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN
NEW 


Images
 L.
Stiff marsh bedstraw,
Stiff three-petal bedstraw
Native,
Secure
Galium tinctorium NRCS-1.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngGalium tinctorium BB-1913-1.png
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN
NEW 


Images
 L.
ssp. trifidum

. G. brandegeei  A.Gray p.p.
Three-petal bedstraw Native,
Secure
Galium trifidum 4.JPG
Galium trifidum ssp trifidum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN
NEW 


Images
 Bigelow 1824
ssp. obtusum

. G. trifidum var. latifolium  Torr.
. G. obtusum var. ramosum  Gleason
Bluntleaf bedstraw,
Blunt-leaved bedstraw
Native,
Secure
Galium obtusum NRCS-1.jpg
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN
NEW 
ITIS

Images
(Wieg.) Wieg.

. G. tinctorium var. labradoricum
Bog bedstraw,
Northern bog bedstraw
Native,
Likely secure
Galium labradoricum BB-1913.png
NYFA-4
NRCS-NN
NEW 


Images
Fernald & Wiegand

. G. trifidum ssp. brevipes
Limestone swamp bedstraw Native,
Likely extirpated
Galium brevipes BB-1913.png
Galium brevipes NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Z
NRCS-NN
ME
NEW 


Images


Galium sect. Kolgyda[edit]
Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galium – sect. Kolgyda
Galium sect. Kolgyda Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L. 1753
Catchweed bedstraw,
Cleavers,
Stickywilly,
Scratch bedstraw
Native,
Secure
Galium aparine 2004-04-07.jpg
Galium aparine NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
NRCS-NX?
NEW 
ARS 

Images
 Dandy

 (=) Galium tricorne Stokes p.p. 
Rough-fruited corn bedstraw,
Roughfruit corn bedstraw
Introduced
Galium tricorne — Flora Batava — Volume v19.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngNsr-slika-276.png
NYFA-X
NRCS-XX



Images
Galium sect. Hylaea[edit]
Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galium – sect. Hylaea
Galium sect. Hylaea Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 Michx.
Fragrant bedstraw,
Sweet-scented bedstraw
Native,
Secure
Galium triflorum 10232.JPGImg spacer 2x87.pngGalium triflorum BB-1913.png
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN
NEW 


Images
 (L.) Scop.

 (=) Asperula odorata 
Sweet bedstraw,
Sweetscented bedstraw
Introduced,
Somewhat invasive,
NYIS: 48%
Woodruff1.jpg
NYFA-X
NRCS-XX



Images
Galium sect. Leiogalium[edit]
Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galium – sect. Leiogalium
Galium sect. Leiogalium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.

 (=) Galium erectum 
White bedstraw,
Smooth bedstraw,
False baby's-breath,
Wild madder,
Whorled bedstraw
Introduced,
from Eurasia,
from N. Africa
Galium mollugo01.jpg
NYFA-X
NRCS-XX
NE-3[1]
IO

ARS 

Images
 L.
Scotch-mist Introduced
Galium sylvaticum (Wald-Labkraut) IMG 3333.JPGImg spacer 2x87.pngGalium sylvatica kz1.jpg
Galium sylvaticum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
NRCS-XX



Images
 L.
Awned bedstraw Introduced,
from Eurasia,
from N. Africa
Galium aristatum flowering plant 001.JPG
Galium aristatum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
NRCS-



Images
  1. Category 3 Plants - widespread non-native species - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
Galium sect. Galium[edit]
Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galium – sect. Galium
Galium sect. Galium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.
ssp. verum

 (=) G. verum var. verum 
Lady's bedstraw,
Yellow bedstraw,
Yellow spring bedstraw
Introduced
CublesuSJ2012 (91).JPG
NYFA-X
NRCS-XX



Images
 L.
ssp. wirtgenii

 (=) G. verum var. wirtgenii 
 (=) G. wirtgenii 
Wirtgen's bedstraw Introduced
Galium wirtgenii.jpg
NYFA-X
NRCS-XX



Images
 Retz.
[ G. mollugo × G. verum ]

 (=) Galium × ochroleucum 
Pale yellow bedstraw Introduced,
N. America native
NYFA-X
NRCS-XN



Images
Genus Sherardia[edit]
Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Sherardia
Sherardia Field madder N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.
Blue field madder,
Blue fieldmadder,
Cultivated field madder
Introduced
Sherardia arvensis Kaldari 01.jpg
NYFA-X
NRCS-XX



Images
Genus Rubia[edit]
Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Rubia
Rubia Rubia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

 (=) Rubia tinctoria L. orth. var. 
Dyer's madder,
Indian madder,
Madder
Introduced,
Impersistent
Rubia tinctorum 001.JPGImg spacer 2x87.pngRubia tinctorum 002.JPG
NYFA-Xm
NRCS-X0



Images

Family Gentianaceae[edit]

The Gentianaceae (gentian family).[F 2]

Tribe Chironieae[edit]

Gentianaceae – tribe Chironieae
Centaurium Centaury N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 Rafn
European centaury Introduced
Centaurium erythraea 6238.jpg
NYFA-X
NRCS-XX



Images
 (Sw.) Druce
Branched centaury,
Branching centaury-plant
Introduced
CentauriumPulchellum.jpg
NYFA-X
NRCS-XX



Images
Sabatia Rose-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
Square-stemmed rose pink Native,
Endangered
Sabatia angularis 001.jpg
NYFA-1
NRCS-NN



Images
 (L.) Torr.
 (=) Sabatia gracilis (Michx.) Salisb.  
Slender marsh pink,
Slender rose gentian
Native,
Endangered
Sabatia campanulata BB-1913.png
NYFA-1
NRCS-N0



Images
 (L.) BSP.
var. dodecandra
 (=) Sabatia chloroides (Michx.) Pursh  
Large marsh pink,
Marsh rose gentian
Native,
Extirpated
SabatiaDodecendra 05-07-29.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngSabatia dodecandra BB-1913.png
NYFA-Z
NRCS-N0



Images
 Pursh
 (=) S. maculata (Benth.) Benth. & Hook.f.  
 (=) S. palmeri A.Gray 
 (=) S. purpusii Brandegee 
 (=) S. simulata Britton 
Marsh pink,
Rose of Plymouth,
Sea pink,
Saltmarsh rosegentian
Native,
Threatened
Marsh pink full.jpg
NYFA-2
NRCS-N0
NHP



Images

Tribe Gentianeae[edit]

Gentianaceae – tribe Gentianeae
Bartonia Screwstem N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
Yellow screwstem,
Bartonia
Native,
Likely secure
Bartonia virginica-linedrawing.jpg
NYFA-4



Images
ssp. paniculata
Twining screwstem Native,
Endangered
Bartonia paniculata drawing 1.png
Bartonia paniculata ssp paniculata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-1



Images
Frasera Green-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (=) Frasera officinalis  
 (=) Frasera verticillata 
 (=) Frasera walteri 
 (=) Swertia caroliniensis 
American columbo,
Yellow gentian,
Carolina gentian
Native,
Threatened
Frasera caroliniensis drawing 1.png
Frasera caroliniensis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-2
NRCS-NN



Images
Gentiana Gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 Griseb.
Fringe-topped bottle gentian Native,
Likely secure
Gentiana andrewsii NRCS-1.jpg
NYFA-4
NRCS-NN



Images
 Raf.
Closed gentian Native,
Likely secure
Gentiana.clausa NRCS-1.jpg
NYFA-4
NRCS-NN



Images
 Froel.
Narrow-leaved gentian Native,
Vulnerable
Gentiana linearis 2.jpg
NYFA-3-4
NRCS-NN



Images
 L.
Soapwort gentian,
Soap gentian,
Harvestbells
Native,
Endangered
Gentiana saponaria 001.jpg




Images
 Pringle
Downy gentian Native,
Likely extirpated
Gentiana puberulenta.jpg
NYFA-Z
NRCS-NN



Images
Gentianella Dwarf-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Small
ssp. quinquefolia
Agueweed,
Gall-of-the-earth,
Stiff gentian
Native,
Likely secure
Gentianella quinquefolia 001.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngGentianella quinquefolia BB-1913.png
Gentianella quinquefolia ssp quinquefolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
NRCS-NN



Images
Gentianopsis Fringed-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 (Froel.) Ma
Greater fringed gentian Native,
Likely secure
Gentianopsis crinita NRCS-1.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngGentiana crinita.jpg
NYFA-4
NRCS-NN



Images
 (Raf.) Holub
Lesser fringed gentian Native,
Endangered
Gentianopsis virgata BB-1913.png
NYFA-1
NRCS-NN



Images
Halenia Spurred-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Sm.) Griseb.
Spurred gentian Native,
Endangered
Halenia deflexa NPS-1.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngHalenia deflexa-linedrawing.jpg
NYFA-1
NRCS-NN



Images

Family Apocynaceae[edit]

The Apocynaceae (dogbane family).[F 3]

Subfamily Rauvolfioideae[edit]

Tribe Vinceae[edit]

A very common New York ground cover, both cultivated and naturalized is Vinca minor, known commonly as periwinkle or myrtle. It is commonly found in wooded areas were old homesteads once stood and along ditches and stream banks where floodwaters have carried the rhizomes downstream from their previous location.

Apocynaceae – subfam. Rauvolfioideae – tribe Vinceae
Vinca Periwinkle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 L.
Common periwinkle,
Lesser periwinkle,
Myrtle
Introduced,
Invasive
Vinca minor001.jpg
Vinca minor NY-dist-map.png
NYIS-M-57[1]
CP-3[2]
NYFA-X
NRCS-XX



Images
Bigleaf periwinkle,
Large-leaved periwinkle
Introduced,
Rare
Apocynaceae - Vinca major-1.JPG
NYFA-X
NRCS-



Images
Amsonia Bluestar N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 Woodson
Bluestar,
Ozark bluestar
Introduced,
N. America native
Amsonia illustris.jpg
NYFA-X
NRCS-N0



Images
 Walter
var. salicifolia
 (=) Amsonia salicifolia Pursh  
Eastern bluestar Introduced,
N. America native
Amsonia tabernaemontana0.jpg
NYFA-X
NRCS-N0



Images
 Walter
var. tabernaemontana
 (=) Tabernaemontana amsonia  
Eastern bluestar Introduced,
N. America native
Amsonia tabernaemontana.jpg
Amsonia tabernaemontana var tabernaemontana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
NRCS-N0



Images
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness ranking form:Vinca minor Moderately Invasive: Rank: 57% Jordan, M.J., G. Moore and T.W. Weldy. 2008. Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY; The Nature Conservancy, Albany, NY.
  2. Appendix 3. Plant species that are considered moderately to highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)

Subfamily Apocynoideae[edit]

Tribe Apocyneae[edit]

Apocynaceae – subfam. Apocynoideae – tribe Apocyneae
Apocynum Dogbane N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3

 (=) Apocynum ambigens 
 (=) Apocynum pumilum 
 (=) Apocynum scopulorum 
Spreading dogbane Native,
Secure
Spreading dogbane Apocynum androsaemifolium close.jpg
Apocynum androsaemifolium NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN



Images

 (=) Apocynum hypericifolium 
 (=) Apocynum ithacense 
 (=) Apocynum sibiricum 
 (=) Apocynum suksdorfii 
Clasping-leaved dogbane,
Indianhemp
Native,
Secure
Apocynum cannabinum 6801.JPG
NYFA-5
NRCS-N



Images
[ androsaemifolium × cannabinum ]

 (=) Apocynum jonesii 
 (=) Apocynum medium 
 (=) Apocynum milleri 
Intermediate dogbane,
Jones' dogbane
Native,
Secure
Apocynum androsaemifolium USDA.jpg
Apocynum × floribundum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
NRCS-N



Images

Subfamily Periplocoideae[edit]

Apocynaceae – subfam. Periplocoideae
PeriplocaTourn. ex. L. Periploca N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.
Silk vine Introduced,
Invasive
Fleurs de Périploque de Grèce.jpg
NYFA-X
NRCS-?



Images

Subfamily Asclepiadoideae[edit]

The New York Flora Atlas includes Asclepias, Cynanchum, and Periploca in Asclepiadaceae. It includes the three Vincetoxicum species as Cynanchum.[F 4]

Tribe Asclepiadeae[edit]

Subtribe Asclepiadinae[edit]
Apocynaceae – subfam. Asclepiadoideae – tribe Asclepiadeae – subtr. Asclepiadinae
Asclepias Milkweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution 12
 L.
ssp. incarnata
Swamp milkweed,
Rose milkweed
Native,
Secure
P1000400 Asclepias incarnata (Asclepiadaceae) Flower.JPG
Asclepias incarnata ssp incarnata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN
NEW 


Images
 L.
ssp. pulchra

 (=) Asclepias pulchra 
Swamp milkweed Native,
Vulnerable
BB-3389 Asclepias pulchra.png
Asclepias incarnata ssp pulchra nymap.svg
NYFA-3?
NRCS-N0
NEW 


Images
Whorled milkweed,
Fourleaf milkweed
Native,
Secure
Asclepias quadrifolia 001.jpg
Asclepias quadrifolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
NRCS-NN
NEW 


Images
Common milkweed,
Kansas milkweed,
Silkweed
Native,
Secure
Asclepias syriaca sl 2.jpg
Asclepias syriaca NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
NRCS-N
PG
NEW 


Images
 (=) Asclepias bicknellii  
 (=) Asclepias phytolaccoides 
Poke milkweed,
Tall milkweed

Asclépiade très grande,
Grande asclépiade
Native,
Likely secure
Asclepias exaltata (7487167116) 4x3.jpg
Asclepias exaltata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
NRCS-NN
NEW Can


Images
ssp. interior
Butterfly-weed,
Butterfly milkweed
Native,
Likely secure
Asclepias tuberosa 002.JPG
Asclepias tuberosa ssp interior nymap.svg
NYFA-4
NRCS-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS

Images
Clasping milkweed,
Blunt-leaved milkweed
Native,
Likely secure
Asclepias amplexicaulis.png
Asclepias amplexicaulis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
NRCS-N
NEW 


Images
 L. (1753)
Whorled milkweed,
Eastern whorled milkweed,
Horsetail milkweed
Native,
Rare
Asclepias verticillata (9388551493) 4x3.jpg
Asclepias verticillata nymap.svg
NYFA-3
NRCS-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS

Images
Purple milkweed,
Eastern purple milkweed
Native,
Threatened
Asclepias purpurascens0.jpg
Asclepias purpurascens nymap.svg
NYFA-2-3
NRCS-NN
USFS-CA
nynhp
NEW 


Images
Green milkweed,
Green comet milkweed
Native,
Threatened
Asclepiasviridiflora.jpg
Asclepias viridiflora nymap.svg
NYFA-2
NRCS-NN
nynhp
NEW 
ARS ITIS

Images
White milkweed,
Redring milkweed
Native,
Endangered
Asclepias variegata.jpg
Asclepias variegata nymap.svg
NYFA-1
NRCS-N
NEW 


Images
 (=) Asclepias laurifolia  
Red milkweed Native,
No recent reports
BB-3386 Asclepias rubra.png
Asclepias rubra nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
NRCS-N



Images
Subtribe Cynanchinae[edit]
Apocynaceae – subfam. Asclepiadoideae – tribe Asclepiadeae – subtr. Cynanchinae
Cynanchum Swallow-wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1

 (=) Ampelamus albidus 
 (=) Gonolobus laevis 
Honeyvine Introduced,
US South native
Cynanchum laeve NRCS-1.jpg
Cynanchum laeve NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
NRCS-NX



Images
Subtribe Tylophorinae[edit]
Apocynaceae – subfam. Asclepiadoideae – tribe Asclepiadeae – subtr. Tylophorinae
Vincetoxicum Swallow-wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 (L.) Moench

1753. Asclepias nigra  L.
1802. Vincetoxicum nigrum  Moench
1805. Cynanchum nigrum  Pers. nom. illeg.
1991. Cynanchum louiseae  Kartesz & Gandhi
Black swallow-wort,
Black dog-strangling vine,
Climbing poison,
Louise's swallow-wort
Introduced,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 90%
Cynanchum louiseae 3800.JPG
Vincetoxicum nigrum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
NRCS-XX
CP-2[1]
NEW Can
ARS ITIS

Images
 (Kleopow) Barbar.

1929. Cynanchum rossicum  Kleopow
1950. Vincetoxicum rossicum  (Kleopow) Barbar.
1952. Antitoxicum rossicum  (Kleopow) Pobed.
auct. Cynanchum medium  non R.Br.
auct. Vincetoxicum medium  non (R.Br.) Dcne.
Pale swallow-wort,
European swallow-wort,
Dog-strangling vine
Introduced,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 88%
Vincetoxicum rossicum1UME.JPGImg spacer 2x87.pngVincetoxicum rossicum 2376.jpg
Vincetoxicum rossicum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
NRCS-XX
CP-3[2]
NEW Can
ARS ITIS

Images
 Medik.

1753. Asclepias vincetoxicum  L.
1790. Vincetoxicum hirundinaria  Medik.
1794. Vincetoxicum officinale  Moench
1805. Cynanchum vincetoxicum  (L.) Pers.
1883. Vincetoxicum vincetoxicum  H.Karst. inval.
1961. Alexitoxicon vincetoxicum  H.P.Fuchs
White swallow-wort,
Pale swallow-wort
Introduced,
Questionable[3]
Slakine kregzdune1.JPG
Vincetoxicum hirundinaria NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
NRCS-XX
Can


Images
  1. Appendix 2. Plant species that are considered highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)
  2. Appendix 3. Plant species that are considered moderately to highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)
  3. NY specimens may be Cynanchum rossicum

References[edit]