First Aid/CPR summary
Area - check the area
Look for hazards. Hazards include split electrical wires, fire, unstable building structure or anything else that could present a risk to the responder. If there are hazards, remove them, or remove the victim from them if possible. If not, then retreat to a safe distance, call EMS and wait for their arrival. Make sure that you do not put yourself in danger. If you are near a road, ensure that you are clearly visible to traffic.
Put on gloves if you have them and use a Pocket Mask or Face Shield if you have access to them and need to give rescue breaths.
Awake - check level of consciousness
Does the victim respond to voice?
If YES, check the victim for other conditions and call for help if necessary.
If NO, call EMS.
Ambulance - call EMS
Call EMS using a bystander if possible. If you're alone, and the victim is an adult (>8 years old), then leave the victim to call EMS yourself. If you're alone but the victim is a child (1-8 years old) or an infant (<1 year old), then continue; you'll call EMS later.
Obtain an AED and AED-trained responder if possible. If no AED-trained responder is available and an AED is available, obtain it and follow the voice prompts given by the AED and instructional pictures.
Breathing - check for breathing
Quickly remove any loose and obvious obstructions from the mouth. Check the victim for signs of obvious breathing, such as clear signs of chest rise and fall. Breathing must be regular, consistent and obvious.
Gasping, irregular, infrequent or extremely shallow breathing should not be considered normal breathing. The victim's brain may attempt to cause breaths when the heart has stopped. If the breathing is not adequate, or you are unsure, continue CPR with compressions.
Is the victim breathing?
If YES, place the victim in the Recovery position and call for help unless a spinal injury is suspected in which it is crucial to not move the patient. If the patient vomits, however, it is more important to roll them over to their side while holding the back, neck, and head stable.
If NO, give 30 chest compressions, then 2 rescue breaths.
Compressions - begin compressions
- Hand/finger placement on the center of the chest, on the lower half of the breastbone. Be sure to not compress the soft are of the abdomen before the breastbone.
- After 5 cycles (approx. 2 minutes) call EMS if you haven't done so already (in the case of children or infants). If a bystander is available, get them to call immediately upon arrival. If they have to leave the area to contact EMS, tell the bystander to return to you and inform you of the ETA of the EMS.
- Compress at the rate of at least 100 per minute.
- Push at least 2" (5 cm) on adults; at least 1/3rd of the chest depth for pediatric victims.
- Use two hands for adult compressions, one or two hands for children, and two fingers for infant compressions.
Airway - open the airway
Place one hand on the forehead and two fingers on the chin. Tilt the head back and lift the chin so the victim's jawline is perpendicular to the ground
Breathing - give breaths
Place a CPR shield over the victim's mouth, if available. With the head tilted back as described in "Airway", pinch the victim's nose shut with the hand that in on their forehead. Place your mouth over their mouth, making a complete seal. Give a normal breath until you see chest rise. Give a second breath, then immediately go back to compressions.
Do not stop CPR to recheck for signs of life. Signs of life tend to be very dramatic and movement will be observed if the victim no longer requires CPR. Continue CPR until emergency help takes over, the victim moves, you are too exhausted to continue or the area becomes unsafe. If an AED and AED-trained responder arrives on the scene, it will have priority on the over CPR. Continue CPR until the AED operator asks you to stop.