Exercise as it relates to Disease/Walking to control type 2 diabetes

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Background[edit]

Diabetes[edit]

It is a serious medical condition that affects of people that blood sugar is higher level than normal , and there are two types of diabetes[1].

Type 2 Diabetes[edit]

Benefits of regular physical activities such as walking in prevention and control of type 2 diabetes are becoming well known. Studies correlating the effects of walking are conducted [2].[3].[4].Snowling & Hopkins (2006) and others. This paper seeks to correlate walking and control of type 2 diabetes based on the literature present in the field. Also, it would provide recommendation for people affected by type 2 diabetes. Generally, diabetes is caused by combination of genetic and lifestyle factors and it affects a large percentage of the world’s population. In the US alone, 10% of the population is diagnosed with diabetes [5].[6].Globally, 90% of diabetes cases account for type 2 diabetes. Because of its alarming long-term consequences, preventive measures in prevention and control are widely recognized[7].

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Walking Man.JPG

Walking to control type 2 diabetes[edit]

Physical activities are important in management and control of type 2 diabetes[3].</ref>.[6].In the studies [3].[8].structured aerobic exercises such as walking reduces the absolute haemoglobin A1c value by about 0.6% and improves insulin sensitivity. The study proves that aerobic training such as walking combined with resistance training improves glycaemic control. [9].suggests that daily walking combined with diet therapy is useful for obese patients and can likewise work with type 2 diabetes. Although it is evident that physical activities such as walking helps control type 2 diabetes, 60-80% of the adult population in the US do not meet the recommended levels of physical activity [2].Much of this low engagement in physical activities such as walking is correlated to the fear of walking alone and the risk of danger while walking outside [10].This is in congruence to the study [7].which states that lifestyle has an important role in reducing risk for type 2 diabetes since lifestyle is a factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. Lack of interest in physical activity being part of lifestyle particularly in the US prevents people with type 2 diabetes to engage in walking or exercise[2].[7]. People who engage in physical activities including walking have a lower risk of chronic diseases including diabetes [10].Brisk walking was associated with low risk of type 2 diabetes compared with regular walking [7].Quickly striding for a day, according to Christensen (1999)[11].can reduce a woman’s risk of developing diabetes by 50%. In fact, he suggested simple ways to add enough exercise such as walking to the bus stop in the morning, walking several flights of stairs, or doing house chores. These physical activities help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Higher levels of walking are associated reduced mortality risk and help control glucose levels of people with type 2 diabetes[12].

Recommendations[edit]

  • People with type 2 diabetes who seek improvement should perform both aerobic and resistance training [3].
  • The study conducted by Gregg, et.al (2003) suggests that walking is associated with lower mortality among adults with diabetes. One death per year for every 61 people may be prevented by encouraging the people to walk at least 2 hours a week [12].
  • As Christensen (1999))[11]. suggested, “Walking is a practical activity that is within everyone’s ability. Staving off complications of diabetes for even few years could have a major impact.” Projects such as group walks with trained volunteers can help people with type 2 diabetes participate in walks and reduce the fear of walking alone[10].


Further Readings[edit]


References[edit]

  1. Campbell, L (2008). Diabetes Overview. Diabetes Website: http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/facts/diabetes.htm.
  2. a b c .Hays, L.M. & Clark, D.O. (1999).,L.M.&Clark, D.O. (1999). Correlates of physical activity in a sample of older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 22:5, 706-712.
  3. a b c d Sigal, R.J., Kenny, G.P., Boule, N.G., Wells, G.A., Prud’homme, D., Fortler, M., Reld, R.D., Tulloch, H., Coyle, D., Phillips, P., Jennings, A., & Jaffey, J. (2007). Effects of aerobic and resistance training on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Annals of Internal Medicine, 147:6, 358-369.
  4. •Snowling, L.J. & Hopkins, W.G. (2006). Effects of different modes of exercise training on glucose control and risk factors for complications in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care, 29:11, 2518-2527.
  5. •Calton, B.A., Chang, S.C., Wright, M.E., Kipnis, V., Lawson, K., Thompson, F.E., Subar, A.F., Mouw, T., Campbell, D.S., Hurwitz, P., Hollenbeck, A., Schatzkin, A., & Leitzmann, M.F. (2007). History of diabetes mellitus and subsequent prostate cancer risk in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Cancer Causes and Control, 18:5, 493-503.
  6. a b •Alberti, K.G., Zimmet, P., & Shaw, J. (2007). International Diabetes Federation: a consensus on type 2 diabetes prevention. Diabetic Medicine, 24, 451-463.
  7. a b c d Van Dam, R.M. (2003). The epidemiology of lifestyle and risk for type 2 diabetes. European Journal of Epidemiology, 12:18, 1115-1125.
  8. •Cuff, D.J., Meneilly, G.S., Martin, A., Ignaszewski, A., Tildesley, H.D., & Frohlich, J.J. (2003). Effective exercise modality to reduce insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 26:11, 2977-2982.
  9. •Yamanouchi, K., Shinozaki, T., Chikada, K., Nishikawa, T., Ito, K., Shimizu, S., Ozawa, N., Suzuki, Y., Maeno, H., Kato, K., Oshida, Y., & Sata, Y. (1995). Daily walking combined with diet therapy is a useful means for obese NIDDM patients not only to reduce body weight but also to improve insulin sensitivity. Diabetes Care, 18, 775-778.
  10. a b c Foster, C., Hillsdon, M., Thorogood, M., (2004). Environmental perceptions and walking in English adults. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 58:11, 924-928.
  11. a b Christensen, D. (1999). Brisk steps can reduce diabetes risk. Science News, 156:17, 260.
  12. a b •Gregg, E.W., Gerzoff, R.B., Caspersen, C.J., Williamson, D.F., & Narayan, K.M. (2003). Relationship of walking to mortality among US adults with diabetes. Arch Intern Med, 163, 1440-1447.