Exercise as it relates to Disease/The effects of Resistance Training on the HbA1c of Type II Diabetes

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What is Diabetes?[edit]

Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders characterised by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both from the pancreas. Type 2 is caused by the body's ineffective use of insulin. It is associated with obesity and physical inactivity.

What is the HbA1c?[edit]

In the blood stream are red blood cells which are haemoglobin molecules. The glucose sticks to these molecules to form a 'glycosylated haemoglobin' molecule which is the HbA1c. The more glucose in the blood the more HbA1c. Strict control of the hyperglycemia is an essential part of the management of diabetes in order to prevent chronic progression of the complications.
Diabetes Test : HbA1c explanation.

Resistance Training : A Definition[edit]

Resistance training involves using weights such as a dumbbell, barbell or other type of resistance as a force working against the muscles to increase muscular strength.
This type of training has many benefits as shown below

What are the benefits of Resistance training for the HbA1c ?[edit]

There are many benefits of using Resistance training on the HbA1c of people with Type II Diabetes.
The 'Lift for Life' program based on research conducted by Baker IDI which showed that using strength training, there were changes in blood glucose control which matched and sometimes exceeded that which is normally produced by the traditional drug solutions, is one such program that shows benefits.
Other benefits of Resistance Training for diabetic patients include increased muscle size and strength which are shown to increase functionality and insulin sensitivity.

Recommendations for training programs[edit]

The individual should involve a range of exercises from 6-9, with a focus on the major muscle groups (leg,chest,shoulders,back,arms and abdomen) The style of exercise should be similar to that used by an athlete for muscular endurance where the aim is to gain improvements in muscle mass and not necessarily strength.

Style of Resistance Training for Type 2 diabetics

Weight 45-80% of 1 RM
Rep 8-12
Set 1-3
Frequency 2-4 / week

Further Reading/References[edit]

Learn more about Lift for Life
More Info - Resistance Training for Beginners
Diabetes Mellitus - World Health Organisation
Balducci, S,.Leonetti, F,. Di Mario, U,. & Fallucca, F. (2004). Is a long-term aerobic plus resistance training program feasible for and effective on metabolic profiles in type 2 diabetic patients? Diabetes Care, 27 (3), 841-842
Dunstan, D., Daly, R., Owen, N., Jolley, D., De Courten, M., Shaw, J., & Zimmet, P. (2002) High-Intensity resistance training improves Glycemic Control in Older patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25 (10), 1729-1736)
Snowling, N., & Hopkins, W. (2006) Effects of Different modes of exercise training on glucose control and risk factors for complications in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic Care, 29 (11) 2518-2527