Exercise as it relates to Disease/Effects of aerobic exercise on type 1 diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a form of diabetes mellitus that results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. It is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the pancreas, resulting in a lack of insulin. Risk factors for developing Type 1 Diabetes  include:
The rate of diabetes in Australia has shown a steady increase from 2.4% in 1995 to 3.8% in 2007–08.
In 2007-08, 10% of the Australian population who suffered from diabetes (82,000 people) reported they had Type 1 diabetes, while 2% of people with diabetes did not know which type of diabetes they had.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus sufferers often tend to avoid participating in aerobic exercise due to fear of enhancing more acute symptoms relating to the disease. Although this practice may reduce the immediate effects T1DM places on the body, it may increase the prevalence of other lifestyle complications including:
- Increased weight gain
- Decreased muscle mass
- Decreased bone density
- Decrease insulin sensitivity
- Decreased life expectancy
- Increased risk of lifestyle diseases
These problems can affect common everyday tasks such as making it difficult to walk up a flight of stairs. They also dramatically affect the long term health of the patient.
Benefits of Aerobic Exercise
Recent research has shown sufficient evidence to indicate that aerobic exercise does not negatively affect Type I diabetes mellitus symptoms and is completely safe for patients suffering with well-controlled diabetes mellitus . Aerobic exercise has been shown to:
- Improve glucose tolerance 
- Reduce insulin requirements/increase insulin sensitivity 
- Potentially lower glycosylated haemoglobin 
- Reduced risk of CVD, hypertension, colon cancer, obesity and osteoporosis 
- Increased overall life expectancy 
- Increased CV endurance, muscle fitness and flexibility 
Aerobic exercise also contributes to psychological health benefits  which may include:
Recommendations- Aerobic Exercise
In order to gain the maximum benefits from aerobic exercise, the following recommendations should be followed:
- 5 sessions/week 
- 60-90% MHR  depending on individual
- 30-90 mins 
- Each training program may need to be personalised with GP recommendations and a pre-screening check
This research may show that aerobic exercise, when taking correct responsibility for the varying insulin requirements, reduces the symptoms of T1DM. Even though this predominantly refers to med-high intensity over med-long duration, everyday occurrences will also have a positive effect on minimising symptoms of the disease. These may include:
- Walking to work
- Taking stairs rather than escalator/lift
- Taking dog for a run on a more common basis
Although research suggests that aerobic exercise is safe to participate in  some considerations must be taken:
- Discuss intended training plan with doctor prior to commencing.
- Frequently monitor blood-glucose levels during exercise.
- Cease exercise if any abnormal symptoms appear.
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