EMT-Basic/Trauma/Spinal

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Lesson 5.4: Injuries to the Head and Spine

Objectives[edit]

By the end of this lesson, the EMT-Basic should be able to:

  1. State the components of the nervous system.
  2. List the functions of the central nervous system.
  3. Define the structure of the skeletal system as it relates to the nervous system.
  4. Relate mechanism of injury to potential injuries of the head and spine.
  5. Describe the implications of not properly caring for potential spine injuries.
  6. State the signs and symptoms of potential spine injury.
  7. Describe the method of determining if a responsive patient may have a spine injury.
  8. Relate the techniques airway management to suspected spinal injuries.
  9. Describe how to stabilize the cervical spine.
  10. Discuss indications for sizing and using a cervical spine immobilization device.
  11. Establish the relationship between airway management and the patient with head and spine injuries.
  12. Describe a method for sizing a cervical spine immobilization device.
  13. Describe how to log roll a patient with a suspected spine injury.
  14. Describe how to secure a patient to a long spine board.
  15. List instances when a short spine board should be used.
  16. Describe how to immobilize a patient using a short spine board.
  17. Describe the indications for use of rapid extrication.
  18. List the steps in performing rapid extrication.
  19. State the circumstances when a helmet should be left on the patient.
  20. Discuss the circumstances when a helmet should be removed.
  21. Identify different types of helmets.
  22. Describe the unique characteristics of sports helmets.
  23. Explain the preferred methods to remove a helmet.
  24. Discuss alternative methods for removal of a helmet.
  25. Describe how the patient's head is stabilized to remove the helmet.
  26. Differentiate how the head is stabilized with a helmet compared to without a helmet.
  27. Explain the rationale for immobilization of the entire spine when a cervical spine injury is suspected.
  28. Explain the rationale for utilizing immobilization methods apart from the straps on the cots.
  29. Explain the rationale for utilizing a short spine immobilization device when moving a patient from the sitting to the supine position.
  30. Explain the rationale for utilizing the rapid extrication approaches only when they will make the difference between life and death.
  31. Defend the reasons for leaving a helmet in place for transport of a patient.
  32. Defend the reasons for removal of a helmet prior to transport of a patient.
  33. Demonstrate opening the airway of a patient with a suspected spinal cord injury.
  34. Demonstrate evaluating a responsive patient with a suspected spinal cord injury.
  35. Demonstrate stabilization of the cervical spine.
  36. Demonstrate the four person log roll for a patient with a suspected spinal injury.
  37. Demonstrate how to log roll a patient with a suspected spinal cord injury using two people.
  38. Demonstrate securing a patient to a long spine board.
  39. Demonstrate using the short board immobilization technique.
  40. Demonstrate the procedure for rapid extrication.
  41. Demonstrate preferred methods for stabilization of a helmet.
  42. Demonstrate helmet removal techniques.
  43. Demonstrate alternative methods for stabilization of a helmet.
  44. Demonstrate completing a prehospital care report for patients with head and spinal injuries.