Development Cooperation Handbook/Introduction to the Millennium Development Goals
Introduction to the Millennium Development Goals
The UN Millennium Declaration
In September 2000 the United Nations Assembly unanimously adopted the UN Millennium Declaration.
It was an 8 goal agenda that all 192 Member States agreed to adopt. They set 8 goals, they set 21 targets, they set timelines, they allocated funds: and in order to verify if they were being honest with their commitments, they set a number of indicators upon which they asked to be judged. And for the first time in world history, a concrete work agenda for the rights of the voiceless was universally agreed.
The MDGs today provide a framework for the UN system and for synergizing the various international cooperation activities in a coherent worldwide effort. The MDG targets have become an integral part of World Development Indicators. Each year, an annual report is prepared that assesses the progress made by member states in fulfilling the pledges they made. (see ⇒ The Millennium Development Goals Report 2012)
The Eight Millennium Development Goals
- Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger: the World has enough food for all; but millions of people still suffer hunger. The MDG1 is focused on removing the factors causing extreme poverty and ensuring that no person dies of hunger.
- Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education: millions of children do not have access to schools; the nations of the world have recognised that they have a duty to provide basic edication to boys and girls alike; the MDG2 is about enforcing the right of all the chidren to go to school.
- Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women: providing women with equal opportunities means having communitties enriched with the wealth that women produce and share; political participation of women means that communities are better managed, more open and that power and opportunities are better distributed. The MDG 3 deals with the removal of the obstacles to gender equity and to full political partcipation of women.
- Goal 4: Reduce child mortality; millions of children die because of the lack of care and exclusion. The MDG 4 deals with decreasing the death rates of children under-five while improving their nutrition and access to vaccinations and basic health services;
- Goal 5: Improve maternal health: Hundreds of thousands of young mothers die due to lack of care and hygiene. The MDG 5 is about reducing maternal mortality rates by providing access for all women to reproductive health services, both during pre-natal and childbirth; it also tackles reducing adolescent birth rates and promoting the use of contraceptives;
- Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases: in developing countries, people die of preventable diseases.The MDG 6 aims at stopping the spread of AIDS and other diseases like tuberculosis and malaria and increasing the access of people to treatment;
- Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability: The MDG 7 is the recognition of the rights of future generations to recieive an environment as rich as the one we are enjoying and that development will be sustained only by the conservation of the environment. MDG 7 aims at the loss of bio-diversity and environment resources, increasing people's access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation and improving the lives of slum dwellers;
- Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development; the MDG 8 is about promoting a healthy cooperation environment amongst nations: by making the economic and political relationship fairer and more peaceful, it will be possible to remove factors that generate poverty and ignorance.
Although the UN has a key role to play in addressing the challenges and in tracking the global progress towards these goals, it is National Governments that have the responsibility to achieve the MDG targets. Thousands of programmes and projects have been operational, involving a large amount of human and technical resources. However, the resources and efforts have proved to be inadequate; and the progress towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals has been uneven and slow. Many countries finally did not allocate the resources that they had committed to. And the international media did not pay much attention to the MDGs, so the general public is little informed about them. There is a growing concern that many targets will not be achieved within the set deadline of the year 2015 .
Not enough progress towards the achievement of MDGs
UN monitoring of MDGs (www.mdgmonitor.org) reveals that many countries might not achieve declared targets by 2015. This is largely due to a combination of the lack of driving policy changes in these countries and the lack of consistent commitment by donor countries. In spite of official declarations to pursue the 8th MDG goal (i.e. Developing a Global Partnership for Development) by devoting at least 0.7% of GNP to development cooperation, the average contribution by donor nations is still only around 0.23%, i.e. equal to US$ 56 billion per year (EU has committed 0.7% by 2012). UN and World Bank estimate that an additional donor contribution of USD 50 billion per year would be still required to reach the target of 0.7% of GDP. One of the reasons for low prioritization of commitment to International Development Agenda is the low awareness, among people in richer countries, of the real development issues and on the scope and impact of international cooperation. (see ⇒ The Millennium Development Goals Report 2012)
In the documentary story ⇒ The MDGs
- MDGs on the UN web site
- MDG twitter page
- MDGS ON Facebook
- No time left - Videos on the MDGs festival
- The Millennium Declaration
- The Millennium Indicators Database – charting progress
- The United Nations
- UN system – an introduction by students