Development Cooperation Handbook/Designing and Executing Projects/Logical Framework Approach

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The Logical Framework Matrix (the Logframe) consists of a matrix with four columns and four (or more) rows, which summarise the key elements of a project plan, namely:

  • The project's hierarchy of objectives (Project Description and expected Outputs)
  • The key external factors critical to the project's success (Assumptions)
  • How the project's achievements will be monitored and evaluated (Indicators and Sources of Verification)

Such a table will summarize the decisions taken ion the Formulation/Design phase of programmes or Program design phase or project planning phase after the problems have been explored in the identification stage ( see also  the problem tree method).

The general adoption of this matrix for representing the logical connection between objectives, results, activities and means has established a common language amongst different development cultures, thereby facilitating the communication between different programme/project stakeholders. Before the common usage of the logframe evaluation was often an adversarial process, because there was no common agreement as to what the project was really trying to achieve.

The modality of description of project/programme through the logframe representation has somehow evolved into what is called the Logical Framework Approach (LFA), i.e. a standardized logical model for looking at the interrelationship between programme/project components. It is also being defined as "an analytical and management tool" and a 'aid to thinking' which allows information to be analysed and organised in a structured way. In any case one should never confuse "planning" with "filling up a logical framework". A logframe is simply a schematic representation synthesising the decisions taken while managing the programme/project cycle. LF is not a process but the expected model of the output of the analytical process described in identification and design  phases of the programme cycle management. However such a model of the output does influence the analytical process that is channelled towards a predetermined way of objective setting and strategy selection. Like for instance it forces people to describe the different indicators (and different sources of information) through which the actions are monitored and evaluated.   Enzo: A livello metodologico generale, l’obiettivo generale e’ uno e comprende piu obiettivi specifici. Ogni obiettivo specifico comprende piu’ risultati, ogni risultato comprende piu’ attivita’ e le attivita si descrivono con diversi I mezzi che si devono utlizzare per farle. La somma dei costi dei mezzi usati da tutte le attivita’ da origine al budget   The general structure of the Logframe matrix and a brief description of the type of information it should contain is shown in the table below:

LFA


What are the basic terms used? Intervention Logic refers to the first column of the Logframe Matrix and defines the basic structure of the project. The Overall Objectives of a project explain why it is important to society, in terms of the longer- terms benefits to final beneficiaries and the wider benefits to other groups. The Overall Objectives will not be achieved by the project alone. The Project Purpose is the objective to be achieved by implementing the project and which is likely to outlive the project. The Purpose should address the core problem and be defined in terms of sustainable benefits for the target groups. The Purpose should express the equitable benefits for women and men. There should only be one Project Purpose per project. Results are “products” of the activities undertaken, the combination of which achieve the Purpose of the project. Activities comprise the actions that have to be taken or provided to produce the results. They summarise what will be undertaken by the project. Indicators are the operational description of the Overall Objectives, the Project Purpose and the Results. They describe the project’s objectives in terms of quantity, quality, target groups, time and place. The physical and non-physical Means (inputs) are necessary to carry out the planned activities. Sources of verification indicate whare and in what form information on the achievent of the Overall Objectives, the Project Purpose and the Results can be find. Assumptions are the answer to the question: “What external factors are not influenced by the project, but may affect its implementation and long-term sustainability?”

Such a table will summerize the decisions taken ion the Formulation/Design phase of programmes or Program design phase or project planning phase after the problems have been explored in the identification stage ( see also  the problem tree method). The logical framework approach figure out that the logframe has been developed by following the process rapresented below:


The Logical Framework Approach (LFA) is an analytical and management tool which is used, in one form or another, by most multilateral and bilateral aid agencies, international NGOs and by many partner governments. It is a core tool used within Project cycle management.

The Logical Framework (Logframe) is a project design and implementation tool, which allows for a systematic and logical way of setting the project’s objectives and activities. It is useful in all stages of the Project Cycle. The Logical Framework presents the causal relationships between the different levels of objectives, provides indicators to check whether these objectives have been achieved and establishes what assumptions outside the project may influence its success. As such, it is a key instrument in the analysis of the project’s impact. The Logical Framework matrix consists of a matrix with four columns and four (or more) rows, which summarise the key elements of a project plan, namely: The project's hierarchy of objectives (Project Description and expected Outputs) The key external factors critical to the project's success (Assumptions) How the project's achievements will be monitored and evaluated (Indicators and Sources of Verification)

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