Devanagari/Alphabet

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The Devanagari alphabet[edit]

In Devanagari, there are 14 vowels and 33 consonants (conjunct consonants included).

The alphabet written with pronunciation[edit]

Here are the symbols in an "alphabetic" order. The vowels are on top, followed by the consonants.

phoneme pronunciation,
transcription
example
(in English)
example
(in Hindi)
Vowels
a (short) fun अब (ab, now)
â (long) father आठ (âth, eight)
i (short) sick इमली (imlï, Tamarind)
î (long) sheer मिठाई (mithâï, sweets)
ou (short) put उर्दू (Urdū)
(long) shoot ऊन (oûn, wool)
ri crystal ऋषि (rishi, wise (person))
e spend ऍडवर्द (Edward, English pronunciation)
é (French) née एक (ék, one)
éï hi ऐनक (éïnak, glasses)
o (long, open) robot ऑक्सिजन (oxygen)
ô (closed) loaf ओड़िया (Oriya)
(long) scout औरत (aôrat, woman)
â (long, middle of a word) सामान (sâmân, baggage)
ि i (short, middle of a word) पिता (pitâ, father)
i (long, middle of a word) घी (ghî, butter)
ou (short, middle of a word) दुकान (doukân, shop)
(long, middle of a word) जूता (joûtâ, shoe)
ri (middle of a word) कृषि (krichi, agriculture)
e (middle of a word) क्रॅडिट (credit, credit)
é (middle of a word) देना (dénâ, to give)
éï (middle of a word) है (héï, is (verb "to be"))
o (long, open,
middle of a word)
कॉलेज (koléj, college, university)
ô (closed, middle of a word) सोमवार (sômvâr, Monday)
(middle of a word) नौ (naô, nine)
(anusvâr, nasalises the preceding vowel) रंग (rang, color)
(chandrabindu, nasalises the preceding vowel) on, an फ़्राँसीसी (fransîsî, French)
अः ah (in the middle of a word,
only the two points are used)
दुःख (duhkh, sadness)

Consonants
k come कमरा (kamrâ, room)
क़ k (words of arabic origin) crisp क़मीज़ (kamîz, shirt)
kh khaki लिखना (likhnâ, write)
ख़ kh khaki अख़बार (akhbâr, Newspaper)
g girl गाना (gânâ, song, to sing)
ग़ g gum ग़रीब (garîb, poor)
gh घर (ghar, home, dwelling)
ङ् unu finger वाङ्मय (Vaadmay, helpful)
tch Tchechen चार (tchâr, four)
tchh छे (tchhé, six)
dj gene जाना (djânâ, to go)
ज़ z (words of arabic origin) zero मेज़ (méz, table)
djh झूठ (djhoûth, lie)
gn (only in combination with च छ ज झ) Gnarl ज्ञान (Knowledge)
t Tommy पेट (pét, stomach)
th मराठी (Marathi)
d एडी (édî, ankle)
ड़ r (rolling) भेड़ (bhér, sheep)
dh ढेर (dhér, accumulation)
ढ़ rh डेढ़ (dérh, one and a half)
n अणु (anou, atome, molecula)
t तमिल (tamil, Tamil)
th thick हाथ (hâth, hand)
d दो (, two)
dh दूध (doûdh, milk)
n name नमक (namak, salt)
p papa पति (pati, husband)
ph, f सफेद (safed, white)
फ़ f (words of foreign origin) failure फ़ारसी (Farsi)
b balloon बीस (bîs, twenty)
bh भारत (bhârat, India)
m mom माथा (mâthâ, forehead)
y yac चाय (tchây, tea/chai)
r rate रिववार (ravivâr, Sunday)
l lake लाना (lânâ, bring)
v, w हवा (hawâ, air)
sh (wet ch) (German) mich शनिवार (shanivâr, Saturday)
ch shell भाषा (bhâchâ, language)
s silk सात (sât, seven)
h hill होना (honâ, to be)
(to supress the implicit vowel)
Ôm
. (end of phrase)
(marks the end of the rhyme in poetry)



English/Hindi/Gujarati Alphabets


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

...................................................

A B bh C ch chh D dh E F G gh H I J K kh L M N O

अ ब भ क च छ ड/द ध/ढ़ इ फ ग घ ह ई ज क ख ल म न/ण ऑ

અ બ ભ ક ચ છ ડ/દ ધ /ઢ ઇ ફ ગ ઘ હ ઈ જ ક ખ લ મ ન/ણ ઓ

..................................................

P ph Q R S sh T th U V W X Y Z

प फ क्यू र स श ट/त ठ/थ उ व व क्ष य झ

પ ફ ક ર સ શ ટ/ત ઠ/થ ઉ વ વ ક્ષ ય ઝ

..................................................

Which Indian script is easier to learn? Hindi or Gujarati?

Hindi can easily be written without horizontal lines in Gujarati Script.

..........................................


English/Hindi/Gujarati Vowels:


a aa i ee u oo e ai o au am ah

अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ऐ ऐ ओ औ अं अह

અ આ ઇ ઈ ઉ ઊ એ ઐ ઓ ઔ અં અઃ

..........................................

k ka ki kee ku koo ke kai ko kau kam kh

क का कि की कु कू के कै को कौ कं क्ह

ક કા કિ કી કુ કૂ કે કૈ કો કૌ કં કઃ

..........................................

English/Hindi/Gujarati Numbers:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

१ २ ३ ४ ५ ६ ७ ८ ९ १०

૧ ૨ ૩ ૪ ૫ ૬ ૭ ૮ ૯ ૧૦