Canadian Criminal Evidence/Model Examinations/Exhibits

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Real Evidence[edit]

Business records[edit]

Business records are admissible under the CEA without testimony authenticating it. The common law requires testimony of the record keeper.

  • occupation / employer / size of company / type of institution of employer (financial or non-financial) / services offered by employer
  • duration of employment / # of positions with employer / describe position at relevant time (manager, accountant, record keeper, etc) / duties of position / location of office
  • show record
  • identify record / confirm accuracy of information / copy or original, if copy, where is original / consider contents of the record / purpose of the record
  • Creation: why, when, how, by whom is it created / source or knowledge of information on the record / when would such information not be recorded / does creator have personal knowledge of contents / did witness create the relevant record
  • Storage and Access: how is it stored / who has access to it / how do you tell if someone accessed it

Signed documents[edit]

Sound Recordings[edit]